Elections to the European Parliament

Elections to the European Parliament take place every five years by universal adult suffrage. 751 MEPs[1] are elected to the European Parliament, which has been directly elected since 1979. No other EU institution is directly elected, with the Council of the European Union and the European Council being only indirectly legitimated through national elections.[2] While Europarties have the right to campaign EU-wide for the European elections, campaigns still take place through national election campaigns, advertising national delegates from national parties.

European-parliament-strasbourg-inside
The hemicycle of the European Parliament in Strasbourg
European Parliament composition by political groups election 2014
Political groups of the European Parliament in the Louise Weiss building after the election 2014:
  Group of the European People's Party (EPP)
  Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D)
  Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE)
  European Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA)
  European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL)
  European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR)
  Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFDD)
  Non-Inscrits (NI)

Apportionment

The allocation of seats to each member state is based on the principle of degressive proportionality, so that, while the size of the population of each country is taken into account, smaller states elect more MEPs than is proportional to their populations. As the numbers of MEPs to be elected by each country have arisen from treaty negotiations, there is no precise formula for the apportionment of seats among member states. No change in this configuration can occur without the unanimous consent of all governments.[3][4]

European Parliament Apportionment changes between the Treaty of Nice and the Treaty of Lisbon
(as calculated for purposes of the 2009 European Elections)
Member state 2007
Nice
2009
Nice
2014
Lisbon
2014c
+ Croatia
     Member state 2007
Nice
2009
Nice
2014
Lisbon
2014c
+ Croatia
     Member state 2007
Nice
2009
Nice
2014
Lisbon
2014c
+ Croatia
 Germany 99 99 96 96  Czech Republic 24 22 22 21  Slovakia 14 13 13 13
 France 78 72 74 74  Greece 24 22 22 21  Croatia 11
 United Kingdoma 78 72 73 73  Hungary 24 22 22 21  Ireland 13 12 12 11
 Italy 78 72 73 73  Portugal 24 22 22 21  Lithuania 13 12 12 11
 Spain 54 50 54 54  Sweden 19 18 20 20  Latvia 9 8 9 8
 Poland 54 50 51 51  Austria 18 17 19 18  Slovenia 7 7 8 8
 Romania 35 33 33 32  Bulgaria 18 17 18 17  Cyprus 6 6 6 6
 Netherlands 27 25 26 26  Finland 14 13 13 13  Estonia 6 6 6 6
 Belgium 24 22 22 21  Denmark 14 13 13 13  Luxembourg 6 6 6 6

Italicised countries are divided into sub-national constituencies.
a Includes Gibraltar, but not any other BOT (including the SBAs), nor the Crown dependencies
b The speaker is not counted officially, thus leaving 750 MEPs.
c As proposed by European Parliament on 13 March 2013 [5]

 Malta 5 5 6 6
Total: 785 736 751b 751b

Voting system

There is no uniform voting system for the election of MEPs; rather, each member state is free to choose its own system, subject to certain restrictions:[3]

Country by country

Most of the member states of the European Union elect their MEPs with a single constituency covering the entire state, using party-list proportional representation. There is however a great variety of electoral procedures: some countries use the highest averages method of proportional representation, some use the largest remainder method, some open lists and others closed. In addition, the method of calculating the quota and the election threshold vary from country to country. Countries with multiple constituencies are:

Germany, Italy and Poland use a different system, whereby parties are awarded seats based on their nationwide vote as in all of the states that elect members from a single constituency; these seats are given to the candidates on regional lists. With the number of seats for each party known, these are given to the candidates on the regional lists based on the number of votes from each region towards the party's nationwide total, awarded proportionally to the regions. These subdivisions are not strictly constituencies, as they do not decide how many seats each party is awarded, but are districts that the members represent once elected. The number of members for each region is decided dynamically after the election, and depends on voter turnout in each region. A region with high turnout will result in more votes for the parties there, which will result in a greater number of MEPs elected for that region.[7]

Europarties

The European Union has a multi-party system involving a number of ideologically diverse Europarties. As no one Europarty has ever gained power alone, their affiliated parliamentary groups must work with each other to pass legislation. Since no pan-European government is formed as a result of the European elections, long-term coalitions have never occurred.

Europarties have the exclusive right to campaign for the European elections; their parliamentary groups are strictly forbidden to campaign and to spend funds on any campaign-related activity. Campaign activities differ per country since national elections for European Parliament representatives are governed by national laws. For instance, a European party can buy unlimited advertising airtime in Estonia while it is barred from any form of paid advertising in Sweden.[8]

For the 2014 EP election, Europarties decided to put forward a candidate for President of the European Commission; each candidate will lead the pan-European campaign of the Europarty. While no legal obligation exists to force the European Council to propose the candidate of the strongest party to the EP, it is assumed that the Council will have no other choice than to accept the voters' decision.

