Elaeus

Elaeus (Ancient Greek: Ἐλαιοῦς Elaious, later Ἐλεοῦς Elaeus), the “Olive City”, was an ancient Greek city located in Thrace, on the Thracian Chersonese. Elaeus was located at the southern end of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles) near the southernmost point of the Thracian Chersonese (now the Gallipoli peninsula) in modern-day Turkey. According to the geographer Scymnus, Elaeus was founded by settlers from Ionian Teos, while the Pseudo-Scymnus writes that it was a colony of Athens and was founded by Phorbas[1]

Elaeus
Ἐλεοῦς
Thracian chersonese
Elaeus and the Hellespont
Elaeus is located in Turkey
Elaeus
Shown within Turkey
LocationSeddülbahir, Çanakkale Province, Turkey
RegionThracian Chersonese
Coordinates40°3′35″N 26°13′50″E / 40.05972°N 26.23056°ECoordinates: 40°3′35″N 26°13′50″E / 40.05972°N 26.23056°E
TypeSettlement
History
BuilderColonists from Teos

History

Globular aryballos Louvre Ele357
Hoplites on a globular aryballos from Elaeus.


The most important cities of the Chersonese were Lysimachia, Pactya, Gallipoli, Alokopennesos, Sestos, Madytos and Elaeus. The peninsula was renowned for its wheat. It also profited from its strategic location on the main trade route between Europe and Asia, as well as the possibility of controlling shipping to Crimea. For these reasons, Elaeus later received colonists from Athens, who built fortifications there.

The last resting place of the mythological hero Protesilaus was said to be at Elaeus, near a steep coastal cliff. According to Homer’s Iliad,[2] Protesilaus was the first Greek to set foot on land during the Trojan War, for which - according to the will of the gods - he was also the first to die. His tomb at Elaeus lay on the European coast opposite Troy, and became a destination for pilgrimages by members of the cult of Protesilaus. Later, the temple housed votive offerings, and was surrounded by a settlement. In antiquity, the location was variously under Athenian, Persian, Spartan and later Macedonian control.

During the second Persian invasion of Greece (480 - 479 BCE), the Persian headquarters was temporarily located at Elaeus.[3] Under Persian occupation, the governor Artayctes desecrated the sacred grove of Protesilaus.[4] For this, he was captured and crucified in 479 BCE by the Athenian general Xanthippos, the father of Pericles.

In 411 BCE, the Athenian squadron under Thrasyllus escaped with difficulty from Sestus to Elaeus;[5] and it was here, just before the fatal Battle of Aegospotami (405 BCE), that the 180 Athenian triremes arrived in time to hear that Lysander was master of Lampsacus.[6] A stele dating from the year 340 BCE, at which time Elaeus was governed by Athens, contains an inscription in Ionian script.[7] The stele proclaimed that the Athenians gave certain privileges, such as political rights and ownership of property, to the people of Elaeus, and that the Athenian general Chares was charged with watching over them. Elaeus belonged to the Delian League, and from 375 BCE to the Second Athenian League.

Alexander the Great is said to have visited Elaeus at the start of his Persian campaign in the spring of 334 BCE, in order to visit the temple of Protesilaus. Here he made an offering, before crossing the Dardanelles, and himself becoming the first of his army to set foot in Asia. In 200 BCE, Elaeus surrendered voluntarily to Philip V of Macedon.[8] but in 190 BCE the citizens made overtures to the Romans.[9]

Imperial coins were struck at Elaeus in the time of the Roman emperor Commodus, of which a few remain. They depict Protesilaus as a warrior standing on the bow of a ship, ready to be the first to spring onto the enemy shore.[10] Constantine's fleet in the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy, 323 CE, took up its moorings at Elaeus, while that of Licinius was anchored off the tomb of Ajax, in the Troad.[11] Justinian fortified this important position.[12]

During the First World War, French and British troops temporarily occupied Cape Helles and Morto Bay. French soldiers plundered the region of ancient Elaeus. The French army brought five sarcophagi, jewellery, ancient pottery and other objects to Paris, which are now displayed in the Louvre. The area around Elaeus was subsequently destroyed by the intense fighting and artillery bombardments.

