The term Elder, or its equivalent in another language, is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority. This usage is usually derived from the notion that the oldest members of any given group are the wisest, and are thus the most qualified to rule, provide counsel or serve the said group in some other capacity.
Elder is a role played in the organised community that is most common in subsistence cultures, Elderhood being the condition or quality of being an elder. It is essentially the state of being in the latter portion of one's life and being looked to for leadership of either a passive or active nature by your peers and\or subordinates due almost exclusively to this fact. Sometimes it involves a ceremonial investiture of some kind, and other times it does not. Sometimes it involves a definite chronological milestone which must be surpassed, while at other times the required age is simply relative to the ages of all of the other members of the group in question. Once having met the peculiar requirements of their individual groups, however, all elders are generally expected to mentor, share their experience, create a sense of oneness for their followings and, most especially, act as the spiritual embodiments of their communities.
An example of informal elderhood is the role of the matriarchal grandmother as it appears in many parts of the so-called global South. In the absence of viable male alternatives or even in the presence of them, grandmothers in these areas tend to serve as both the de facto heads of their groups of descendants and the catalysts of their periodic reunions and meetings. By doing so they provide their families with a cohesion that would probably be absent if they weren't present. Another example is that of the vocational mentor who guides his or her apprentices with tools of sponsorship, advocacy and the demonstration of skills. He or she serves to facilitate creativity in his or her charges by teaching the methods of the past as they pertain to their various occupations.
In more formal examples of elderhood, elders serve as the members of the governing and/or advisory bodies of higher personages such as kings and presidents in the form of the council of elders. This often gives them a prestige amongst their peoples that's comparable to that of the classical nobility of ancient Europe. Due to this, elderhood of this variety is generally considered to be something worthy of aspiring to in the communities where it exists.
There are long established conceptualisations of elders on the Internet. In such online communities elders are typically thought of as established members who are outbound, often due to unwanted changes they can't prevent.
A big man is a highly influential individual in a tribe, especially in Melanesia and Polynesia. Such a person may not have formal tribal or other authority (through for instance material possessions, or inheritance of rights), but can maintain recognition through skilled persuasion and wisdom. The big man has a large group of followers, both from his clan and from other clans. He provides his followers with protection and economic assistance, in return receiving support which he uses to increase his status.Dorothea Hoffman
Dorothea Hoffman (died 1710), was Swedish milliner and hatmaker.
She was the daughter of the Elder (administrative title) Fischer of the hatmaker's guild in Norrköping. She married the hatmaker Mårten Hoffman (d. 1702) in Stockholm, with whom she had ten children.
Dorothea Hoffman conducted her own business independent from her spouse, despite the fact that she as a married woman was formally under the guardianship of her husband. As with other married businesswomen, her activity is not very visible in the documents, but she was sued in 1678 by the hatmaker's guild in Köping for having imported 92 of her own hats to Köping for sale.
When she was widowed in 1702, she was formally noted as a businesswoman of her own business as well as inheriting the hatmaker's guild privilege and workshop of her late spouse. Hoffman was the most successful hatmaker in Stockholm: she is listed with a larger staff and more journeyman's than any other of her profession in the capital, and her workshop and business was noted to have been the largest within her trade. She imported from Lübeck and Copenhagen, and her goods where known for its high quality.
She died during the Great Northern War plague outbreak. Her business was inherited by her son Elias Hoffman (1690-1719), who had to defend it against the rest of the members of the hatmaker's guild of Stockholm, who wished to have it divided among the guild members due to its disproportionate size. It was still the biggest of its kind in Stockholm in 1719-26, when it was managed by Dorothea Hoffman's daughter-in-law
Christina Udd, who however dissolved it when she remarried in 1726.Eldership
Eldership may refer to:
Elder (administrative title), used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority
Eldership (Christianity), the governance of a local congregation by elders
Elderships of Lithuania, the smallest Lithuanian administrative divisions
Starostwo (Polish for "eldership"), a medieval Polish office granted by the king