The two major parties are the centre-right European People's Party and the centre-left Party of European Socialists. They form the two largest groups, (called EPP and S&D respectively) along with other smaller parties. There are numerous other groups, including communists, greens, regionalists, conservatives, liberals and eurosceptics. Together they form the seven recognised groups in the parliament.[9] MEPs that are not members of groups are known as non-inscrits.

Voter behaviour

A 1980 analysis by Karlheinz Reif and Hermann Schmitt concluded that European elections were fought on national issues and used by voters to punish their governments mid-term, making European Parliament elections de facto national elections of second rank.[10] This phenomenon is also referred to by some experts as the "punishment traps," wherein voters use the European Parliament elections and other European integration referendums as punishment for governments on account of bad economic performance.[11] There is also a study that showed how voters tend to choose candidates of a party at the European level if it has a history of advancing specific issues that they care about.[12] This is related to the second theory that explains voter behavior and it involves the so-called attitude voting in which voters are assumed to be acting on the basis of their attitude towards the European integration.[11] This is analogous to the American two-party system in the sense that voting on issues and legislation in the Parliament only requires a yes or no vote, which means voter vote for options or candidates that are close to their ideals.

Turnout has been falling steadily since the first elections in 1979, indicating increased apathy about the Parliament despite its increase in power over that period. Turnout has constantly fallen in every EU election since 1979. In 2009, the overall turnout was at 43%, down from 45.5% in 2004. In Britain the turnout was just 34.3%, down from 38% in 2004. Despite falling below 50% since 1999, turnout is not yet as low as that of the US Midterm elections, which usually falls below 40%. However, the comparison with the US voter turnout is hampered due to the fact that the US President is elected in separate and direct elections (presidential system), whereas the President of the European Commission is only approved by the European Parliament (parliamentary system), giving the European Parliament elections considerable weight. Some, such as former President of the European Parliament, Pat Cox, have also noted that turnout in the 1999 election was higher than the previous US presidential election.[13][14] German MEP Jo Leinen has suggested that EU parties name their top candidate for the position of President of the European Commission in order to increase turnout.[15][16][17] This happened for the 2014 election, with EPP candidate Jean Claude Juncker ultimately selected, after the EPP won the most seats overall.

Results

List of elections (excluding by-elections)
List of European Parliament elections by state

Historical percentage results in union-wide elections of the three major groups by region.[18]

REGION 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009
3.6 6.3 6.3 22 35.3 31.2 10.9
Northern[19] 3.6 2.7 4.5 6.8 16.7 18.1 20.3
23.2 33 45.5 56.8 27.6 23.9 21
33.6 30.9 26.7 31.9 36.4 34.9 37.3
Western[20] 6.5 10.6 12 8.5 5.2 11.9 12.5
34.1 32.7 32.7 29.9 27.9 30.2 20.8
37 34.3 29.6 25.9 39.8 38.2 45.2
Southern[21] 6.2 4.8 9.5 8.5 5 7.9 5
16 21 29.1 29.9 30.8 33 35
- - - - - 46.4 41
Central and South-Eastern[22] - - - - - 14.3 10
- - - - - 21.4 23.7
26 25.3 23.4 27.7 37.2 36.9 36
Total 9.8 7.1 9.5 7.6 8 12.4 11.4
27.6 30 34.2 34.9 28.8 28.3 25
Turnout 63 61 58.5 56.8 49.4 45.5 43

Legend:        Socialist (PES/S&D) –      Liberal (ELDR/ALDE) –      People's (EPP/EPP-ED)

Percental turnout in previous elections[23]

Proposed reforms

As of 2011 reforms by Liberal Democrat MEP Andrew Duff are being considered by Parliament, which are seen as the most significant overhaul of the electoral system since elections began. 25 extra MEPs would be added on a transnational European list with its candidates being selected by the European party groups rather than national member parties. The candidate lists would have to represent a third of member states and are seen as a way to personalise and dramatise the elections to re-engage an apathetic electorate. Duff sees the next Commission President possibly coming from the transnational list. Duff's proposals also include a single electoral roll, regular reapportioning of seats, one set of immunity rules and the holding of elections in May rather than June. However, due to a waning of support and possible opposition from member states, Duff has taken the proposal back to committee to get broader support before putting them before the plenary in autumn 2011.[24]

Commission President

Election Largest Group President Party
1994 PES Jacques Santer EPP
1999 EPP-ED Romano Prodi ELDR
2004 EPP José Manuel Barroso EPP
2009 EPP José Manuel Barroso EPP
2014 EPP Jean-Claude Juncker EPP

