Electoral district (Canada)

An electoral district in Canada, also known as a "constituency" or a "riding", is a geographical constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based. It is officially known in Canadian French as a circonscription, but frequently called a comté (county).

Each federal electoral district returns one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of Canada; each provincial or territorial electoral district returns one representative—called, depending on the province or territory, Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA), Member of the National Assembly (MNA), Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP) or Member of the House of Assembly (MHA)—to the provincial or territorial legislature.

While electoral districts in Canada are now exclusively single-member districts, multiple-member districts have been used at the federal and provincial levels. Alberta has had a few districts that returned from two to seven members: see Calgary, Edmonton and Medicine Hat. British Columbia had a mix of multiple-member districts and single-member districts until the 1991 election, and Prince Edward Island had dual-member districts until the 1996 election.

Since 2015 there have been 338 federal electoral districts in Canada. Ontario uses the same boundaries for the electoral districts for its Legislative Assembly in Southern Ontario, while seats in Northern Ontario correspond to the federal districts that were in place before the 2004 adjustment. The other provinces use different electoral districts for their legislatures. Ontario had separate provincial electoral districts prior to 1999.

Elections Canada is the independent body set up by Parliament to oversee Canadian federal elections.

Canada Federal Ridings Map
Map of the 338 Canadian electoral districts represented in the House of Commons

Terminology

Originally, most electoral districts were equivalent to the counties used for local government, hence the French unofficial term comté. However, it became common, especially in Ontario, to divide counties with sufficient population into multiple electoral divisions. The Constitution Act, 1867, which created the electoral map for Ontario for the first general election, used the term "ridings" to describe districts which were sub-divisions of counties.[1] The word "riding", from Old English *þriðing "one-third" (compare farthing, literally "one-fourth"), is an English term denoting a sub-division of a county.

In some of Canada's earliest censuses, in fact, some citizens in the ridings of Bothwell, Cardwell, Monck and Niagara listed their electoral district as their "county" of residence instead of their actual county. Although the term "riding" is no longer used officially to indicate an electoral district, it has passed into common usage.

Soon after Confederation, the urban population grew—and more importantly, most city dwellers gained the franchise after property ownership was no longer required to gain the vote. Rural constituencies therefore became geographically larger through the 20th century and generally encompassed one or more counties each, and the word "riding" was then used to refer to any electoral division.

A political party's local organization is generally known as a riding association; the legal term is electoral district association or EDA.

Naming conventions

Electoral district names are usually geographic in nature, and chosen to represent the community or region within the electoral district boundaries. Some electoral districts in Quebec are named for historical figures rather than geography, e.g., Louis-Hébert, Honoré-Mercier. Similarly in Alberta provincial districts mix geographic names with those of historical personages (e.g., Edmonton-Decore after Laurence Decore, Calgary-Lougheed after Peter Lougheed and James Alexander Lougheed). This practice is no longer employed in the other provinces and territories.[2]

Boundary adjustment for federal electoral districts

Electoral district boundaries are adjusted to reflect population changes after each decennial census. Depending on the significance of a boundary change, an electoral district's name may change as well. Any adjustment of electoral district boundaries is official as of the date the changes are legislated, but is not put into actual effect until the first subsequent election. Thus, an electoral district may officially cease to exist, but will continue to be represented status quo in the House of Commons until the next election is called. This, for example, gives new riding associations time to organize, and prevents the confusion that would result from changing elected MPs' electoral district assignments in the middle of a Parliament.

On some occasions (e.g., Timiskaming—French River, Toronto—Danforth), a riding's name may be changed without a boundary adjustment. This usually happens when it is determined at a later date that the existing name is not sufficiently representative of the district's geographic boundaries. This is the only circumstance in which a sitting MP's riding name may change between elections.

Formula for adjusting federal electoral boundaries

The present formula for adjusting electoral boundaries was adopted in 1985.[3] It starts with the number of seats in Parliament at that time, 282. One seat is automatically allocated to each of Canada's three territories, leaving 279. The total population of Canada's provinces is thus divided by 279, resulting in an "electoral quotient", and then the population of each individual province is divided by this electoral quotient to determine the number of seats to which the province is officially entitled.

