Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg

The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany. It was colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover (German: Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply German: Kurhannover), after its capital city of Hanover. For most of its existence, the electorate was ruled in personal union with Great Britain.

The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg had been split in 1269 between different branches of the House of Welf. The Principality of Calenberg, ruled by a cadet branch of the family, emerged as the largest and most powerful of the Brunswick-Lüneburg states. In 1695, the Holy Roman Emperor elevated the Prince of Calenberg to the College of Electors, creating the new Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The fortunes of the Electorate were tied to those of Great Britain by the Act of Settlement 1701 and Act of Union 1707, which settled the succession to the British throne on Queen Anne's nearest Protestant relative, the Electress Sophia of Hanover, and her descendants.

The Prince-Elector of Hanover became King of Great Britain in 1714. As a consequence, a reluctant Britain was forced time and again to defend the King's German possessions.[1] However, Hanover remained a separately ruled territory with its own governmental bodies, and the country had to sign a treaty with Great Britain whenever Hanoverian troops fought on the British side of a war. Merged into the Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia in 1807, it was re-established as the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814, and the personal union with the British crown lasted until 1837.

Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Electorate of Hanover

Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg
Kurfürstentum Hannover
1692–1814
Flag of Brunswick-Lunenburg
Flag
Coat of arms of Brunswick-Lunenburg
Coat of arms
Electorate of Hanover in 1789
Electorate of Hanover in 1789
StatusState of the Holy Roman Empire (1692–1806)
Personal union with Great Britain and the United Kingdom (1714–1807)
CapitalHanover
Common languagesWest Low German (official), English (De facto)
Religion
Lutheran
GovernmentPrincipality
Prince-elector 
• 1692–1698
Ernest Augustus
• 1698–1727
George I Louis
• 1727–1760
George II Augustus
• 1760–1806
George III William Frederick
History 
• Elevation to Electorate
1692
• Inherited Lüneburg and Saxe-Lauenburg
1705
• Electorate formally approved
1708
1714
• Acquired Bremen-Verden
1715
• Merged into Kingdom of Westphalia
1807
• Re-established as Kingdom of Hanover
1814
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Principality of Calenberg
Kingdom of Hanover
Today part ofGermany

Official name and other name versions

In 1692, Emperor Leopold I elevated Duke Ernest Augustus of the Brunswick-Lüneburg line of Calenberg, to the rank of prince-elector of the Empire as a reward for aid given in the Nine Years' War. There were protests against the addition of a new elector, and the elevation did not become official until the approval of the Imperial Diet in 1708. Calenberg's capital Hanover became colloquially eponymous for the electorate; however, officially it used the name Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburg of the entire ducal dynasty.

Geography

Hanover1720
Sketch map of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg including the Hanover electorate (blue) and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (green), c. 1720: Elector George I Louis acquired Saxe-Lauenburg and Bremen-Verden, his successor George II Augustus gained Land Hadeln (1731, in the map the bulk of the beige tip at the Elbe estuary) and George III acquired the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (1803)

The electorate comprised large parts of the modern German state of Lower Saxony in Northern Germany. Beside the Principality of Calenberg it also included the former princely lands of Göttingen and Grubenhagen as well as the territory of the former County of Hoya.

In 1705 Elector George I Louis inherited the Principality of Lüneburg with the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg upon the death of his uncle Duke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1715 he purchased the Duchies of Bremen-Verden from King Frederick IV of Denmark (confirmed by the 1719 Treaty of Stockholm), whereby his former landlocked electorate gained access to the North Sea.

In 1700 the territories forming the electorate introduced – like all Protestant territories of imperial immediacy – the Improved Calendar, as it was called by Protestants, in order not to mention the name of Pope Gregory XIII. So Sunday 18 February Old Style was followed by Monday 1 March New Style.

History

Link with Great Britain

Civil Ensign of Hannover (1727-1801)
Civil Ensign 1727–1801.

In 1714, George Louis became king of Great Britain, so that the electorate and Great Britain were ruled in personal union. The possessions of the electors in Germany also grew, as they de facto purchased the formerly Swedish-held duchies of Bremen and Verden in 1719.