The third Delors Commission had a short mandate, to bring the terms of the Commission in line with that of the Parliament. Under the European Constitution the European Council would have to take into account the results of the latest European elections and, furthermore, the Parliament would ceremonially "elect", rather than simply approve, the Council's proposed candidate. This was taken as the parliament's cue to have its parties run with candidates for the President of the European Commission with the candidate of the winning party being proposed by the Council.[25]

This was partly put into practice in 2004 when the European Council selected a candidate from the political party that won that year's election. However at that time only one party had run with a specific candidate: the European Green Party, who had the first true pan-European political party with a common campaign,[26] put forward Daniel Cohn-Bendit.[25] However the fractious nature of the other political parties led to no other candidates, the People's Party only mentioned four or five people they'd like to be President.[27] The Constitution failed ratification but these amendments have been carried over to the Treaty of Lisbon, which came into force in 2009.

There are plans to strengthen the European political parties[17] in order for them to propose candidates for the 2009 election.[16][28] The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party have already indicated, in their October 2007 congress, their intention for forward a candidate for the post as part of a common campaign.[29] They failed to do so however the European People's Party did select Barroso as their candidate and, as the largest party, Barroso's turn was renewed. The Socialists, disappointed at the 2009 election, agreed to put forward a candidate for Commission President at all subsequent elections. There is a campaign within that party to have open primaries for said candidate.[30]

In February 2008, President Barroso admitted there was a problem in legitimacy and that, despite having the same legitimacy as Prime Ministers in theory, in practice it was not the case. The low turnout creates a problem for the President's legitimacy, with the lack of a "European political sphere", but analysis claim that if citizens were voting for a list of candidates for the post of president, turn out would be much higher than that seen in recent years.[31]

With the Lisbon Treaty now in-force, Europarties are obliged from now-on to put forward a candidate for President of the European Commission; each Presidential candidate will, in fact, lead the pan-European campaign of the Europarty.

The President of the European Parliament Jerzy Buzek proposed in 2010 that Commissioners be directly elected, by member states placing their candidate at the top of their voting lists in European elections. That would give them individually, and the body as a whole, a democratic mandate.[32]

Eligibility

Act-React-Impact
Logo and slogan of the European Parliament election 2014: Act. React. Impact.

Each Member State has different rules determining who can vote for and run as the European Parliamentary candidates. In Spain v United Kingdom, the European Court of Justice held that member states are permitted to extend the franchise to non-EU citizens.[33]

Every EU citizen residing in an EU country of which he/she is not a national has the right to vote and to stand as a candidate in European Parliamentary elections in his/her country of residence, under the same conditions as nationals of that country - this right is enshrined in Article 39 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. In addition, the right to vote is included in Articles 20(1) and 22(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. To this extent all EU countries keep electoral registers containing the names of all eligible voters in the specific region, to which eligible newcomers to the area can apply at any time to have their names added. EU citizens are then eligible to vote for the duration of their stay in that country.

It is therefore possible for a person to have the choice of voting in more than one EU member state. For example, a Portuguese citizen who studies at university in France and lives at home outside term-time in the family home in the United Kingdom has the option of voting in the European Parliamentary election in France, Portugal or the United Kingdom. In this scenario, although the Portuguese citizen qualifies to vote in three EU member states, he/she is only permitted to cast one vote in one of the member states.