Finally, a few special rules are applied. Under the "senatorial clause", a province's number of seats in the House of Commons can never be lower than its constitutionally mandated number of senators, regardless of the province's population.[3] Under the "grandfather clause", the province's number of seats can also never fall below the number of seats it had in the 33rd Canadian parliament.[3]

A province may be allocated extra seats over its base entitlement to ensure that these rules are met. In 2004, for example, Prince Edward Island would have been entitled to only a single seat according to the electoral quotient, but through the senatorial clause the province gained three more seats to equal its four senators. Quebec was only entitled to 68 seats by the electoral quotient alone, but through the grandfather clause the province gained seven seats to equal the 75 seats it had in the 33rd Parliament. Saskatchewan and Manitoba also gained seats under the grandfather clause, New Brunswick gained seats under the senatorial clause, and Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador gained seats under both clauses.

A third protection clause exists, under which a province may not lose more than 15 per cent of its seats in a single adjustment,[3] but specific application of this rule has never been needed. In practice, the process results in most provinces maintaining the same number of seats from one redistribution to the next, due to the senatorial and grandfather clauses—prior to the 2015 election, only Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia, traditionally the country's three fastest-growing provinces, had ever gained seats in a redistribution. All other provinces still held the same number of seats that they held in 1985, and were thus already protected from losing even one seat by the other clauses. The 2012 redistribution, which added three new seats in Quebec, was the first time since 1985 that any of the other seven provinces had ever gained new seats. The 15 per cent clause will thus only become relevant if Ontario, Alberta or British Columbia undergoes a rapid population decline, leading to a reduction in their seat entitlement, in the future.

Some sources incorrectly state that a special provision guaranteeing a certain number of seats to Quebec is also applied. While such a provision was proposed in the failed Charlottetown Accord, no such rule currently exists—Quebec's seat allotment in the House of Commons is in fact governed by the same adjustment clauses as all other provinces, and not by any provisions unique to Quebec alone.

In 2008 the government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper proposed an amendment to the process which would have given Alberta, British Columbia and Ontario, the three provinces whose electoral districts have an average size larger than those in Quebec, a total of 32 additional seats by applying Quebec's average of 105,000.[4] The measure initially included only British Columbia and Alberta; Harper later proposed an alternative plan which included Ontario. However, opposition then emerged in Quebec, where politicians expressed concern about the province losing clout in Ottawa if its proportion of seats in the House of Commons were reduced; finally, three new seats were allotted to Quebec as well. The measure did not pass before the 2011 election was called,[5] but was put forward again after the election.[6] It was passed on December 16, 2011 as the Fair Representation Act (Bill C-20),[7] and resulted in the 2012 redistribution process.

Boundary review of federal electoral districts

When the province's final seat allotment is determined, an independent election boundaries commission in each province reviews the existing boundaries and proposes adjustments. Public input is then sought, which may then lead to changes in the final boundary proposal. For instance, the proposed boundaries may not accurately reflect a community's historical, political or economic relationship with its surrounding region; the community would thus advise the boundary commission that it wished to be included in a different electoral district.

For example, in the 2003 boundary adjustment, the boundary commission in Ontario originally proposed dividing the city of Greater Sudbury into three districts. The urban core would have remained largely unchanged as Sudbury, while communities west of the central city would have been merged with Algoma—Manitoulin to form the new riding of Greater Sudbury—Manitoulin, and those east and north of the central city would have been merged with Timiskaming to create the riding of Timiskaming—Greater Sudbury.[8]

Due to the region's economic and transportation patterns, however, "Timiskaming—Greater Sudbury" was particularly opposed by its potential residents — voters in Sudbury were concerned about the weakening of their representation if the city were divided into one city-based riding and two large rural ones rather than two city-based ridings,[9] while the Timiskaming District is much more strongly aligned with and connected to North Bay, to which it has a direct highway link, than to Sudbury. In a deputation to the boundary commission, Sudbury's deputy mayor Ron Dupuis stated that "An electoral district must be more than a mere conglomeration of arbitrary and random groups of individuals. Districts should, as much as possible, be cohesive units with common interests related to representation. This makes a representative's job of articulating the interests of his or her constituency much easier."[9] Instead, in the final report that was passed by the House of Commons, the Sudbury area's existing ridings of Sudbury and Nickel Belt were retained with only minor boundary adjustments, while the Timiskaming riding was merged with Nipissing. Despite the opposition that arose to the 2003 process, however, virtually the same tripartite division of the city was proposed in the boundary adjustment of 2012,[10] although due to concerns around balancing the Northern Ontario region's population against its geographic size, the commission announced in 2013 that it would retain the existing electoral districts again.[11]

