El País

El País (listen ; literally The Country) is a Spanish-language daily newspaper in Spain. According to the Office of Justification of Dissemination (OJD) it is the second most circulated daily newspaper in Spain as of December 2017.[7] It's by the number sales in 2018 were, on average, 60.000 according to internal audits, more than 70% less than a decade prior[8]. The current editor, Soledad Gallego Díaz, has been brough to court after dismissing five employees for what the accusers mainatin are political and ideological reasons[9].

El País is the most read newspaper in Spanish online and the second most circulated daily newspaper in Spain, (after sports newspaper Marca)[10] and one of three Madrid dailies considered to be national newspapers of record for Spain (along with El Mundo and ABC)[11]. El País, based in Madrid, is owned by the Spanish media conglomerate PRISA. PRISA is mainly owned by Banco Santander, Telefónica and the Liberty vulture fund. PRISA's debt of 988 million euros is bigger than the company's value[12].

Its headquarters and central editorial staff are located in Madrid, although there are regional offices in the principal Spanish cities (Barcelona, Seville, Valencia, Bilbao, Santiago de Compostela) where regional were produced until 2015. El País also produces a world edition in Madrid that is available online in Brazil (in Brazilian Portuguese) and Hispanic America (in European Spanish).[13]

An English edition began as a print edition in 2001, available as a supplement in what was then the International Herald Tribune, later The Global New York Times. Since 2014, it has been an exclusively digital project.

In 2018, the newspaper changed editors one week after a vote of no confidence forced a change of premiership in Parliament, sparking doubts about the political independence of the parent company[14]. Since then, the newspaper has engaged in a radical change of editorial line, going from a politically independent position to defending the socialist minority government[15].

The current newspaper's editor in America, Javier Moreno, and managing editor, Jan Martinez Ahrens, were responsible for publishing a false picture of a dying Hugo Chávez in 2013. The publication of such photo in the front page was a major blow to the newspaper's credibility and standing in Latin America[16].

El País
El-Pais-16-February-2015
El País newspaper (16 February 2015)
TypeDaily newspaper
FormatTabloid
Owner(s)PRISA
Founder(s)José Ortega Spottorno, Jesús de Polanco and Juan Luís Cebrián
PublisherEdiciones El País, S.L.
Editor-in-chiefSoledad Gallego-Díaz
Associate editorJoaquín Estefanía
Managing editorsMonica Ceberio[1]
Founded4 May 1976
Political alignmentCentre-right to center-left[2][3][4] [5]
LanguageSpanish
Brazilian Portuguese (online only) [6]
Catalan (online only)
English (online only)
HeadquartersMadrid, Spain
Circulation238,560 (June 2015)
Sister newspapersCinco Días
Diario AS
ISSN0213-4608
Websitewww.elpais.com
Sede de El País en Madrid
El País headquarters in Madrid

History and profile

El País was founded in May 1976[17][18] by a team at PRISA which included Jesus de Polanco, José Ortega Spottorno and Carlos Mendo.[19] The paper was designed by Reinhard Gade and Julio Alonso. It was first published on 4 May 1976,[20] six months after the death of dictator Francisco Franco, and at the beginning of the Spanish transition to democracy. The first editor-in-chief of the daily was Juan Luis Cebrián.[21]

El País was the first pro-democracy newspaper within a context where all the other Spanish newspapers were influenced by Franco's ideology.[22] The circulation of the paper was 116,600 copies in its first year.[23] It rose to 137,562 copies in 1977.[23]

El País filled a gap in the market and became the newspaper of Spanish democracy, for which role El País was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and the Humanities in 1983, at a time when the transition from Franco's dictatorship to democracy was still developing. The paper's first Director (until 1988) was Juan Luis Cebrián, who came from the daily newspaper Informaciones. Like many other Spanish journalists of the time he had worked for Diario Pueblo (meaning People's Daily in English) which was a mouthpiece for the Francoist sindicato vertical.

Its reputation as a bastion of Spanish democracy was established during the attempted coup d'état by Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero of the Guardia Civil on 23 February 1981. During the uncertain situation of the night of 23 February 1981, with all the members of parliament held hostage in the Congress building and with tanks on the streets of Valencia, and before the state television station could transmit a speech by King Juan Carlos I condemning the coup, El País published a special edition of the newspaper called 'El País, for the Constitution'. It was the first daily paper on the streets that night with a clear pro-democracy position calling on citizens to demonstrate in favour of democracy. It was widely discussed in the news media that the then director of El País, Juan Luis Cebrián, telephoned the then director of Diario 16, Pedro J. Ramírez, in order to propose that both newspapers work on a joint publication in defence of democracy and Ramírez refused, claiming that he would prefer to wait a few hours to see how the situation developed. Diario 16 was not published until after a television broadcast by the king. Along with its commitment to democracy before the attempted coup of 23 February 1981, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party's election victory in 1982 with an absolute majority and its open support for the government of Felipe González,[24] meant that El País consolidated its position during the 1980s as the Spanish newspaper with the most sales ahead of the conservative leaning ABC.

In 1986 El País was the recipient of the Four Freedom Award for the Freedom of Speech by the Roosevelt Institute.[25]

In 1987 El País received the largest amount of the state aid.[26] Both the rigorous journalistic standards and the fact that it was the first Spanish newspaper to establish internal quality control standards have increased the standing of El País. It was also the first Spanish daily to create the role of "Reader's Advocate" and the first to publish a "Style Guide", that has become a benchmark for quality amongst journalists.[27] El País has also established a number of collaborative agreements with other European newspapers with a social democrat viewpoint. In 1989, El País participated in the creation of a common network of information resources with La Repubblica in Italy and Le Monde in France.