Member state Eligible voters Eligible candidates
Austria
  • Austrian citizens who are aged 16 or over on polling day and resident in Austria.
  • Austrian citizens who are aged 16 or over on polling day, resident abroad, and have submitted a notification to be listed in the electoral register of the Austrian commune they were a resident of.
  • European Union citizens aged 16 or over, resident in Austria, and have submitted a notification to be listed in the electoral register of the Austrian commune they are a resident of.
  • Same as on the left; the passive voting age is 18 instead of 16.[34]
Belgium
  • Belgian citizens aged 18 or over on polling day resident in Belgium and entered in the population register of a Belgian commune.[35]
  • Belgian citizens aged 18 or over on polling day resident outside Belgium, who have sent an application to vote to the Belgian diplomatic or consular post in their country of residence up to 16 days before polling day.
  • European Union citizens resident in Belgium, aged 18 or over on polling day, entered in the population register or in the foreigners' register of their commune of residence and enrolled in the electoral register.[36]
  • Voting is compulsory and failing to vote can lead to a fine of up to €137.50.[37]
  • European Union citizens aged 21 or over on polling day who speak French, Dutch or German.[38]
Bulgaria
  • Bulgarian citizens who have attained the age of 18 years by polling day, have resided in the Republic of Bulgaria or in another Member State of the European Union at least during the last three months, are not interdicted and do not serve a custodial sentence[39]
  • Each national of a Member State of the European Union, who is not a Bulgarian citizen, shall have the right to elect Members of the European Parliament for the Republic of Bulgaria if the said person has attained the age of 18 years by polling day, is not interdicted, does not serve a custodial sentence, enjoys a durable or permanent residence status for the Republic of Bulgaria, has resided in the Republic of Bulgaria or in another Member State of the European Union at least during the last three months, is not deprived of the right to elect in the Member State of which the person is a national, and has stated in advance, by a declaration in writing, the desire thereof to exercise his or her right to vote within the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria.[39]
  • Bulgarian citizen who has attained the age of 21 years by polling day, does not hold the citizenship of any State that is not a Member State of the European Union, is not interdicted, does not serve a custodial sentence, has a permanent address in the Republic of Bulgaria, and has resided in the Republic of Bulgaria of in another Member State of the European Union at least during the last six months.[40]
  • Any national of a Member State of the European Union, who is not a Bulgarian citizen, has attained the age of 21 years by polling day, does not hold the citizenship of any State that is not a Member State of the European Union, is not interdicted, does not serve a custodial sentence, is not deprived of the right to be elected in the Member State of which the person is a national, enjoys a durable or permanent residence status for the Republic of Bulgaria, has resided in the Republic of Bulgaria or in another Member State of the European Union at least during the last six months, and has stated, by a declaration in writing, the desire thereof to be elected.[41]
Croatia
  • Croatian citizens
  • European Union citizens resident in Croatia enrolled in the electoral register at least 30 days before the election.[42]
  • European Union citizens resident in Croatia enrolled in the electoral register at least 30 days before the election.[43]
Czech Republic
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are registered in the register of citizens for at least 45 days before polling day, unless a statutory limitation is imposed for reasons of protection of health or withdrawal or legal capacity.[44]
  • European Union citizens
Denmark
  • Danish citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident in Denmark or another EU member state, unless deprived of legal capacity.
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day and resident in Denmark, unless deprived of legal capacity.[45]
  • European Union citizens eligible to vote, unless they have been convicted of an action that in the public opinion makes them unworthy of being a member of the European Parliament.
Estonia
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day and whose address is entered in the population register. A person who has been divested of their active legal capacity with regard to the right to vote and a person who has been convicted of a crime and is serving sentence in a penal institution, cannot vote.[46]
  • European Union citizens at least 21 years of age and satisfying the requirements of the right to cast a vote, except members of the Defence Forces.
Finland
  • Every Finnish citizen aged 18 or over on polling day, regardless of domicile.
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day and who are enrolled on the voting register in Finland and whose municipality of residence, as defined by law, is in Finland on the 51st day before election day, unless he/she has lost the right to vote in the Member State whose citizen he/she is.[47]
  • Finnish citizens entitled to vote and not legally incompetent.
  • European Union citizens who are entitled to vote, registered with and entered into the voting register in Finland and not lost the right to stand as a candidate in elections in his/her home state.[48]
France
  • French citizens aged 18 or over on polling day resident in France and enrolled in the electoral register on or before 31 December 2013.
  • French citizens aged 18 or over on polling day resident outside France and entered either in the consular register of electors (la liste électorale consulaire) or in the register of a municipality with which they are related (place of birth, last residence in France, municipality of one of forebears, spouse or relatives, municipality where they own a residence or pay local taxes) on or before 31 December 2013.[49]
  • European Union citizens resident in France, aged 18 or over on polling day and enrolled in the electoral register on or before 31 December 2013.[50]
  • European Union citizens aged 23 or over.
Germany
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day resident in Germany, if they are resident in member states of the European Union for at least three months.
  • Additionally, German citizens aged 18 or over who have lived in Germany for at least three consecutive months within the last 25 years when they were at least aged 14.
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over.
Greece
  • Greek citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident in Greece and registered in the electoral roll in a Greek municipality or community, unless deprived of legal capacity.[51]
  • Greek citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident in another EU member state, registered in the electoral roll in a Greek municipality or community and have submitted an application to vote overseas to the Greek embassy or consulate in their country of residence on or before 31 March 2014, unless deprived of legal capacity.[52]