Similarly, opposition arose in Toronto during the 2012 redistribution process, especially to a proposal which would have divided the Church and Wellesley neighbourhood, the city's primary gay village, between the existing riding of Toronto Centre and a new riding of Mount Pleasant along the length of Wellesley Street.[12] In the final report, the northern boundary of Toronto Centre was shifted north to Charles Street.[13]

Once the final report is produced, it is then submitted to Parliament for approval, which is given by voting on the report as a piece of legislation known as a Representation Order. From Canadian Confederation, the boundaries were defined by the Constitution Act, 1867. Boundaries for one or more electoral districts were updated in 1872, 1882, 1892, 1903, 1914, 1924, 1933, and 1947. Subsequent changes are known as Representation Order, and occurred in 1952, 1966, 1976, 1987, 1996 and 2003.[14] Such changes come into force "on the first dissolution of Parliament that occurs at least one year after its proclamation".[14] For example, the 2003 Representation Order was deemed to be effective 1 January 2004,[15] and came into force after dissolution of the 37th Canadian Parliament on 23 May 2004.

Political issues: gerrymandering, unequal size (population) of electoral districts, unequal geographic size of electoral districts

Because electoral district boundaries are proposed by an arms-length body, rather than directly by political parties themselves, gerrymandering is not generally seen as an issue in Canada. However, in 2006 the provincial government of Prince Edward Island was accused of gerrymandering[16] after it rejected the independent boundary commission's report and instead proposed a new map that would have seen the cities of Charlottetown and Summerside each gain one additional seat, with two fewer seats allocated to rural areas of the province.[17] The alternate map gave every incumbent member of the governing party a "safe" seat to run in, while the original report would have forced some of the party's MLAs to compete against each other in nomination contests. In Alberta too gerrymandering was an issue, when the provincial Conservative government ignored the report of the independent boundary commission in 1991/2. The changes it did bring in were instrumental in losing two NDP seats (Ewasiuk's and Martin's). As well, the Social Credit government's move away from multi-member constituencies (and the STV) in 1957 was an attempt (successful for a decade) to retain power.

The unequal size of electoral districts across Canada has sometimes given rise to discussion of whether all Canadians enjoy equal democratic representation by population.[5] For example, the four electoral districts in Prince Edward Island have an average size of just 33,963 voters each, while electoral districts in Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia have an average size of over 125,000 voters each—only slightly smaller, in fact, than the entire population of Prince Edward Island .[18]

Conversely, pure representation by population creates distinct disadvantages for some Canadians, giving rise to frequent debate about how to balance the population size of electoral districts against their geographic size. Whereas urban districts, such as Toronto Centre, Vancouver Quadra or Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Lachine, may be as small as 50 km2 or less, more rural districts, such as Timmins—James Bay, Abitibi—Baie-James—Nunavik—Eeyou or Desnethé—Missinippi—Churchill River may encompass tens or hundreds of thousands of square kilometres in size. Thus, while Canadians who reside in major urban centres typically live within walking distance of their federal or provincial representatives' constituency offices, a rural resident may not even be able to call their federal or provincial representative's constituency offices without incurring long-distance calling charges.