At the beginning of the 1990s, El País had to face a new political and journalistic challenge. The increasing political tensions caused by corruption scandals involving the socialist government of Felipe González polarized both the Spanish political classes and the press of the left and right wings. Since that time both the Partido Popular and the media aligned with it have accused El País and the other companies owned by PRISA.[28][29] along with Sogecable[30][31] of supporting the interests of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE). Despite this, El País has managed to maintain its position as the best selling generalist daily in Spain, although its lead over El Mundo has been reduced. Both in 1993 and 1994 it was the best selling newspaper in the country with a circulation of 401,258 copies and 408,267 copies, respectively.[32] In the period of 1995–1996 El Pais had a circulation of 420,934 copies, making it again the best-selling paper in the country.[33]

Since October 2001, an English language supplement of El País has been included in the Spanish version of the International Herald Tribune. This content can also be found on El País' internet site.[34]

In 2001 El País had a circulation of 433,617 copies[35] and it was 435,298 copies next year.[36] The paper had a circulation of 435,000 copies in 2003.[37]

El País was awarded the World’s Best Designed Newspaper™ for 2006 by the Society for News Design (SND).[38] Based on the findings of the European Business Readership Survey the paper had 14,589 readers per issue in 2006.[39] The circulation of the daily was 425,927 copies between June 2006 and July 2007.[40]

On 26 September 2007, the paper published the Bush-Aznar memo, a leaked transcript of a closed-door meeting between U.S. president George W. Bush and Spanish Prime Minister José María Aznar, shortly before the invasion of Iraq.[41] In 2007 the circulation of El País was about 400,000 copies.[42]

During the premiership of the PSOE's José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero El País published several articles criticising or opposing the policies of the Zapatero government.[43] This provided opportunities for new entrants to represent the radical left, such as the appearance of the daily newspaper Público.

The 2008 circulation of El País was 435,083 copies, making it the second most read daily in the country, only after the sport-daily Marca.[10][44] It was 267,000 in April 2014.[42]

In March 2015, El País, together with other international newspapers, founded an alliance called LENA.

In June 2016, El País Brasil was found in a list of political newspapers that received money from the Workers Party government.[45]

Editors-in-chief

El País has had five editors-in-chief since it was founded in 1976. In February 2014 it was announced that Antonio Caño would be proposed as new editor-in-chief, appointment that was ratified by the Board of Directors and became effective on 3 May 2014. In June 2018, Soledad Gallego-Díaz became the first-ever editor of El País.[46]

Years Editor-in-chief
1976–1988 Juan Luis Cebrián
1988–1993 Joaquín Estefanía
1993–2006 Jesús Ceberio
2006–2014 Javier Moreno
2014–2018 Antonio Caño
2018– Soledad Gallego-Díaz

Appearance

The appearance of El País is characterized by its sobriety, in both its treatment of information and its esthetics. Most pages contain five columns arranged in a neat and clear manner with distinct journalistic sub-categories. Photographs and graphics play a secondary, supporting role to the written word. The newspaper had had the same design from its foundation until the end of 2007, with hardly any changes (it used only black-and-white photographs, although the current format includes colour and more imaginative design, mainly in the varied supplements), and the same Times Roman font.[47]

The newspaper's format was revamped on 21 October 2007 with changes to its printed form, its digital presence on the Internet and the replacement of its historical motto 'Independent morning daily' with 'Global Spanish language newspaper'.[48] The paper began to be published in tabloid format.[49] Other notable changes are the inclusion of the acute accent in its title header and the substitution of Times Roman by “Majerit”, a specially-commissioned plain serif font.[50].

Opinion polls cited in El País are all carried out by a separate company called Instituto OPINA.

Electronic edition

In the mid-1990s, El País was the second Spanish newspaper to publish an internet edition, El País digital (the first was the Catalan newspaper Avui). On 18 November 2002, it became the first Spanish newspaper to introduce a payment system for access to the contents of its electronic version, which drastically reduced the number of visits to the website, to the extent that El Mundo, which maintained open access to the majority of its contents, became the leading Spanish digital newspaper. After taking this decision El País digital was suspended in 2002 by the Oficina de Justificación de la Difusión for four months because of two serious breaches of OJD regulations.[51] The El País digital website opened again on 3 June 2005 with free access to the majority of the contents. Subscription was required to gain access to multimedia contents and to the newspaper's archive.

On 26 November 2013, El País launched a digital edition in Brazilian Portuguese.[52]

In October 2014, El Pais launched a digital edition in Catalan.[53]

Supplements

El País produces a number of supplements:

  • Wednesdays:
    • Futuro, (English: Future) supplement on science.
  • Thursdays:
    • Ciberpaís, (English: Cyber Country) supplement on computing and electronics,
    • Icon, monthly supplement for men (from Fall 2013)[54]
    • The New York Times, a Spanish language version of the American original.
  • Fridays:
    • EP[3], previously known as El País de las Tentaciones, (English: The Country of Temptations) youth supplement.
    • Ocio, (English: Leisure) supplement on cultural activities.
  • Saturdays:
    • Babelia, cultural supplement.
    • El Viajero, (English: The Traveller) on travel.
  • Sundays:
    • the magazine El País Semanal (English: El País Weekly) previously called EP[S] on fashion, reports and opinion,
    • Negocios, (English: Business) financial supplement.

The supplement designed for children, Pequeño País (English: Small Country), ceased publication in 2009.

A number of publications issued in installments have also been produced throughout its history:

  • Classic and Modern Comics (1987).

Ideology

The paper's ideology has always been defined by a leaning towards europeanism, progressivism and social-liberalism.[55] Politically, it was situated in the centre-left[23] during most of the transition. It regularly criticized the Conservative government of Mariano Rajoy (2012–2015) over corruption scandals, economic performance and a "do-nothing" approach to the Catalan crisis.[56]

In the late 1970s and 1980s El País had close connections with the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE).[24] The paper has repeatedly supported King Juan Carlos I for his contribution to the consolidation of democracy, especially, for his decisive intervention in aborting the coup of 23 February 1981.[57] The paper is characterized by the amount of space it gives to the reporting of international news, culture and information regarding the economy, as well as Spanish news. It has specific columnists and contributors from different social backgrounds contributing to the democratic and pro-European editorial line of the newspaper.