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day, resident in Greece and registered in the electoral roll on or before 3 March 2014.[53]
  • Voting is compulsory.
  • European Union citizens aged 25 or over, unless deprived of legal capacity.
Hungary
  • Hungarian citizens aged 18 or over on polling day and whose municipality of residence is in Hungary. (automatically listed in the electoral register)
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day and whose municipality of residence is in Hungary and have submitted a notification to be listed in the electoral register.
  • Any European Union citizens who are entitled to vote (whose municipality of residence is in Hungary).
Ireland
  • European Union citizens who are ordinarily resident in the Republic of Ireland on 1 September 2013, aged 18 or over on polling day and included on the Register of Electors.[54]
  • Irish citizens who are officials on duty abroad (and their spouses) who are registered on the postal voters list.
  • European Union citizens over the age of 21, not otherwise disqualified from election to the Dáil.
Italy
  • Italian and European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident in Italy and enrolled in the electoral list of their town of residence up to 19 days before polling day.[55]
  • Italian citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident in other EU member states and have submitted an application to the Italian consulate up to 18 days before polling day.
  • Italian citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident outside the European Union for the purpose of work, study or living with family and have submitted an application to the Italian consulate up to 18 days before polling day.
  • European Union citizens aged 25 or over on polling day and not deprived of the right to stand in their home country.
Luxembourg
  • Luxembourgish citizens aged 18 or over on polling day resident in Luxembourg or overseas and enrolled in the electoral list up to 87 days before polling day.[56]
  • European Union citizens resident in Luxembourg for at least 2 years, aged 18 or over on polling day and enrolled in the electoral list up to 87 days before polling day.[57]
  • Voting is compulsory.
  • Luxembourgish citizens aged 18 or over on polling day and resident in Luxembourg.[58]
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day and resident in Luxembourg for at least 5 years.
Malta
  • Maltese citizens aged 18 or over on polling day.
Netherlands
  • Dutch citizens aged 18 or over on polling day.
  • European Union citizens resident in the Netherlands, aged 18 or over on polling day and not deprived of the right to stand in their home country.
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day.
  • Any people aged 18 or over on polling day and legally resident in the European Union at the time of candidature.[59]
Poland
  • Polish citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident outside Poland and registered to vote.
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident in Poland and registered to vote.
  • European Union citizens aged 21 or over on polling day and resident in Poland or the European Union for at least 5 years, were never sentenced for a crime committed consciously or accused by a prosecutor.
Portugal
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident in Portugal and registered to vote.[60]
  • Portuguese citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident outside Portugal and registered to vote.
  • Brazilian citizens enjoying special status of equal political rights in Portugal (cidadãos brasileiros com estatuto especial de igualdade de direitos políticos) aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident in Portugal and registered to vote.[61]
  • European Union citizens.
  • Brazilian citizens enjoying special status of equal political rights in Portugal (cidadãos brasileiros com estatuto especial de igualdade de direitos políticos) aged 18 or over on polling day who are resident in Portugal and registered to vote.[62]
Romania
  • Romanian citizens aged 18 or over on polling day, regardless of domicile.
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day and whose municipality of residence is in Romania.
  • European Union citizens who are entitled to vote.
Spain
  • Spanish citizens aged 18 or over on polling day.
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are recorded in the register kept by the Municipal Council of their municipality of residence (Padrón) and have formally expressed their wish to vote in the European Parliament election in Spain.[63]
  • European Union citizens
Sweden
  • Swedish citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are, or at some time have been, registered residents in Sweden.
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on polling day who are current registered residents in Sweden and have submitted a notification to be listed on the electoral roll.[64]
  • European Union citizens
United Kingdom
  • British, Irish and Commonwealth citizens (including citizens of Cyprus and Malta) living in the UK who are registered to vote and are aged 18 or over on polling day.
  • European Union citizens (except British, Cypriot, Irish and Maltese citizens) living in the UK who are registered to vote, aged 18 or over on polling day and have submitted a European Parliament voter registration form.[65]
  • British, Irish and Commonwealth citizens (including citizens of Cyprus and Malta) registered to vote at their ordinary address in the UK but temporarily away (for example, away working, on holiday, in student accommodation or in hospital), and are aged 18 or over on polling day.
  • European Union citizens registered to vote (except British, Cypriot, Irish and Maltese citizens) at their ordinary address in the UK but temporarily away (for example, away working, on holiday, in student accommodation or in hospital), who are aged 18 or over on polling day and have submitted a European Parliament voter registration form.[65]
  • British, European Union and Commonwealth citizens living in Gibraltar who are registered to vote and are aged 18 or over on polling day.[66][67][68]
  • British citizens living outside the UK who are registered to vote as overseas electors (if it has been less than 15 years since the date they ceased to appear in the Electoral Register in the UK, or the date their parent/guardian ceased to appear in the Register if they left the UK before the age of 18).
  • British and Commonwealth citizens living outside Gibraltar who are registered to vote as overseas electors (if it has been less than 15 years since the date they ceased to appear in the Register of Electors in Gibraltar, or the date their parent/guardian ceased to appear in the Register if they left Gibraltar before the age of 18)[68]
  • British, Cypriot, Irish and Maltese citizens aged 18 or over on the day they submit their nomination papers.[69]
  • European Union citizens aged 18 or over on the day they submit their nomination papers whose home address is in the UK.
  • Commonwealth citizens with indefinite leave to remain or who do not need leave to remain in the UK and are aged 18 or over on the day they submit their nomination papers.