See also

References

  1. ^ Pseudo Scymnus or Pausanias of Damascus, Circuit of the Earth, § 696
  2. ^ Homer, Iliad, Line 695, 2
  3. ^ Herodotus, Histories, 7, pp. 22–24
  4. ^  Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Elaeus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
  5. ^ Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War. 8.102.
  6. ^ Xenophon. Hellenica. 2.1.20.
  7. ^ Inscriptiones Graecae II², 228, Retrieved on 4 January 2013.
  8. ^ Livy. Ab Urbe Condita Libri (History of Rome). 31.16.
  9. ^ Livy. Ab Urbe Condita Libri (History of Rome). 37.9.
  10. ^ Ancient coinage of Thrace, Retrieved on 4 January 2013.
  11. ^ Zosim. 2.23; Le Beau, Bas Empire, vol. i. p. 216.
  12. ^ Procop. Aed. 4.16

Sources

  • Pseudo-Scymnus, Periodos to Nicomedes ("Periegesis"), Line 707 (in Ancient Greek)
  • Procopius, "Ch. 10", Buildings of Justinian, Lines 3 and 26, 4
  • Herodotus, Histories, 7, pp. 22–24 and 33
  • Arrian, "11. Alexander Crosses the Hellespont and Visits Troy", The Campaigns of Alexander, 1 External link in |chapter= (help)
  • Hansen, M. H.; Nielsen, T. H.; et al. (2005), "Thracian Chersonesos", An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis, Oxford University Press
  • Freely, John (2004), The Western Shores of Turkey, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, p. 19
  • Harding, Philipp (1985), "Section 94", From the End of the Peloponnesian War to the Battle of Ipsus, Cambridge University Press, p. 118
  • Danoff, Christo M. (1967), Elaius, Der Kleine Pauly (KlP) (in German), 2, Stuttgart, pp. 231–232
  • Instinsky, H. U. (1949), Alexander der Große am Hellespont (in German), Bad Godesberg: Helmut Küpper Verlag
  • Choiseul-Gouffier (1842), Voyage pittoresque dans l’Empire Ottoman (in French), 3 (2nd ed.), Paris, p. 373f

External links

Araplus

Araplus or Araplos (Ancient Greek: Ἄραπλος) was an ancient Greek city located in ancient Thrace, located in the region of the Thracian Chersonesus. It is cited in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, in the fifth position of its recitation of the towns of the Thracian Chersonesus, along with Cardia, Ide, Paeon, Alopeconnesus, Araplus, Elaeus and Sestos.Its site is unlocated.

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Cales (Bithynia)

Cales or Kales (Ancient Greek: Κάλης), also Calles or Kalles (Κάλλης), was an emporium or trading place on the coast of ancient Bithynia at the mouth of a river of the same name. Cales was 120 stadia east of Elaeus.It is located near Alaplı in Asiatic Turkey.

Cales (river)

Cales or Kales (Ancient Greek: Κάλης), also Calles or Kalles (Κάλλης), was a river of ancient Bithynia. At its mouth was the town of Cales, located 120 stadia east of Elaeus. This seems to be the river which Thucydides calls Calex (Κάληξ), at the mouth of which Lamachus lost his ships, which were anchored there, owing to a sudden rise of the river. Thucydides places the Calex in the Heracleotis, which agrees very well with the position of the Cales. Lamachus and his troops were compelled to walk along the coast to Chalcedon. Pliny the Elder mentions a river Alces in Bithynia, which it has been conjectured, may be a corruption of Calex.It is identified with the modern Alaplı Su in Asiatic Turkey.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Elaeus (Aetolia)

Elaeus or Elaios (Ancient Greek: Ἔλαιος) was a town of ancient Aetolia, belonging to Calydon, was strongly fortified, having received all the necessary munitions from king Attalus I. It was taken by Philip V of Macedon in 219 BCE. Its name indicates that it was situated in a marshy district; and it must have been on the coast to have received supplies from Attalus.

Elaeus (Argolis)

Elaeus or Elaious (Ancient Greek: Ἔλαιοῦς) was a town in ancient Argolis mentioned only in the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus and by Stephanus of Byzantium. From the statement of the former writer we may conclude that it could not have been far from Lerna, since, according to Greek mythology, Heracles, after he had succeeded in cutting off the immortal head of the Hydra, is said to have buried it by the side of the way leading from Lerna to Elaeus.