Controversies

On March 11 2004 Spain suffered Europe's first jihadist terror attack with a nearly simultaneous, coordinated bombings against the Cercanías commuter train system of Madrid, Spain, on the morning of 11 March 2004 – three days before Spain's general elections. The day of the attacks, then prime minister José María Aznar, from the ruling conservative party called El Pais editor in chief Jesús Ceberio and gave him assurances that the attacks had been planned and executed by the basdque terrorist group ETA. Despite having no other confirmation, Ceberio ran a front page blaming ETA for the attack, having to correct course the following day. Ceberio, who would continue as editor for three more years, published and editorial piece accusing Aznar of manipulating him.

On 24 January 2013, under Javier Moreno, El País published a false report about the health status of then Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, with false photography of an unknown man from a 2008 video.[58][59] The Venezuelan government announced legal action against El País,[60] and criticized both the violation of journalistic ethics as well as the violation of the patients' rights of President Chávez and others.

Positions

The paper has criticized figures such as Che Guevara and his idea of armed struggle.[61]

The 16 February 2012 edition of El País was banned in Morocco due to the publication of a cartoon which, according to the Moroccan authorities, tarnished King Mohammed VI's name.[62]


In January 2018 El País was sentenced to publish a rectification article after the Catalan TV channel TV3 denounced the newspaper for "harming the TV channel's image" with an article which contained "inaccurate data".[63] A similar case happened between El País and the Catalan businessman Jaume Roures, with El País being sentenced after publishing Roures had 250 million Euros in tax havens.[64]

According to a report prepared the Parliament of the United Kingdom 'fake news' committee written by the non-profit organisation Transparency Toolkit published in April 2018, El País had published "numerous examples of misinterpretations of data sources, use of inaccurate information, lack of attention to detail and a poor research methodology" regarding the alleged Russian involvement in the Catalan independence referendum. It describes their conclusions as "exceptionally deceptive" and concludes "there may be a temptation to use groundless allegations of fake news to support political argument".[65][66]