See also

National elections

References

  1. ^ "Euro election country-by-country". BBC News. 7 June 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  2. ^ European Parliament: Welcome europarl.europa.eu
  3. ^ a b The European Parliament: electoral procedures europarl.europa.eu
  4. ^ The election of members of the European Parliament European Navigator
  5. ^ "Composition of the European Parliament with a view to the 2014 elections". Europa.eu. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  6. ^ The European Elections europarl.europa.eu/eplive/expert/multimedia/20090303MLT50670/media_20090303MLT50670.pdf
  7. ^ http://ispo.fss.muni.cz/uploads/EVS/010/EVS2_2010_4.pdf
  8. ^ Maier, Michaela; Stromback, Jesper; Kaid, Lynda (2011). Political Communication in European Parliamentary Elections. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 91. ISBN 9781409411321.
  9. ^ MEPs by Member State and political group – sixth parliamentary term europarl.europa.eu
  10. ^ Reif, K. and Schmitt, H. (1980) ‘Nine Second-Order National Elections: A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of European Election Results’. European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 3–45.
  11. ^ a b Reichert, Fabian (2012). You Vote What You Read?. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag. p. 4. ISBN 9783656179412.
  12. ^ Hölting, Jan (2016). Salience-Based Voter-Party Congruence in the EU. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag. p. 2. ISBN 9783668420861.
  13. ^ Mulvey, Stephen (21 November 2003) The EU's democratic challenge BBC News
  14. ^ Q&A: European elections, BBC News 21 July 2004
  15. ^ Spongenberg, Helena (26 February 2007). "EU wants to dress up 2009 elections on TV". EU Observer. Retrieved 8 July 2007.
  16. ^ a b Palmer, John (10 January 2007). "Size shouldn't matter". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
  17. ^ a b Mahony, Honor (27 June 2007). "European politics to get more political". EU Observer. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
  18. ^ Europe Politique: Parlement européen (in French)
  19. ^ Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden and United Kingdom
  20. ^ Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and Netherlands
  21. ^ Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain
  22. ^ Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia
  23. ^ "Turnout 2014 - European Parliament". Results-elections2014.eu. 2014-05-25. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  24. ^ Mahony, Honor (7 July 2011) MEPs put off controversial electoral reform, EU Observer
  25. ^ a b Hughes, Kirsty. "Nearing Compromise as Convention goes into Final Week?" (PDF). EPIN. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
  26. ^ "European Greens Found European Greens". Deutsche Welle. 23 February 2004. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
  27. ^ "The EP elections: Deepening the democratic deficit". Euractiv. 16 June 2004. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
  28. ^ "Leadership of the EU". Federal Union. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 27 August 2007.
  29. ^ "Resolution ELDR Congress in Berlin 18–19 October 2007". ELDR party. 24 October 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
  30. ^ Phillips, Leigh (12 August 2010). "Socialists want US-style primaries for commission president candidate". EU Observer. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
  31. ^ Mahony, Honor (28 February 2008). "Barroso admits legitimacy problem for commission president post". EU Observer. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  32. ^ Mahony, Honor (23 March 2010) EP president suggests election of future EU commissioners, EU Observer
  33. ^ "Judgment of the European Court of Justice of 12 September 2006, Case C-145/04, Kingdom of Spain v United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". Retrieved 2017-05-01.
  34. ^ "Wahlen - Europawahlen". BM.I. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  35. ^ "Les conditions d'électorat pour les différentes élections - Elections européennes et régionales 2009". Ibz.rrn.fgov.be. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  36. ^ "Le droit de vote des Belges résidant dans l'Union européenne et des citoyens européens résidant en Belgique, pour l'élection du Parlement Européen - Elections européennes et r". Ibz.rrn.fgov.be. 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  37. ^ "L'obligation de vote - Elections européennes et régionales 2009". Ibz.rrn.fgov.be. 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  38. ^ "La candidature pour les différentes élections - Elections européennes et régionales 2009". Ibz.rrn.fgov.be. 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  39. ^ a b "ELECTION CODE Promulgated, State Gazette No. 9/28.01.2011" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  40. ^ The Bulgarian Election Code, (2011), as amended by Act to Amend and Supplement the Election Code (2011)
  41. ^ "Act to Amend and Supplement the Election Code (2011)". Legislationline.org. 2011-06-02. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  42. ^ "Republic of Croatia European Parliamentary Elections Act, Article 4 (Zakon o izborima zastupnika iz RH u Europski parlament, Članak 4)". Sabor.hr. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  43. ^ "Republic of Croatia European Parliamentary Elections Act, Article 5 (Zakon o izborima zastupnika iz RH u Europski parlament, Članak 5)". Sabor.hr. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  44. ^ "Information for citizens of other EU member states on voting in the European Parliament elections in the Czech Republic - Ministry of the interior of the Czech Republic". Mvcr.cz. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  45. ^ "European Parliament elections - valg.sum.dk". archive.is. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012.
  46. ^ "Right to vote". Vvk.ee. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  47. ^ Right to Vote and Compilation of the Voting Rights Archived 9 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ Eligibility and Nomination of Candidates Archived 9 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ "Service-Public.fr (Élections : Français domicilié à l'étranger)". Vosdroits.service-public.fr. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  50. ^ "Élections : droit de vote d'un citoyen européen - Service-public.fr". Vosdroits.service-public.fr. Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  51. ^ "Ministry of Interior - General Information". Ypes.gr. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  52. ^ "Ministry of Interior - Information for Greek residents abroad". Ypes.gr. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  53. ^ "Hellenic Republic Ministry of the Interior: EU Citizens". Ypes.gr. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  54. ^ "Citizens Information: Registering to vote". Citizensinformation.ie. 2014-04-29. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  55. ^ "ELEZIONE DEI MEMBRI DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO SPETTANTI ALL'ITALIA" (PDF) (in Italian). Interno.it. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
  56. ^ Conditions de l'électorat - Site officiel des élections au Grand-Duché du Luxembourg - Mode d'emploi Archived 16 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ "S'inscrire sur les listes électorales pour les élections européennes - guichet.lu // Luxembourg - Participation aux élections européennes". Guichet.public.lu. 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  58. ^ "Etre candidat aux élections européennes". Guichet.public.lu. 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  59. ^ This based on a Dutch decision by the 'Kiesraad', which disallowed South Africa's John M. Coetzee and two other non-European candidates on the sole ground that they had no proof of legal residence.
  60. ^ "Lei Eleitoral para o Parlamento Europeu (Lei nº 14/87, de 29 Abril), Artigo 3º" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  61. ^ "Comissão Nacional de Eleições: FAQ - Eleição para o Parlamento Europeu" (PDF).
  62. ^ "Perguntas Frequentes: Candidatura - Comissão Nacional de Eleições". www.cne.pt.
  63. ^ "Elections to the European Parliament of June 2009" (PDF). ine.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 September 2013.
  64. ^ Valmyndigheten: Suffrage and electoral rolls Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  65. ^ a b "European Union citizens – European Parliament voter registration form (GB)" (PDF). aboutmyvote.co.uk. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
  66. ^ Participation, Expert. "European Parliament (Representation) Act 2003". www.legislation.gov.uk.
  67. ^ "European Parliamentary Elections Act 2004" (PDF).
  68. ^ a b "The European Parliamentary Elections Regulations 2004". www.legislation.gov.uk.
  69. ^ "Guidance on standing for election to the European Parliament" (PDF). europarl.org.uk. Retrieved 15 September 2013.