George Louis died in 1727, and was succeeded by his son George II Augustus. In 1728 Emperor Charles VI officially enfeoffed George II (i.e. gave him land in exchange for a pledge of service), with the reverted fief of Saxe-Lauenburg, which had de facto been ruled in personal union with Hanover and its one preceding Principality of Lüneburg since 1689.

In 1731 Hanover also gained Hadeln.[2] In return, Hanover recognized the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 which changed Habsburg inheritance law.[2] It took George II Augustus until 1733 to persuade Charles VI to enfeoff him also with the Duchy of Bremen and the Principality of Verden, colloquially called Duchies of Bremen-Verden. At both enfeoffments George II Augustus swore that he would respect the existing privileges and constitutions of the estates in Bremen-Verden and in Hadeln, thus confirming 400-year-old traditions of estate participation in government.

In Hanover, the capital of the Electorate, the Privy Council of Hanover (electoral government) installed a new ministry in charge of the Imperial Estates ruled by the Electors in personal union. It was called the Department of Bremen-Verden, Hadeln, Lauenburg and Bentheim. However the Electors spent most of their time in England. Direct contact with the Electorate was maintained through the office of the German Chancery, situated in St James's Palace in London.

Seven Years' War

During the Anglo-French and Indian War (1754–63) in the North American colonies, Britain feared a French invasion in Hanover. George II formed an alliance with his Brandenburg-Prussian cousin Frederick II, "the Great" combining the North American conflict with the Brandenburg-Prusso–Austrian Third Silesian or Seven Years' War (1756–63).

In summer 1757 the French invaded Hanover and defeated George II's son Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, leading the Anglo-Hanoverian army, at the Battle of Hastenbeck and drove him and his army into remote Bremen-Verden, where in the former Zeven Convent he capitulated on 18 September (Convention of Kloster-Zeven). But George II did not recognise the convention. In the following year the British army, supported by troops from Brandenburg-Prussia, Hesse-Kassel and the ducal Principality of Brunswick and Lunenburg (Wolfenbüttel) again expelled the occupants.

Hanover remained unaffected for the rest of the war. After the war ended, peace prevailed until the French Revolutionary Wars started. The War of the First Coalition against France (1793–97) with Great Britain-Hanover and other war allies forming the coalition, did not affect Hanoverian territory, since the first French Republic was fighting on several fronts, even on its own territory. However, men were drafted to recruit the 16,000 Hanoverian soldiers fighting in the Low Countries under British command against France. In 1795 the Holy Roman Empire declared its neutrality, including Hanover; however, a peace treaty with France was under negotiation until it failed in 1799. Brandenburg-Prussia, however, ended for its part the war with France by the Treaty of Basel (1795), stipulating that Brandenburg-Prussia would ensure the Holy Roman Empire's neutrality in all the latter's territories north of the demarcation line of the river Main, including the British continental dominions of Hanover, Bremen-Verden, and Saxe-Lauenburg. To this end Hanover also had to provide troops for the so-called demarcation army maintaining the armed neutrality.

Napoleonic era

During the War of the Second Coalition against France (1799–1802) Napoléon Bonaparte urged Brandenburg-Prussia to occupy the continental British dominions. In 1801 24,000 Brandenburg-Prussian soldiers invaded, surprising Hanover, which surrendered without a fight. In April 1801 the Brandenburg-Prussian troops arrived in Bremen-Verden's capital, Stade, and stayed there until October that year. The British first ignored Brandenburg-Prussia's hostility, but when the latter joined the pro-French coalition of armed neutral powers including Denmark-Norway and Russia, Britain began to capture Brandenburg-Prussian ships. After the Battle of Copenhagen (1801) the coalition fell apart and Brandenburg-Prussia withdrew its troops.

As part of the German Mediatisation of 25 February 1803, the Electorate received the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück in real union, whose every second ruler had been alternately members of the House of Hanover since 1662.