Notable contributors

See also

References

  1. ^ Lucinda Southern (January 30, 2017). "How Spanish newspaper El Pais is tackling fake news". Digiday. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
  2. ^ Galluzzi, Anna (18 August 2014). Libraries and Public Perception: A Comparative Analysis of the European Press. Chandos Publishing. pp. 28–29. ISBN 9781843347446.
  3. ^ Blitzer, Jonathan (31 January 2012). "The Future Is Not What It Used to Be: On 'El País'". The Nation. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  4. ^ Tremlett, Giles (4 October 2010). "El País saved as debts rise and sales fall". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 June 2017. ... the country's most powerful media group, which owns the left-leaning El País newspaper ...
  5. ^ Forcada, Daniel (2016-06-07). "'El País' consuma su giro a la derecha y ataca el apoyo mediático de Planeta a Podemos" ['El País' consummates its turn to the right and attacks Planeta's media support to Podemos] (in Spanish). El Confidencial. Retrieved 2018-09-24.
  6. ^ Keila Guimarães (26 November 2013). "El País lança edição digital no Brasil". Archived from the original on 3 May 2015.
  7. ^ "Medios Controlados « OJD". www.ojd.es. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  8. ^ "Los 10 principales periódicos españoles bajaron en 2018 sus ventas en el quiosco". 2019-01-30.
  9. ^ "El juez aplaza el juicio por los despidos en el País por la incomparecencia de la directora". 2019-01-30.
  10. ^ a b "Principales periódicos por lectores diarios España 2018 | Estadística".
  11. ^ Kassam, Ashifa (2014-03-25). "Media revolution in Spain as readers search for new voices". The Guardian.
  12. ^ "Empresas: La deuda del Grupo Prisa vuelve a superar ya a su valor en Bolsa". 2018-11-13.
  13. ^ "El Pais - Corporativo". El Pais. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010.
  14. ^ "Cambia el Gobierno, cambia el director de 'El País'".
  15. ^ https:/elpais.com/elpais/2018/06/09/opinion/1528556657_165314.html/
  16. ^ https://www.eldiario.es/rastreador/pais-fotografia-chavez_6_93850618.html/
  17. ^ Richard Gunther; Jose Ramon Montero; Jose Ignacio Wert (2000). "The media and politics in Spain". In Richard Gunther; Anthony Mughan. Democracy and the Media: A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
  18. ^ Alan Albarran (10 September 2009). Handbook of Spanish Language Media. Routledge. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-135-85430-0. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  19. ^ "Bis'El País' Co-founder Mendo Dead at 77". Editor & Publisher. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  20. ^ Breve historia de El País Archived 20 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, El Pais.
  21. ^ Francisco J. Pérez‐Latre; Alfonso Sánchez-Tabernero (2003). "Leadership, an essential requirement for effecting change in media companies: An analysis of the Spanish market". International Journal on Media Management. 5 (3): 199–208. doi:10.1080/14241270309390035.
  22. ^ Nuria Almiron; Ana I. Segovia (2012). "Financialization, Economic Crisis, and Corporate Strategies in Top Media Companies: The Case of Grupo Prisa". International Journal of Communication. 6: 2894–2917. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  23. ^ a b c Katrin Voltmer (2006). Mass Media and Political Communication in New Democracies. Psychology Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-415-33779-3. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  24. ^ a b Frank R. Baumgartner; Laura Chaqués Bonafont (2014). "All News is Bad News: Newspaper Coverage of Political Parties in Spain" (PDF). Political Communication. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  25. ^ Four freedoms awards Archived 25 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine Roosevelt Institute. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  26. ^ Rosario de Mateo (1989). "The evolution of the newspaper industry in Spain, 1939-87". European Journal of Communication. 4. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  27. ^ For which role El País was awarded the Prince of Asturias Prize for Communication and the Humanities in 1973 Archived 13 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ «Eva Cuesta, el penúltimo fichaje del PSOE en PRISA». Artículo de Periodista Digital (24 January 2007).
  29. ^ «Prisa y PSOE se apoyan mutuamente para seguir en el poder: dinero y publicidad a mantas Archived 31 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine». Artículo de Por Andalucía Libre mencionando declaraciones de El Mundo 7 February 2007.
  30. ^ "Sogecable responde a la llamada del PSOE y pide al Gobierno que Canal+ emita siempre en abierto", Artículo de Libertad Digital, ya solo consultable en TodoInternet.com.
  31. ^ "CC y PSOE prorrogan a Sogecable el contrato de la Televisión Canaria y el PP anuncia que lo impugnará ". Libertad Digital 9 May 2007
  32. ^ "Facts of Spain". Florida International University. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  33. ^ Media Policy: Convergence, Concentration & Commerce. SAGE Publications. 24 September 1998. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4462-6524-6. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  34. ^ País, Ediciones El. "In English". EL PAÍS.
  35. ^ Jagdeep S. Chhokar; Felix C. Brodbeck; Robert J. House (17 June 2013). Culture and Leadership Across the World: The GLOBE Book of In-Depth Studies of 25 Societies. Routledge. p. 644. ISBN 978-1-135-70380-6. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  36. ^ David Ward (2004). "A Mapping Study of Media Concentration and Ownership in Ten European Countries" (PDF). Dutch Media Authority. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  37. ^ Roland Schroeder (2004). "Interactive Info Graphics in Europe-- added value to online mass media: a preliminary survey". Journalism Studies. 5 (4): 563–570. doi:10.1080/14616700412331296473.
  38. ^ "World's Best-Designed winners (2006)". Society for News Design. 2011-02-23. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
  39. ^ Craig Carroll (1 September 2010). Corporate Reputation and the News Media: Agenda-setting Within Business News Coverage in Developed, Emerging, and Frontier Markets. Routledge. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-135-25244-1. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  40. ^ Andrea Czepek; Melanie Hellwig; Eva Nowak (2009). Press Freedom and Pluralism in Europe: Concepts and Conditions. Intellect Books. p. 279. ISBN 978-1-84150-243-4. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  41. ^ "El País on Bush, Aznar, and Iraq". Harper's Magazine. September 2007.
  42. ^ a b Anne Penketh; Philip Oltermann; Stephen Burgen (12 June 2014). "European newspapers search for ways to survive digital revolution". The Guardian. Paris, Berlin, Barcelona. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  43. ^ "El País critica al Gobierno y destaca el "desánimo" en el PSOE con Zapatero". Libertad Digital. 14 September 2009.
  44. ^ Alan Albarran (10 September 2009). Handbook of Spanish Language Media. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-135-85430-0. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  45. ^ Catarina Alencastro; Paulo Celso Pereira (18 June 2016). "Temer suspende patrocínio de R$ 11 milhões para blogs políticos". O Globo. Archived from the original on 22 June 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  46. ^ Jones, Sam (2018-06-08). "Spain's el País newspaper appoints first female editor". The Guardian.
  47. ^ «Unos buenos tipos». El País 14 October 2007.
  48. ^ "El País será el periódico global en español", El País (9 October 2007)
  49. ^ Jesús del-Olmo-Barbero; Sonia Parratt-Fernández (2011). "Typography and colour: A comparative analysis of the free and paid-for newspapers in Spain". Revista Latina de Comunicacion Social (66). Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  50. ^ "Majerit | Feliciano Type Foundry".
  51. ^ «La OJD sanciona con cuatro meses de expulsión a El País Digital por faltas graves». ABC. 24 July 2002.
  52. ^ El País comemora dois anos no Brasil, Meio&Mensagem, 30 November 2015.
  53. ^ EL PAÍS launches digital edition published in Catalan language, El Pais, 6 October 2014
  54. ^ "El Pais to launch new men's magazine Icon". Publicitas. 19 July 2013. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  55. ^ Antonovica, Arta (14 July 2012). Comunicación e imagen de los países bálticos en España a través de la técnica del discurso periodístico. Librería-Editorial Dykinson. p. 111. ISBN 9788490315453.
  56. ^ Cué, Carlos E. (2014-11-16). "Rajoy sobre Cataluña: "Tendré que explicar mejor mis razones" | España | EL PAÍS". El País. politica.elpais.com. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  57. ^ «Injurias a la Corona». Editorial de El País (28 July 2007).
  58. ^ EL PAÍS retira una falsa foto de Hugo Chávez | Internacional|El Pais 24 January 2013.
  59. ^ "Spanish Paper El País Makes a Fool of Itself | venezuelanalysis.com". venezuelanalysis.com. 2013-01-24. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  60. ^ "Venezuela to take legal actions against El Pais | AVN". avn.info.ve. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  61. ^ Caudillo Guevara, editorial de El País, 10 October 2007.

    ... Che Guevara [..] belonged to that sinister saga of tragic heroes, still present in the terrorist movements of various types, from the nationalists to the Jihadists, who try to hide the fact they are assassins by claiming to be martyrs, prolonging the old prejudice inherited from Romanticism. The fact that Che Guevara gave his life and sacrificed those of many others does not improve his ideas, that drink from the springs of one of the great totalitarian systems. [..] the only attestable contribution of the insurgent followers of Guevara to Latin American politics was to offer new alibis to the authoritarian tendencies that were germinating on the continent. Thanks to his armed challenge, the right-wing military dictators could present themselves as a lesser evil, if not a inevitable requisite opposing another symmetrical military dictatorship, such as that led by Castro [..] In the four decades that have passed since his death, the Latin American left and, of course, that in Europe, has completely expedited his goals and fanatical methods. To the point where today the only people who commemorate the date of his execution in La Higuera are the governments that subjugate the Cubans or those that invoke Simón Bolívar in their populist harangues.