Election Results 2016

External links

1979 European Parliament election in Belgium

Elections to the European Parliament were held in Belgium on 10 June 1979. The Dutch-speaking electoral college elected 13 MEPs and the French-speaking electoral college elected 11 MEPs.

1979 European Parliament election in France

In 1979 the first direct elections to the European Parliament were held in France. Four parties were able to win seats: the centre right Union for French Democracy the Gaullist Rally for the Republic, the Socialist Party and the French Communist Party. 61.7% of the French population turned out on election day.

1979 European Parliament election in Ireland

The 1979 European Parliament election in Ireland was the Irish component of the 1979 European Parliament election. These were the first direct elections to the European Parliament. The election was conducted under the single transferable vote.

1984 European Parliament election in Belgium

Elections to the European Parliament were held in Belgium on June 17, 1984. The Dutch-speaking electoral college elected 13 MEPs and the French-speaking electoral college elected 11 MEPs.

1984 European Parliament election in France

In 1984 the second direct elections to the European Parliament were held in France. Four parties were able to win seats: an alliance of the centre right Union for French Democracy and the Gaullist Rally for the Republic, the Socialist Party and the French Communist Party, and the Front National. 56.7% of the French population turned out on election day.

The result was the first time the far-right Front National obtained important results — this time 10.8% and close to the declining French Communist Party. Jonah Birch argues in Jacobin that the FN's rise in popularity was caused by the Socialists abandoning their Keynesian platform the previous year and instead pursuing policies of austerity.

1989 European Parliament election in Belgium

Elections to the European Parliament were held in Belgium on 18 June 1989. The Dutch-speaking electoral college elected 13 MEPs and the French-speaking electoral college elected 11 MEPs.

The first election to the newly established Brussels Regional Council was held on the same day.