After Britain – this time without any allies – had declared war on France (18 May 1803), French troops invaded Hanover on 26 May. According to the Convention of Artlenburg (5 July 1803), confirming the military defeat of Hanover, the Hanoverian army was disarmed and its horses and ammunitions were handed over to the French. The Privy Council of Hanover, with minister Friedrich Franz Dieterich von Bremer holding up the Hanoverian stake, fled to Saxe-Lauenburg across the Elbe, ruled by Britain-Hanover in personal union. Soon afterwards the French also occupied Saxe-Lauenburg.

In autumn 1805, at the beginning of the War of the Third Coalition against France (1805–6), the French occupying troops left Hanover in a campaign against Austria. British, Swedish and Russian coalition forces captured Hanover. In December the Empire of the French, since 1804 France's new government, ceded Hanover, which it did not hold any more, to Brandenburg-Prussia, which captured it early in 1806.

On 6 August 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, thereby abolishing the function of prince-electors electing its emperors. Thus the title of Elector of Brandenburg became meaningless for the Kingdom of Prussia. After it had turned against France, it was defeated in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (11 November 1806), and France recaptured Hanover.

Following the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 the new Kingdom of Westphalia was founded, ruled by Napoléon's brother Jérôme Bonaparte, then including territories of the former Electorate of Hesse-Cassel, the ducal Brunswick-Lüneburgian principality Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and formerly Prussian territories. In early 1810 Hanover proper and Bremen-Verden, but not Saxe-Lauenburg, were also annexed by Westphalia. In an attempt to assert the Continental System, the French Empire annexed in late 1810 all the continental North Sea coast (as far as Denmark) and the areas along the sections of the rivers navigable for seagoing vessels, including Bremen-Verden and Saxe-Lauenburg and some adjacent territories of Hanover proper.

However, the government of George III did not recognise the French annexation, being at war continuously with France through the entire period, and Hanoverian ministers continued to operate out of London. The Privy Council of Hanover maintained its own separate diplomatic service, which maintained links with countries such as Austria and Prussia, with whom the United Kingdom itself was technically at war. The Hanoverian army was dissolved, but many of the officers and soldiers went to England, where they formed the King's German Legion. The Legion was the only German army to fight continually all through the Napoleonic wars against the French.

French control lasted until October 1813, when the territory was overrun by Russian troops, and the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig later the same month spelled the definitive end to the Napoleonic client state of Westphalia, as well as the entire Confederation of the Rhine, after which the rule of the House of Hanover was restored. The former electorate became the Kingdom of Hanover, confirmed at the Congress of Vienna in 1814.

Electors of Hanover

The Electorate was legally indivisible: it could add to its territory, but not alienate territory or be split up among several heirs – as used to be the rule before, having led at times to a multitude of Brunswick-Lüneburgian principalities. Its succession was to follow male primogeniture. Since this was against the Salic law, then valid for the ducal family, the change needed imperial confirmation, which Emperor Leopold I granted in 1692.

In 1692, at its upgrading to the rank of electorate, its territory comprised the Brunswick-Lüneburgian principalities of Calenberg and Grubenhagen, which the line of the former had already inherited in 1665. But before the confirmation of the electorate by the Imperial Diet in 1708 the Calenberg line further inherited the principality of Celle in 1705. Further included were the earlier acquired counties of Diepholz and Hoya.

Although the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, George III's government did not consider the dissolution to be final, and he continued to be styled "Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, Arch-treasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire" until 1814.

Electors of Hanover
Image Name Date Succession Notes
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (2) George I Louis
Georg Ludwig
1708–1727 Son of Ernest Augustus. Became King of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714. Acquired Bremen-Verden in 1719.
George II of Great Britain - 1730-50 George II Augustus
Georg II. August
1727–1760 Son of George I. Acquired the Land of Hadeln in 1731.
George III of the United Kingdom George III William Frederick
Georg III. Wilhelm Friedrich
1760–1806 Grandson of George II. Became King of the United Kingdom (by the Act of Union with Ireland) in 1801. Acquired the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück in 1803. He lost (early 1801), regained (April 1801), lost again (May 1803), regained again (Autumn 1805), lost for a third time (early 1806), and regained for a third time (October 1813) de facto power in Hanover by various occupations and annexations during the Great French War (1801–1813). Although the Electoral title became defunct with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, George III did not recognise this dissolution, and retained the Electoral title until early 1814, when he was proclaimed King of Hanover, a title which was universally recognised during the Congress of Vienna (1814–15).