  62. ^ "Morocco bans Spanish paper over royal cartoon". Doha Center for Media Freedom. 19 February 2012. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  63. ^ "El País, condenado a publicar una rectificación por un artículo crítico con TV3". Ver Tele (in Spanish). 11 January 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  64. ^ "'El País', obligado a publicar otra vez la rectificación sobre las cuentas de Roures que falseó". Público (in Spanish). 11 April 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  65. ^ Meseguer, Marina (20 April 2018). "Un informe para el comité británico sobre 'fake news' tumba la teoría de la "injerencia rusa" en la crisis catalana". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  66. ^ "Un informe encarregat pel parlament britànic trinxa la manipulació d'El País sobre les 'notícies falses' de Catalunya". VilaWeb (in Catalan). 20 April 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  67. ^ "El dibujante chileno Fernando Krahn muere en Barcelona", El Periódico (in Spanish), 18 February 2010

Further reading

  • Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers (1980) pp 238–41

External links

1982 Spanish general election

The 1982 Spanish general election was held on Thursday, 28 October 1982, to elect the 2nd Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 254 seats in the Senate.

As opinion polls showed a collapse in support for the ruling Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD), Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo called for a snap election after party splits and infighting through the summer of 1982 had left him without a workable majority to remain in power. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) led by Felipe González won a landslide victory, with 48.1% of the vote and a strong majority of 202 out of 350 seats in the Congress, sweeping across the country, running a mainstream modern social democratic campaign and appealing to political change.

The UCD, on the other hand, was decimated, losing 93% of its 1979 seats and roughly 80% of its 1979 vote—still the worst defeat that a sitting government has suffered since the restoration of democracy, and one of the worst defeats ever suffered by a western European governing party. The right-wing People's Alliance (AP), led into the election by former Francoist minister Manuel Fraga, benefitted greatly from the UCD's losses, becoming the main opposition party to the Socialists with slightly over 100 seats and 26.4% of the vote. Former Prime Minister Adolfo Suárez's party, the Democratic and Social Centre (CDS)—split from the UCD some months previously—had a modest entry into the Congress with 2 seats and 2.9% of the vote, while the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) vote plummeted, suffering from tactical voting to the PSOE. Turnout was, at 79.97%, the highest ever recorded in a general election held in Spain to date. The 1982 election was the last general election to be held on a day other than Sunday.

González took office on 2 December, heading the first government in 43 years in which none of its members had served under Francoism.

1986 Giro d'Italia

The 1986 Giro d'Italia was the 69th running of the Giro d'Italia, one of cycling's Grand Tours races. The Giro started in Palermo, on 12 May, with a 1 km (0.6 mi) prologue and concluded in Merano, on 2 June, with a 108.6 km (67.5 mi) mass-start stage. A total of 171 riders from nineteen teams entered the 22-stage race, that was won by Italian Roberto Visentini of the Carrera Jeans–Vagabond team. The second and third places were taken by Italian riders Giuseppe Saronni and Francesco Moser, respectively.

Swiss rider Urs Freuler was the first rider to wear the race leader's maglia rosa (English: pink jersey). The race lead was passed between five riders across the first five days of racing. Saronni gained the overall lead after the conclusion of the sixth stage and maintained an advantage through the fifteenth day of racing. As the race crossed several Alpine passes in the sixteenth stage, Visentini gained the race lead due to his strong performance on the stage. Visentini then defended the race lead until the race's conclusion on 2 June.

Amongst the other classifications that the race awarded, Guido Bontempi of Carrera Jeans–Vagabond won the points classification, Pedro Muñoz of Fagor won the mountains classification, and Gis Gelati-Oece's Marco Giovannetti completed the Giro as the best neo-professional in the general classification, finishing eighth overall. Supermercati Brianzoli finishing as the winners of the team classification, ranking each of the twenty teams contesting the race by lowest cumulative time.

1986 Spanish general election

The 1986 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 22 June 1986, to elect the 3rd Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 254 seats in the Senate.

The election was held after the referendum on Spanish membership in NATO in March 1986 had resulted in a surprising win for the 'In' camp headed by Prime Minister Felipe González. Reinforced from the referendum result, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) sought to take advantage of the favorable political situation. The election resulted in the PSOE winning a second consecutive—albeit diminished—majority with 184 out of 350 seats. Its immediate competitor, Manuel Fraga's People's Coalition, an electoral alliance formed by People's Alliance (AP), the People's Democratic Party (PDP) and the Liberal Party (PL), remained stagnant with a similar result to the one obtained in 1982 by the AP–PDP coalition. The disappointing election result caused the Coalition to break apart shortly afterwards.

Former PM Adolfo Suárez's Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) came out in third place with nearly 1.9 million votes, 9.2% of the share and 19 seats. The Communist Party of Spain (PCE) contested the election within the newborn left-wing United Left (IU) coalition, slightly improving on the PCE's result in 1982 with 4.6% and 7 seats and holding its own against the Communists' Unity Board (MUC), Santiago Carrillo's split party founded after him being expelled from the PCE, which won no seats.

1987 European Parliament election in Spain

The 1987 European Parliament election in Spain was held on Wednesday, 10 June 1987, to elect the MEP delegation from the country for the 2nd European Parliament. All 60 seats allocated to Spain as per the 1985 Treaty of Accession were up for election. The election was held simultaneously with regional elections in thirteen autonomous communities and local elections all throughout Spain.

Spain had acceded the European Communities on 1 January 1986 and had been represented in the European Parliament by 60 temporarily-appointed delegates until a proper election could be held. As a European-wide election was due in 1989, elected MEPs only served for the remainder of the European Parliament term.