1989 European Parliament election in France

On 15 June 1989 the third direct elections to the European Parliament were held in the France. Six lists were able to win seats: an alliance of the centre right Union for French Democracy and the Gaullist Rally for the Republic, an alliance of the Socialist Party and the PRG, the French Communist Party, the Front National and a list of dissenting members of the UDF. 48.8% of the French population turned out on election day.

1994 European Parliament election in Belgium

Elections to the European Parliament were held in Belgium on 12 June 1994. The Dutch-speaking electoral college elected 14 MEPs, the French-speaking electoral college elected 10 MEPs and the German-speaking electoral college elected 1 MEP.

1999 European Parliament election in Belgium

Elections to the European Parliament were held in Belgium on 13 June 1999. The Dutch electoral college elected 14 MEPs, the French electoral college elected 10 MEPs and the German-speaking electoral college elected 1 MEP. The European elections were held on the same day as the federal election and the regional elections.

2004 European Parliament election in Belgium

Elections to the European Parliament were held in Belgium on 13 June 2004. The elections produced little overall change in the distribution of seats in the European Parliament among Belgium's many political parties. The two socialist parties improved their vote, while the Green parties lost ground. The Flemish nationalist party the Flemish Bloc (Vlaams Blok) registered the largest gains.

2004 European Parliament election in France

Elections to the European Parliament were held in France on 13 June 2004. The opposition Socialist Party made substantial gains, although this was mainly at the expense of minor parties. The governing Union for a Popular Movement and Union for French Democracy also made gains.

2009 European Parliament election in Gibraltar

The British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar is part of the European Parliament constituency of South West England and Gibraltar. For elections to the European Parliament in 2009, the vote in the region took place on 4 June 2009, with the results announced on 7 June 2009. The Conservatives won with 51% of the votes. Turnout was 35% in Gibraltar, below the 39% for the electoral region as a whole. The turnout in the territory was significantly lower than the percentage from 2004, which was 58%.

2014 European Parliament election in Slovakia

Elections to the European Parliament took place in Slovakia on 24 May 2014. It was the third European election which took place in Slovakia.

Thirteen MEPs were elected from Slovakia using a proportional list system joining the other candidates elected as part of the wider European Parliament election, 2014

The 'faster processing of interim results' was promised by the Slovak Office for Statistics because of a new electronic counting system.Turnout, at 13% of registered voters, was the lowest across the EU.

Bedfordshire (European Parliament constituency)

Bedfordshire was a constituency of the European Parliament located in the United Kingdom, electing one Member of the European Parliament by the first-past-the-post electoral system. Created in 1979 for the first elections to the European Parliament, it was abolished in 1984 and succeeded by Cambridge and Bedfordshire North and Bedfordshire South.

Elections in Spain

There are four types of elections in Spain: general elections, elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities, local elections and elections to the European Parliament. General elections and elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities are called after the mandate of the national or regional legislature expires, usually four years after the last election, although early elections may occur. Elections to local councils (municipal, insular or provincial) and to the European Parliament are held on fixed dates. For most elections party list PR is used, but the plurality system is used for the Senate.

Elections in Sweden

Elections to determine the makeup of the legislative bodies on the three levels of administrative division in the Kingdom of Sweden are held once every four years. At the highest level, these elections determine the allocation of seats in the Riksdag, the national legislative body of Sweden. Elections to the 20 county councils (landsting) and 290 municipal assemblies (kommunfullmäktige) – all using roughly the same electoral system – are held concurrently with the legislative elections on the second Sunday in September (with effect from 2014; until 2010 they had been held on the third Sunday in September).

Sweden also holds elections to the European Parliament, which unlike Swedish domestic elections are held in June every five years, although they are also held on a Sunday and use an almost identical electoral system. The last Swedish general election was held on 9 September 2018. The last Swedish election to the European Parliament was held on 25 May 2014.

Hertfordshire (European Parliament constituency)

Hertfordshire was a constituency of the European Parliament located in the United Kingdom, electing one Member of the European Parliament by the first-past-the-post electoral system. Created in 1979 for the first elections to the European Parliament, it was abolished in 1999 on the adoption of proportional representation for European elections in the United Kingdom. It was succeeded by the East of England region.

List of European Parliament by-elections in the United Kingdom

By-elections to the European Parliament in the United Kingdom were held during the period when the United Kingdom used single-member, first-past-the-post constituencies to elect Members of the European Parliament from 1979 to 1999: they were required when a member resigned, died or was disqualified. Six by-elections were held in this period, all retained by the holding party.

Norfolk (European Parliament constituency)

Norfolk was a constituency of the European Parliament located in the United Kingdom, electing one Member of the European Parliament by the first-past-the-post electoral system. Created in 1979 for the first elections to the European Parliament, it was abolished in 1999 on the adoption of proportional representation for European elections in the United Kingdom. It was succeeded by the East of England region.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.