Further, a rural politician who represents dozens of geographically dispersed small towns must normally incur much greater travel expenses, being forced to drive for several hours, or even to travel by air, in order to visit parts of their own district—and may even need to maintain more than one constituency office in order to properly represent all of their constituents. In Ontario, for example, the highest annual expense budgets among members of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario are consistently filed by the representatives for Mushkegowuk—James Bay and Kiiwetinoong, the province's two largest and northernmost electoral districts; both must spend far more on travel to and from Toronto, travel within their own ridings and additional support staff in multiple communities within their ridings than any other legislator in the province.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ Constitution Act, 1867, First Schedule.
  2. ^ "Search". The Globe and Mail.
  3. ^ a b c d Department of Justice (Canada) (2009-11-02). "Constitution Acts, 1867 to 1982". Archived from the original on 2012-03-29. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
  4. ^ "Ontario to gain seats in Parliament", The Globe and Mail, December 17, 2008.
  5. ^ a b "Riding size inequalities rob us of our democratic voice". Edmonton Journal, March 25, 2011.
  6. ^ "Conservatives seek ‘fairness’ in reallocating Commons seats". The Globe and Mail, June 2, 2011.
  7. ^ Thandi Fletcher (December 16, 2011). "Crowded House: Parliament gets cozier as 30 seats added". Canada.com. Postmedia News. Archived from the original on March 14, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
  8. ^ Proposed Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act, 2003. Federal Electoral Boundaries Commission for Ontario.
  9. ^ a b "City Urges Commission to Maintain Existing Federal Electoral Boundaries". City of Greater Sudbury, October 29, 2002.
  10. ^ "Electoral boundary changes could affect northern Ontario". CBC News, August 28, 2012.
  11. ^ "Northern ridings to stay at 10, electoral commission says". CBC News, February 27, 2013.
  12. ^ "Proposed riding redistribution splits Village in half" Archived 2012-10-17 at the Wayback Machine. Xtra!, August 31, 2012.
  13. ^ "Village preserved in final riding-redistribution proposal" Archived 2013-03-18 at the Wayback Machine. Xtra!, February 26, 2013.
  14. ^ a b "Federal electoral district (FED)". Census Dictionary. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  15. ^ "An Act respecting the effective date of the representation order of 2003 (S.C. 2004, c. 1)". Department of Justice (Canada). Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  16. ^ "No Christmas election: Binns". cbc.ca, November 16, 2006.
  17. ^ "Electoral map a distraction: Constable". cbc.ca, June 15, 2006.
  18. ^ Mowat Centre. "Mowat Centre for Policy Innovation". Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2010.
  19. ^ "Queen's Park's biggest spenders revealed". Toronto Sun, June 1, 2011.
Arm River (electoral district)

Arm River is a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan, Canada. This constituency is located in south central Saskatchewan. Revived as a result of the 2013 revision of Saskatchewan's electoral districts, it was last contested in the 2016 election.

Arm River was originally created before the 2nd Saskatchewan general election in 1908. The Representation Act, 2002 (Saskatchewan) merged this riding's first incarnation with parts of the Watrous and Last Mountain-Touchwood ridings to form the riding of Arm River-Watrous. Arm River-Watrous was abolished by The Representation Act, 2013 (Saskatchewan).

Assiniboia-Bengough

Assiniboia-Bengough was a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan, Canada. This constituency was created from the riding of Benough and parts of other ridings before the 1971 Saskatchewan general election. This riding was only in existence for a few years, being replaced by the ridings of Benough-Milestone and Assiniboia-Gravelbourg before the 1975 Saskatchewan general election.

Assiniboia-Gravelbourg

Assiniboia-Gravelbourg was a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan, Canada. This constituency was created from the ridings of Gravelbourg and Assiniboia-Bengough before the 1975 Saskatchewan general election. The constituency was merged into the Thunder Creek riding before the 1995 Saskatchewan general election.

Battleford (provincial electoral district)

Battleford was a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was one of the 25 ridings created when the province came into existence in 1905. It was replaced before the 1917 general election by combining this constituency with the North Battleford provincial district to create The Battlefords.

Bengough-Milestone

Bengough-Milestone was a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan, Canada. This constituency was created before the 1975 Saskatchewan general election. It was redistributed before the 1995 Saskatchewan general election.

Bengough (electoral district)

Bengough was a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan, Canada. This constituency was created the 1917 Saskatchewan general election. It was redistributed before the 1971 Saskatchewan general election.