1989 European Parliament election in Spain

The 1989 European Parliament election in Spain was held on Thursday, 15 June 1989, as part of the EU-wide election to elect the 3rd European Parliament. All 60 seats allocated to Spain as per the 1985 Treaty of Accession were up for election.

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) emerged as the largest party, followed by the newly amalgamated People's Party (PP) and Adolfo Suárez's Democratic and Social Centre—both of which scoring far below expectations—, as well as left-wing United Left (IU), which improved slightly on its 1987 performance. Ruiz-Mateos Group was the election surprise by winning two seats, with former Rumasa CEO and party leader José María Ruiz Mateos being elected as MEP—which granted him immunity from criminal prosecution, as he had been a fugitive from Spanish justice at the time of his election—. Registered turnout was a record low at the time for a nationwide election held in Spain, with abstention peaking at 45.3%.The election was largely influenced by a recent string of PP–CDS agreements to vote no confidence motions on PSOE local governments, which included the Madrid city council and regional governments. This was said to have influenced the election's outcome, which had resulted in a sizeable PSOE win and a collapse in support for both the PP and CDS. His party's showing in this election was said to be one of the reasons that led Prime Minister Felipe González to call a snap general election for 29 October 1989.

1989 Spanish general election

The 1989 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 29 October 1989, to elect the 4th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 254 seats in the Senate. An election had not been due until 28 July 1990 at latest, but Prime Minister Felipe González called for a snap election nine months ahead of schedule, allegedly on the need of implementing tough economic measures. González hoped to capitalize on a still strong economy and his party's electoral success in a European Parliament election held in June, after a troubled legislature which had seen an increase of social protest on his government's economic policy and the calling of a massive general strike in 1988.The election was regarded as one of the most controversial in the democratic history of Spain. Close results in many constituencies, coupled with severe flaws in electoral register data, an inefficient structure of the electoral administration and the ongoing political struggle between the ruling Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and the opposition parties over the Socialist absolute majority in the Congress of Deputies, led to a major scandal when election results in a number of constituencies were contested under accusations of irregularities and fraud. Judicial courts were forced to intervene, determining by-elections for Murcia, Pontevedra and Melilla. The issue was appealed to the Constitutional Court of Spain, which overruled previous rulings and voided the vote in Melilla only, with a new election being held on 25 March 1990. In the end, the disputed seat was won over by the People's Party (PP), depriving the PSOE from its 176th seat in Congress.The election saw an erosion in popular support for the incumbent Socialists, who nonetheless scored a decisive win and emerged again as the largest party. As a result, Felipe González was able to be re-elected for a third consecutive term in office with confidence and supply support from the Canarian Independent Groups (AIC). The newly amalgamated PP, led into the election by José María Aznar, exceeded initial expectations and slightly improved on the People's Coalition 1986 result while performing better than in the June European Parliament election. Julio Anguita's left-wing coalition, United Left (IU), scored a remarkable success by doubling its 1986 totals, whereas Adolfo Suárez's Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) fell short of its goal of becoming a government alternative and lost votes and seats.

1991 Giro d'Italia

The 1991 Giro d'Italia was the 74th edition of the Giro d'Italia, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The Giro began on May 26 with a mass-start stage that began and ended in the Italian city of Olbia. The race came to a close in Milan on June 16. Twenty teams entered the race, which was won by the Italian Franco Chioccioli of the Del Tongo-MG Boys Maglificio team. Second and third respectively were the Italians Claudio Chiappucci and Massimiliano Lelli.

The race was first led by Frenchman Philippe Casado who won the first stage into Olbia. Casado lost the race leader's maglia rosa (English: pink jersey) after stage 2a that contained a mountainous course. Éric Boyer took the race lead from Chioccioli after winning the event's fourth stage. However, he lost the lead back to Chioccioli the following day. Chioccioli protected his lead and built upon his advantage by winning three stages of the race before the race's finish.

In the race's other classifications, Massimiliano Lelli of the Ari-Ceramiche Ariostea team finished as the best rider aged 25 or under in the general classification, finishing in third place overall; Carrera Jeans–Tassoni rider Claudio Chiappucci won the points classification, Iñaki Gastón of the CLAS-Cajastur team won the mountains classification, and CLAS-Cajastur rider Alberto Leanizbarrutia won the intergiro classification. Carrera Jeans-Tassoni finished as the winners of the team classification.

1992 Giro d'Italia

The 1992 Giro d'Italia was the 75th edition of the Giro d'Italia, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The Giro started off in Genoa on 24 May with a 8 km (5.0 mi) individual time trial. The race concluded in Milan with an 66 km (41.0 mi) individual time trial on 14 June. Twenty teams entered the race, which was won by the Spaniard Miguel Indurain of the Banesto team. Second and third respectively were the Italians Claudio Chiappucci and Franco Chioccioli. Indurain's victory in the 1992 Giro was his first step in completing the Giro - Tour double – winning the Giro d'Italia and Tour de France in one calendar year - becoming the sixth rider to accomplish this feat, with the first being Fausto Coppi in 1949.

Thierry Marie won the event's opening leg and in doing so, became the first rider to wear the race leader's maglia rosa (English: pink jersey) in this edition. He held the race lead for another stage, before he lost it to eventual winner Indurain upon the conclusion of the third stage who held it for the rest of the race's duration. Indurain built upon his advantage during the fourth and twenty-second stages, both individual time trials, and protected the lead by responding to most attacks from his rivals during the mountainous stages.

Indurain became the first Spanish rider to win the Giro d'Italia. Indurain also won the secondary intergiro classification. In the race's other classifications, Lampre–Colnago rider Pavel Tonkov of Russia finished as the best rider aged 25 or under in the general classification, finishing in seventh place overall; Mario Cipollini of the GB–MG Maglificio team was the winner of the points classification, with GB-MG Maglificio finishing as the winners of the team classification, ranking each of the twenty teams contesting the race by lowest cumulative time.