References

  1. ^ During the 18th. century, whenever war was declared between Great Britain and France, the French army invaded or threatened to invade Hanover, forcing Great Britain to intervene diplomatically and militarily to defend the Electorate. In 1806, George III of the United Kingdom even declared war on Prussia after King Frederick William III, under heavy pressure from Napoleon, had annexed George III's German possessions. Auguste Himly, Histoire de la formation territoriale des États de l'Europe centrale. 1876, vol. 1, pp. 95–96.
  2. ^ a b Wilson 2016, p. 583.

Sources

  • Wilson, Peter H. (2016). Heart of Europe: A History of the Holy Roman Empire. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674058095.
  • Ford, Guy Stanton. Hanover and Prussia 1795–1803: a study in neutrality (1903).
Amt Neuhaus

Amt Neuhaus is a municipality in the District of Lüneburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany. Amt means "municipal office" in German. The original "municipal office of Neuhaus" existed since at least the 17th century until 1885, consecutively as part of Saxe-Lauenburg (which ceased to exist in 1689), Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1689-1810), Kingdom of Hanover (1814-1866), and the Prussian Province of Hanover (1866-1885).

In 1885, Prussia dissolved the municipality of Neuhaus, while the area remained part of the Province of Hanover. However, in 1945 the area of the former municipality was annexed to Mecklenburg and thus became a part of the Soviet Occupation Zone due to lying on the right bank of the Elbe River, and thus along with the former County of Blankenburg and the municipality of Calvörde became one of a few small areas of the Province of Hanover (since 1946 Lower Saxony) that were part of East Germany from 1949 to 1990.

After German reunification in 1990, the municipalities that had once made up Neuhaus until 1885 quickly held a referendum to secede from Mecklenburg and return to Lower Saxony as a joined municipality in 1992, which out of reasons of tradition took up the old name of Amt Neuhaus, or "municipal office of Neuhaus". It is thus the only part of former East Germany that is today part of a Land that during the Cold War belonged to West Germany.

Bodo Otto

Dr. Bodo Otto (1711—1787) was a Senior Surgeon of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. He was one of the early settlers of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, having emigrated from the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany in 1755.During the Revolution the Second Continental Congress appointed Otto to establish a military hospital in Trenton, New Jersey for the treatment of smallpox. He was present during the Battle of Long Island in 1776. He was also assigned to the Continental hospital at Valley Forge and located in the Uwchlan Meetinghouse. Later during the Revolution, Otto was put in charge of the hospitals in Yellow Springs (in what is now Chester Springs, Pennsylvania), where he and his son treated the ill soldiers from Valley Forge. Dr. Otto and his son crossed the Delaware River with General Washington and his army and surprised Hessian soldiers encamped at Trenton on the morning of December 26, 1776. He was widely respected for selflessly treating wounded and dying Hessians. There were only a smattering of casualties on the American side.

His three sons were also physicians for the Army, and assisted him as Junior Surgeon and Surgeon Mates.Otto did not retire from his Army service until the age of 70.Prior to the Revolution Otto publicly opposed the Stamp Act and also served on the Berks County Committee of Public Safety.Some of his medical training he received at the University of Göttingen. Bodo used Trinity Lutheran Church in Reading as a hospital to treat wounded soldiers from the Battle of Brandywine.

Otto died in 1787 and was buried in Reading, Pennsylvania at the Trinity Lutheran Church (where he was a member) Cemetery. Many of his surgical instruments as well as a portrait of him and his wife are in the collection of the Historical Society of Berks County in Reading.

A great grandson, William Todd Otto, a Judge from Indiana, served in Abraham Lincoln's cabinet as Assistant Secretary of the Interior. According to The New York Times, Judge Otto was one of twelve men permitted at Mr. Lincoln's bedside when he died.

Convention of Artlenburg

The Convention of Artlenburg or Elbkonvention was the surrender of the Electorate of Hanover to Napoleon's army, signed at Artlenburg on 5 July 1803 by Oberbefehlshaber Johann Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn. It disbanded the Electorate of Hanover and instigated its occupation by French troops.

Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg

The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy was located in what is now northwestern Germany. Its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg.

The dukedom emerged in 1235 from the allodial lands of the House of Welf in Saxony and was granted as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a grandson of Henry the Lion. The duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf, but each ruler was styled "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" in addition to his own particular title. By 1692, the territories had consolidated to two: the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.

In 1714, the Hanoverian branch of the family succeeded to the throne of Great Britain, which they would rule in personal union with Hanover until 1837. For this reason, many cities and provinces in former British colonies are named after Brunswick or Lüneburg. The Hanoverians never ruled Brunswick while they held the British throne, as the city was part of neighboring Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick.

Funeral coin

The term funeral coin is used for coins issued on the occasion of the death of a prominent person, mostly a ruling prince or a coin-lord. The obverse of such a coin usually depicts the portrait of the deceased; the reverse may show the coat of arms and important biographic data.The first issues regarded as funeral coins were struck in Germany in the late 12th century upon the death of Albert the Bear († 1170) and Archbishop Wichmann († 1192) of Magdeburg. Around the middle of the 16th century, funeral coins were issued in some states of the Holy Roman Empire. Their minting was frequent until the end of the eighteenth century, especially in the Electorate of Saxony and the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg; in Prussia, on the other hand, there were only a few funeral coins, so in 1713 on the occasion of the death of King Frederick I and 1786 after the death of Frederick the Great.Usually, funeral coins are commemorative coins of precious metals with high nominal values, but there are also funeral coins as currency money. Frequently the coins are designated according to their type with (German) terms like Sterbet(h)aler, Sterbegulden, Sterbedukaten or Sterbegroschen.

Germans in the American Revolution

Ethnic Germans served on both sides of the American Revolutionary War. Many supported the Loyalist cause and served as allies of Great Britain, whose King George III was also the Elector of Hanover. Germans, particularly from the Rhineland region bordering the French kingdom commonly served in the Bourbon army. Other Germans came to assist the rebelling American patriots, but most of the Germans who were patriots were colonists.

Herbord Sigismund Ludwig von Bar

Herbord Sigismund Ludwig von Bar (1 November 1763 - 20 December 1844) was a lawyer in the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg who became a politician and public official, serving at one stage as president of the provisional parliament in the Kingdom of Hanover. His career spanned the French occupation and its aftermath.

House of Welf

The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.

Kingdom of Hanover

The Kingdom of Hanover (German: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (known informally as the Electorate of Hanover), and joined 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815. The kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a cadet branch of the House of Welf, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1837. Since its monarch resided in London, a viceroy (usually a younger member of the British Royal Family) handled the administration of the Kingdom of Hanover.

The personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837 upon the accession of Queen Victoria because females could not inherit the Hanoverian throne, so her uncle became the ruler of Hanover. Hanover backed the losing side in the Austro-Prussian War and was conquered by Prussia in 1866, subsequently becoming a Prussian province. Along with the rest of Prussia, Hanover became part of the German Empire upon unification in January 1871. Briefly revived as the State of Hanover in 1946, the state was subsequently merged with some smaller states to form the current state of Lower Saxony in West Germany, later Germany.

Mere Nature Delineated

Mere Nature Delineated is a pamphlet by Daniel Defoe, first published in 1726. The longer title under which it was originally published is Mere nature delineated: or, A body without a soul. Being observations upon the young forester lately brought to town from Germany. With suitable applications. Also, a brief dissertation upon the usefulness and necessity of fools, whether political or natural.

The title and primary subject of the work is Peter the Wild Boy, a feral child who was brought to the court of George I in Great Britain in 1726. His uncivilized behaviour aroused considerable public interest, and Defoe was one of many writers who contributed to the debate about what the boy's condition meant for how the human subject should be considered. The pamphlet also broaches out to discuss the subject of 'fools' across Europe.