Canora (provincial electoral district)

Canora is a former provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, centred on the town of Canora. This constituency was created before the 2nd Saskatchewan general election in 1908. Dissolved in 1934, the district was reconstituted before the 9th Saskatchewan general election in 1938.

It is now part of the constituency of Canora-Pelly.

Cypress (former Saskatchewan provincial electoral district)

Cypress is a former provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. This district was created before the 3rd Saskatchewan general election in 1912 as "Gull Lake". Since the district encompassed most of the Saskatchewan side of the Cypress Hills, the riding was renamed "Cypress" in 1917. Redrawn and renamed "Shaunavon" before 1934, the constituency was abolished before the 9th Saskatchewan general election in 1938.

It is now part of the Cypress Hills and Wood River constituencies.

Gravelbourg (electoral district)

Gravelbourg is a former provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. This district was created before the 5th Saskatchewan general election in 1921. Redrawn and renamed "Assiniboia-Gravelbourg" in 1975, the riding was dissolved before the 23rd Saskatchewan general election in 1995.

It is now part of the Wood River constituency.

Kelsey-Tisdale

Kelsey-Tisdale was a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, encompassing the towns of Hudson Bay, Carrot River, and Tisdale.

Created as "Tisdale-Kelsey" before the 17th Saskatchewan general election in 1971, this riding was dissolved before the 23rd Saskatchewan general election in 1995. It is now part of the constituencies of Melfort and Carrot River Valley.

Kerrobert (electoral district)

Kerrobert is a former provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Located in west-central Saskatchewan, this constituency was created before the 3rd Saskatchewan general election in 1912. The district was dissolved and combined with the former Kindersley riding (as Kerrobert-Kindersley) before the 9th Saskatchewan general election in 1938.

It is now part of the present-day Kindersley constituency.

Notukeu-Willow Bunch

Notukeu-Willow Bunch was a provincial electoral division for the Legislative Assembly of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, located south of Old Wives Lake. Centered on the town of Assiniboia, this constituency was created for the 8th Saskatchewan general election in 1938 by combining the districts of Notukeu and Willow Bunch.

The constituency was dissolved and divided between the districts of Assiniboia-Gravelbourg and Bengough-Milestone before the 18th Saskatchewan general election in 1975. It is now part of the ridings of Wood River and Weyburn-Big Muddy.

Pheasant Hills (provincial electoral district)

Pheasant Hills was a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, centered just north of the town of Grenfell. This district was one of 25 created before the 1st Saskatchewan general election in 1905.

Originally named "Grenfell", this constituency was renamed Pheasant Hills in 1908, after a range of hills north of the Qu'Appelle River valley near Grenfell, Saskatchewan. The district was abolished before the 9th Saskatchewan general election in 1938.

It is now part of the constituencies of Moosomin, Last Mountain-Touchwood, and Melville-Saltcoats.

Riding

Riding is a homonym of two distinct English words:

From the word ride:

Equestrianism, riding a horse

Riding animal, an animal bred or trained for riding

Riding hall, a building designed for indoor horse riding

Ridin', a song by ChamillionaireFrom Old English *þriðing:

Riding (country subdivision), an administrative division of a county, or similar district

Electoral district (Canada), a Canadian term for an electoral district

Riding association, Canadian political party organization at the riding level

Riding officer, a name once used for customs officials who patrolled for smugglers on beaches and other informal landing spots

Common Riding, an event celebrated in some Scottish towns to commemorate the guarding the boundaries of the town's common land by local men

Souris-Estevan

Souris-Estevan is a former provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. This district was created for the 7th Saskatchewan general election in 1934 by combining the districts of Souris and Estevan.

The constituency was dissolved and divided between the districts of Estevan and Cannington (as "Souris-Cannington") before the 18th Saskatchewan general election in 1975.

South Qu'Appelle

South Qu'Appelle is a former provincial electoral division for the Legislative Assembly of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The district was created before the 1st Saskatchewan general election in 1905, and abolished before the 8th Saskatchewan general election in 1934. It was the riding of former Premier of the North-West Territories and Saskatchewan Opposition leader Frederick Haultain.

It is now part of the constituencies of Indian Head-Milestone and Regina Wascana Plains.

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