1995 Giro d'Italia

The 1995 Giro d'Italia was a Grand Tour cycling stage race that took place in May and June 1995. It was the 78th edition of the event. The Giro began on 13 May with a stage that began in Perugia and ended Terni. The race came to a close on 4 June with a stage that ended in the Italian city of Milan. The race was won by the Swiss Tony Rominger of the Mapei–GB–Latexco team. Second and third were the Russian rider Evgeni Berzin and Latvian rider Piotr Ugrumov.

Mario Cipollini was the event's first leg in a bunch sprint, allowing him to be the first rider to don the race leader's maglia rosa (English: pink jersey). The following stage was an individual time trial that was won by Rominger, who also gained enough time on Cipollini to take the race lead. Rominger built upon his lead by winning the remaining two time trial stages, along with the hilly stage 4, and retained the lead for the duration of the race. By winning the Giro he became the third Swiss rider to win the event.

In addition to the general classification, Tony Rominger also won the points and intergiro classifications. Brescialat rider Mariano Piccoli won the mountains classification. Gewiss–Ballan finished as the winners of the team classification. The team points classification, a system in which the teams' riders are awarded points for placing within the top twenty in each stage and the points are then totaled for each team, was also won by Gewiss-Ballan.

1996 Giro d'Italia

The 1996 Giro d'Italia was the 79th edition of the Giro d'Italia, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The Giro began on May 18 with a mass-start stage that began and ended in the Greek capital Athens. The race came to a close on June 9 with a mass-start stage that ended in the Italian city of Milan. Eighteen teams entered the race that was won by the Russian Pavel Tonkov of the Panaria-Vinavil team. Second and third were the Italian rider Enrico Zaina and Spanish rider Abraham Olano.

Silvio Martinello led the race for four of the first five stages because of his victory in the first stage and high-placing on the fourth stage. Stefano Zanini briefly took the lead away from Martinello following the third stage that featured a more mountainous stage profile. After winning the event's sixth stage, Pascal Hervé overtook Zanini for the lead for a single day, after which Davide Rebellin captured the lead with his winning efforts on the seventh day. Eventual winner Tonkov obtained the race leader's maglia rosa (English: pink jersey) when he finished the thirteenth stage. Tonkov kept the jersey for the rest of the race, except where he lost it to Olano by 46 hundredths of a second at the end of stage 20, but regained it the following day.

In the race's other classifications, Brescialat rider Mariano Piccoli won the mountains classification and Fabrizio Guidi of the Scrigno–Gaerne team won the points classification and the intergiro classification. Carrera Jeans–Tassoni finished as the winners of the team classification, ranking each of the eighteen teams contesting the race by lowest cumulative time of each team's top three riders per stage. The other team classification, the team points classification, where the teams' riders are awarded points for placing within the top twenty in each stage and the points are then totaled for each team was won by Panaria-Vinavil.

2000 Spanish general election

The 2000 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 12 March 2000, to elect the 7th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 259 seats in the Senate.

The incumbent People's Party (PP) of Prime Minister José María Aznar secured an unpredicted absolute majority in the Congress of Deputies, obtaining 183 out of 350 seats and increasing its margin of victory with the opposition Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) to 2.4 million votes. The PSOE did not profit from a pre-election agreement with United Left (IU) and lost 1.6 million votes and 16 seats, coupled to the 1.4 million votes and 13 seats lost by IU. Such an alliance was said to prompt tactical voting for the PP, which also beneffited from economic growth, a moderate stance throughout the legislature and internal struggles within the opposition parties. For the first time since the Spanish transition to democracy, the PP results exceeded the combined totals for PSOE and IU. PSOE leader Joaquín Almunia announced his resignation immediately after results were known.Regional and peripheral nationalist parties improved their results, except for Convergence and Union (CiU)—which had been in electoral decline for a decade—and Herri Batasuna/Euskal Herritarrok (EH), which urged to boycott the election and called for their supporters to abstain in the Basque Country and Navarre. The Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) benefitted from EH's absence and gained two seats, whereas both Canarian Coalition (CC) and the Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) had strong showings in their respective regions. Initiative for Catalonia (IC), which had split from IU in 1997, clinged on to parliamentary representation but suffered from the electoral competition with United and Alternative Left (EUiA), IU's newly-founded regional branch in Catalonia which failed to secure any seat. This would be the first and only general election to date in which both parties would contest each other.

This election featured some notable feats: this was the first absolute majority the PP obtained in a general election, with its best result in both popular vote share and seats up until then, a result only exceeded in 2011. In contrast, the PSOE got its worst election result in 21 years. This was also the second time a party received more than 10 million votes, the last time being in 1982, when 10.1 million voters voted for Felipe González's PSOE. The voters' turnout registered was one of the lowest in democratic Spain for Spanish election standards, with only 68.7% of the electorate casting a vote.

2015 Spanish general election

The 2015 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 20 December 2015, to elect the 11th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 266 seats in the Senate. At exactly 4 years and one month since the previous general election, this remains the longest timespan between two general elections since the Spanish transition to democracy, and the only time in Spain a general election has been held on the latest possible date allowed under law.After a legislature plagued by the effects of an ongoing economic crisis, corruption scandals affecting the ruling party and social distrust with traditional parties, the election resulted in the most fragmented Spanish parliament in its history. While Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy's People's Party (PP) emerged as the largest party overall, it obtained its worst result since 1989. The party's net loss of 64 seats and 16 percentage points also marked the largest loss of support for a sitting government since 1982. Opposition Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) obtained its worst result since the Spanish transition to democracy, losing 20 seats and nearly 7 points. Newcomer Podemos (Spanish for "We can") ranked third, winning over 5 million votes, some 20% of the share, 69 seats and coming closely behind PSOE. Up-and-coming Citizens (C's), a party based in Catalonia since 2006, entered the parliament for the first time with 40 seats, though considerably lower than what pre-election polls had suggested.