Peter the Wild Boy

Peter the Wild Boy (born c. 1713; died 22 February 1785) was a boy from Hanover in northern Germany who was found in 1725 living wild in the woods near Hamelin (Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg), the town of Pied Piper legend. The boy, of unknown parentage, had been living an entirely feral existence for an unknown length of time, surviving by eating forest flora; he walked on all fours, exhibited uncivilized behaviour and could not be taught to speak a language. He is now believed to have suffered from the very rare genetic disorder Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome.

Peter was found in the Hertswold Forest by a party of hunters led by George I while on a visit to his Hanover homeland and brought to Great Britain in 1726 by order of his daughter-in-law Caroline of Ansbach, the Princess of Wales.

Privy Council of Hanover

The Privy Council of the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, popularly known as Hanover, was the administrative branch of the electoral (and later royal) government of Hanover. Its members were known as ministers and often controlled indirectly the other branches of the government, except the military which was always under the direct control of the elector. At least one minister was always with the elector in London between the years 1714 and 1837 as the head of the German Chancery.

Simon Wolf Oppenheimer

Simon Wolf Oppenheimer (died 10 November 1726) was a German Jewish banker and Court Jew of the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg in Hanover. He was the son of Samuel Oppenheimer, and was married to Frade Behrends, the granddaughter of Leffmann Behrends.The astronomer Raphael Levi Hannover was a bookkeeper in his firm. His son Jacob Wolf Oppenheimer took over his banking business after his death in 1726, and later employed Mayer Amschel Rothschild as an apprentice between 1757 and 1763.

Treaties of Stockholm (Great Northern War)

The Treaties of Stockholm are two treaties signed in 1719 and 1720 that ended the war between Sweden and an alliance of Hanover and Prussia.

Aspects of the conflict that remained unresolved would be dealt with by two further treaties: the Treaty of Frederiksborg between Sweden and Denmark-Norway in 1720, which was a pure renewal of four previous treaties, Treaty of Copenhagen 1660, Malmö Recess 1662, Treaty of Fontainebleau 1679 and the Peace of Lund (written in Stockholm in 1679); and the Treaty of Nystad between Sweden and Russia in 1721.

Frederick I began negotiating the Treaties of Stockholm following the death of Charles XII of Sweden in 1718. The death of the Swedish monarch heralded the impending conclusion of the Great Northern War.

Treaty of Berlin (1715)

The Treaty of Berlin was concluded on 2 May 1715, during the Great Northern War. It allied George I of Great Britain, as Elector of Hanover, with Denmark-Norway in turn for the cession of the Swedish dominion Bremen-Verden, which was occupied by Denmark, to Hanover. With the treaty, Denmark and Hanover joined the Russo-Prussian coalition established by the Treaty of Schwedt. Denmark was assured the gain of yet to be conquered Stralsund.

Treaty of Hanover (1710)

The Treaty of Hanover was concluded on 3 July 1710, during the Great Northern War. It allied the Russian Empire with Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover). Though Hanover was not among the most important states of the Holy Roman Empire, the alliance was important since the Hanoveranian duke, with whom the alliance was concluded, was subsequently to become king of Great Britain as George I.

Treaty of Stettin (1715)

The Treaty of Stettin was concluded on 28 April 1715, during the Great Northern War, in the Prussian camp at Stettin (now Szczecin) between Hanover and Prussia. The treaty allied George I of Great Britain, as Elector of Hanover, with the Kingdom of Prussia against the Swedish Empire. In the years following the establishment of this treaty, Sweden was forced out of it holdings south of the Baltic Sea, ultimately leading to Sweden's defeat in 1721, at the conclusion of the Great Northern War.

Wilhelm von Freytag

Heinrich Wilhelm von Freytag (17 March 1720, Estorf – 2 January 1798, Hannover ) was an officer in the service of the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover).

William, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe

Wilhelm, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe-Bückeburg (9 January 1724 – 10 September 1777), born Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Graf zu Schaumburg-Lippe-Bückeburg, was a German ruler of the County of Schaumburg-Lippe-Bückeburg, an important military commander in the Seven Years' War, Generalfeldzeugmeister of the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg and British field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall).

Electors of the Holy Roman Empire from 1356 to 1806
Ecclesiastical
Secular
Cities

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