The site of Elaeus is tentatively located west-southwest of modern Speliotaki (Spiliotaki).

Elaeus (Attica)

Elaeus or Elaious (Ancient Greek: Ἐλαιοῦς) was a deme of ancient Athens.The site of Elaeus is tentatively located east of Magoula.

Elaeus (Bithynia)

Elaeus or Elaious (Ancient Greek: Ἐλαιοῦς) or Elaios (Ἐλαῖος) was an emporium or trading place on the coast of Bithynia at the mouth of a river of the same name. Elaeus was 120 stadia west of Cales.

It is located on the north coast of modern Turkey, at the mouth of its name-sake river.

Elaeus (Caria)

Elaeus was a town on the coast of Sinus Doridis (the "Gulf of Doris"), in ancient Doris in Asia Minor noted by Pliny the Elder; its location was later in Caria, and now in modern Turkey. An attempt has been made among scholars to ascertain which of two bays Pliny calls the Gulf of Doris, the more probable being the Ceramic Gulf.

Elaeus (Epirus)

Elaeus or Elaious (Ancient Greek: Ἔλαιοῦς) was a town in Chaonia in ancient Epirus, mentioned only by Ptolemy, but probably situated in the plain Elaeon, of which Livy speaks. Although William Martin Leake supposed this plain to have been that between Arghyrókastro and Libókhovo, and that the town of Elaeus stood on the heights, opposite to Arghyrókastro, where it is said that some remains of Hellenic walls were seen during his visit in the mid-19th century, modern scholars treat it as unlocated.

Elaeus (Naxos)

Elaeus or Elaious (Ancient Greek: Ἐλαιοῦς) was a town of ancient Greece on the island of Naxos. It is cited, along with Melas, in an ancient inscription dated to the 3rd century BCE.Its site is unlocated.

Elaeus (disambiguation)

Elaeus is an ancient city of Thrace, now in Turkey.

Elaeus or Elaious (Ancient Greek: Ἔλαιοῦς) may also refer to:

Elaeus (Aetolia), a town of ancient Aetolia, Greece

Elaeus (Argolis), a town of ancient Argolis, Greece

Elaeus (Attica), a deme of ancient Attica, Greece

Elaeus (Bithynia), a town of ancient Bithynia, in Asia Minor

Elaeus (Caria), a town of ancient Caria, in Asia Minor

Elaeus (Epirus), a town of ancient Epirus, Greece

Elaeus (Naxos), a town of ancient Naxos, Greece

Ide (Thracian Chersonese)

Ide (Ancient Greek: Ἴδη) was an ancient Greek city located in ancient Thrace, located in the region of the Thracian Chersonesus. It is cited in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, in the second position of its recitation of the towns of the Thracian Chersonesus, along with Cardia, Ide, Paeon, Alopeconnesus, Araplus, Elaeus and Sestos.Its site is located 4 miles (6.5 km) west of Bolayir, Turkey.

List of Thracian Greeks

This is a list of ancient Greeks in Thrace

Paeon (Thrace)

Paeon or Paion (Ancient Greek: Παιών) was an ancient Greek city located in ancient Thrace, on the west coast of the Thracian Chersonesus. It is cited in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, in the third position of its recitation of the towns of the Thracian Chersonesus, along with Cardia, Ide, Paeon, Alopeconnesus, Araplus, Elaeus and Sestos.Its site is tentatively located near Ece Liman, Turkey.

Protesilaus

In Greek mythology, Protesilaus (; Ancient Greek: Πρωτεσίλᾱος Prōtesilāos) was a hero in the Iliad who was venerated at cult sites in Thessaly and Thrace. Protesilaus was the son of Iphiclus, a "lord of many sheep"; as grandson of the eponymous Phylacos, he was the leader of the Phylaceans. Hyginus surmised that he was originally known as Iolaus—not to be confused with Iolaus, the nephew of Heracles—but was referred to as "Protesilaus" after being the first (πρῶτος, protos) to leap ashore at Troy, and thus the first to die in the war.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

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Central Anatolia
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