Smaller parties were decimated, with historic United Left (IU)—which ran in a common platform with other left-wing parties under the Popular Unity umbrella—obtaining the worst result in its history. Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD), a newcomer which had made gains in both the 2008 and 2011 general elections, was obliterated, losing all of its seats and nearly 90% of its votes. At the regional level, aside from a major breakthrough from Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), the election saw all regional nationalist parties losing votes; the break up of Convergence and Union (CiU), support for the abertzale left EH Bildu coalition falling sharply, Canarian Coalition (CC) clinging on to a single seat and the expulsion of both Geroa Bai and the Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) from parliament; the latter of which had maintained an uninterrupted presence in the Congress of Deputies since 1996.

With the most-voted party obtaining just 123 seats—compared to the 156 of the previous worst result for a first party, in 1996—and a third party winning an unprecedented 69 seats—the previous record was 23 in 1979—the result marked the transition from a two-party system to a multi-party system. After months of inconclusive negotiations and a failed investiture, neither PP or PSOE were able to garner enough votes to secure a majority, leading to a fresh election in 2016.

2016 Spanish general election

The 2016 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 26 June 2016, to elect the 12th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 266 seats in the Senate.

No party had secured a majority in the 2015 election, resulting in the most fragmented parliament since 1977. Ensuing negotiations failed to produce a stable governing coalition, paving the way for a repeat election on 26 June. The political deadlock marked the first time that a Spanish election was triggered due to failure in the government formation process. Podemos and United Left (IU) joined forces ahead the election to form the Unidos Podemos alliance, along with several other minor left-wing parties. Opinion polling going into the election predicted a growing polarisation between this alliance and the People's Party (PP), which would be fighting to maintain first place nationally.The Unidos Podemos alliance suffered a surprise decline in votes and vote share compared to the previous election, while the PP increased its number of votes and seats as well as its margin of victory. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) clinged on to second place despite losing votes and seats, scoring a new historical low. Albert Rivera's Citizens (C's) suffered from the electoral system as well as from tactical voting to the PP and fell to 32 seats. Voter turnout was the lowest since the transition to democracy in 1975, as just 66.5% of the electorate did cast a ballot. Overall, a potential PP–C's bloc secured 6 more seats than before, but remained short of an overall majority. With the political deadlock settling in, commentators suggested that a new, third election could be eventually needed.Electoral setbacks for the PSOE in the Basque and Galician regional elections held on 25 September 2016 unleashed a party crisis which led to Pedro Sánchez's ouster as leader on 1 October. An interim party leadership was appointed, which chose to abstain to allow government formation and prevent a third general election. As a result, Mariano Rajoy was re-elected as Prime Minister for a second term in office on 29 October amid public outcry and protest at PSOE's U-turn, which was also met with opposition from within the party—15 MPs eventually not complying with the party's directive and voting against Rajoy nonetheless. Rajoy's government would only last for 20 months until 2018, as public outcry at the emergence of new corruption scandals and judicial blows to the ruling party would prompt Sánchez—who would secure re-election as PSOE leader in June 2017—to bring down the PP government in the first successful motion of no confidence since the Spanish transition to democracy.

El País (Cali)

El País (English: The Country) is a regional daily newspaper based in Cali, Colombia, and leading newspaper of the Colombian Pacific Region. El País is a member of the Latin American Newspaper Association.

El País (Uruguay)

El País is a Uruguayan newspaper, first published on September 14, 1918, and distributed nationwide. It previously belonged to the same media group as the television channel Teledoce. Its website is ranked 6th in Uruguay according to Alexa.

El País de las mujeres

El País de las mujeres (English title: The Country of Women) is a Venezuelan telenovela written by Leonardo Padrón and produced by Venevisión. This telenovela lasted 188 episodes and was distributed internationally by Venevisión International.Ana Karina Manco and Víctor Cámara starred as the main protagonists with the stellar participation of Caridad Canelón, Carolina Perpetuo, Lourdes Valera, Nohely Arteaga and Viviana Gibelli. Aroldo Betancourt, Miguel Ángel Landa and Gustavo Rodríguez starred as antagonists.

For the Country of Our Dreams

For the Country of Our Dreams (Por el País que soñamos) is a political party in Colombia. The party took part in the parliamentary elections of 2006, in which it won 2 out of 166 deputies and no senators.

José Luis García Traid

José Luis García Traid (6 April 1936 – 11 January 1990) was a Spanish retired footballer who played as a midfielder, and a former manager.

Lince (tank)

The Lince (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈlinθe], meaning "Lynx") was a Spanish development programme for a proposed main battle tank that unfolded during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The intention was to replace the M47 and M48 Patton tanks that the Spanish Army had received under the U.S. Mutual Defense Assistance Act between 1954 and 1975, and to complement the AMX-30E tanks manufactured for the army during the 1970s. Companies from several nations, such as German Krauss-Maffei, Spanish Santa Bárbara, and French GIAT, made bids for the development contract. The main priorities were mobility and firepower, with secondary priority placed on protection; the Lince tank was to have been lighter and faster than its competitors. The vehicle's size would also have been restricted by the Spanish rail and highway network. To achieve a sufficient level of firepower and protection, given the size requirements, the Lince was to use Rheinmetall's 120 mm L/44 tank-gun and German composite armour from the Leopard 2A4.

The Spanish government decided to upgrade its fleet of AMX-30Es in the late 1980s. The focus on upgrading Spain's AMX-30E's distracted attention from the Lince plan, which was eventually shelved in 1990 after Spain acquired a large number of M60 Patton tanks, which were no longer required by the U.S., in accordance with the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. These tanks replaced the M47s and M48s, and fulfilled Spain's need to modernize its tank forces in the short term. No prototype of the planned Lince tank was manufactured, and no announcements were made on who would receive the contract. Four years later the Spanish government procured and locally manufactured the Leopard 2, fulfilling the long-term modernisation goal established in the Lince programme.

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