El Boleo is a copper-cobalt-zinc-manganese deposit located adjacent to the port city of Santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur in Mexico. It includes a historic open pit copper mine, as well as underground workings. Mining began in the 1860s, and continued, off and on, until the 1980s. The property is currently under development by a consortium of Korean companies led by Korea Resources Corporation. Preliminary underground mining began in 2012. The $1.75 Billion project is scheduled for completion in 2013.
The discovery of the copper ore in the region is historically credited to a rancher named José Rosas Villavicencio in 1868. Minor mining activities were carried out on site by Mexican and German operators until 1885. But the small scale of the operation and the desolate location made the enterprise only marginally economic.
El Boleo was first operated, on a large commercial scale, in 1885 by the French company Compagnie du Boleo which obtained control of the property and began mining, after receiving an extensive concession and 70-year tax exemption granted by Mexican president Porfirio Diaz. Diaz apparently hoped that the mine would create a development zone in the arid and unpopulated region. 1885 is also considered the official date of the town's foundation.
The extraction of ore from the mines was labour-intensive. Chinese, Japanese, Yaqui Indians and Mestizos were brought in to work in the mine. It has been reported that many died of illness or accidents associated with the poor working conditions.
As the ore was extremely rich, (apparently a complex mixture of oxides and sulfides of up to 15% Cu) it could be fed directly to the smelter without pre-processing other than crushing. There were 7 relatively small reverberatory furnaces in the smelter and, in the 1930s, a pair of Peirce-Smith converters were added to produce blister copper (98% copper). Due to the complex metallurgy, no attempt was made to extract the cobalt, zinc, and manganese. The company created an artificial harbour from the slag of the smelter, which still endures almost unchanged to the present day.
In the early 20th century, the company was renowned for using technology considered to be state-of-the-art for ore processing and refining. The powerhouse, by L'usine électrique, was considered the most advanced electrical system of its time in Mexico. Not surprisingly, it worked well until the 1970s, when it was finally shut down.
The French community also established a hospital to treat the mine's workers. The Greek doctor Diamant Hadji-Mihaloglou was briefly in charge of the medical services at the hospital; he then returned to France.
The French company operated until 1954, when the tax exemption expired. The project then went bankrupt and the mine was shut down.
After 1954, the Mexican government through its Mining bureau (Namely the Comisión de Fomento Minero) reopened the works under the name of CMSRSA (Compañía Minera Santa Rosalía) to prevent the economic collapse of the town. It operated, continually at a loss, using the same (rather archaic) equipment and processes until 1984, when it definitively closed.
In 1992, renewed interest by Canadian investors led to the establishment of a new mining claim. Subsequent exploration established that vast amounts of copper ore, as well as commercial quantities of cobalt, zinc, and manganese still existed on the site. Over a fifteen year period, two test mining programs, two process pilot campaigns, and a +38,000 metre in-fill drill program were carried out, culminating in a Definitive Feasibility Study (DFS). The DFS was completed in 2007 by the current lease holder - Minera y Metallurgica del Boleo - and followed by a Technical Report update issued in March 2010. Boleo is expected to yield copper-cobalt-zinc-manganese and is fully permitted. However, the old metallurgical process used by previous operators is unfit for the recovery of these values. Small scale testing has established that a hydrometallurgical process can effectively recover all four metals, with competitive economics. The hydrometallurgical process, and the lack of fresh water at the site requires the construction of a desalination plant.
Construction at Boleo re-commenced in November 2010. Construction cost overruns reported by Baja Mining Corp. (TSX: BAJ) in 2012 threatened to halt or delay construction of the project.
An agreement was reached in July 2012, transferring majority ownership interest and control of the project to the Korean consortium, in return for funding the reported cost overruns. The Korean consortium led by Korea Resources Corporation (“KORES”), a state owned resources enterprise of the Republic of Korea, currently holds 73.8% of the ownership interest in Minera y Metallurgica del Boleo ("MMB") and it is anticipated that this will increase to 90% in 2013. Construction continues, with mechanical completion and copper production targeted for early 2014.
Since obtaining control of MMB, CEO of KORES, Dr. Jung-Sik Koh, has reorganized its operational structure and dispatched mineral prospecting, grade control, mining, hydrometallurgy, and construction specialists to normalize operations at the project. With respect to construction of the project, a team of Korean construction monitoring team, led by KORES appointed COO at MMB, has been carrying out site construction supervision, inspection and expediting EPCM work since November 2012. Additionally, to optimize mining efficiency and secure additional tonnage at the site, MMB has been working closely on updating the geological model and mine design in cooperation with SRK and AAI.
With respect to the project financing, a portion of MMB’s 2010 project financing facilities (the “2010 Project Financing”) provided by the Export‐Import Bank of the United States (“US EXIM”) to MMB has been renegotiated under Korean leadership. In September 2010, US EXIM, the largest lender in the 2010 Project Financing, agreed to provide MMB with an approximately US$419 million loan facility for the construction and development of the Boleo project (the “Original US EXIM Facility”). The Original US EXIM Facility was terminated in late 2012 and KORES has negotiated a new approximately US$419 million facility with US EXIM, to be used to finance further construction and development of the Boleo project. KORES anticipates to normalize the remainder of the 2010 Project Financing with the syndicate of the lenders in due course.
The ore (mineralization) occurs in a strata bound form known as mantos in El Boleo Formation which is a range of clastic sedimentary rocks from siltstone to sandstones, with some claystone. They were deposited in the late Miocene in deltas and near-shore shallow marine basins. Resting unconformably above the El Boleo Formation are the Gloria, Infierno and Santa Rosalía Formations of the Pliocene and Pleistocene.
The 1930–1939 Pacific hurricane seasons all began during the summer in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the central Pacific. They ended in late fall.
Before the satellite age started in the 1960s, data on Pacific hurricanes is extremely unreliable.Baja California Sur
Baja California Sur (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbaxa kaliˈfoɾnja suɾ] (listen), English: "South Lower California"), officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur (English: Free and Sovereign State of South Lower California), is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Before becoming a state on 8 October 1974, the area was known as the El Territorio Sur de Baja California ("South Territory of Lower California"). It has an area of 73,909 km2 (28,536 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico, and occupies the southern half of the Baja California Peninsula, south of the 28th parallel, plus the uninhabited Rocas Alijos in the Pacific Ocean. It is bordered to the north by the state of Baja California, to the west by the Pacific Ocean, and to the east by the Gulf of California, or the "Sea of Cortés". The state has maritime borders with Sonora and Sinaloa to the east, across the Gulf of California.
The state is home to the tourist resorts of Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo. Its largest city and capital is La Paz.Boleite
Boleite is a complex halide mineral with formula: KPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62. It was first described in 1891 as an oxychloride mineral. It is an isometric mineral which forms in deep-blue cubes. There are numerous minerals related to boleite, such as pseudoboleite, cumengite, and diaboleite, and these all have the same complex crystal structure. They all contain bright-blue cubic forms and are formed in altered zones of lead and copper deposits, produced during the reaction of chloride bearing solutions with primary sulfide minerals.Boleo (disambiguation)
Boleo is a figure in Argentine tango
Boleo or Boléo may also refer to:
El Boleo, a mine for copper and other minerals near Santa Rosalia, Mexico
Compagnie du Boléo, a French company that developed the El Boleo mine
Manuel de Paiva Boléo (1904-1992), a Portuguese professor of philology and linguistics.Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.
Copper is one of the few metals that can occur in nature in a directly usable metallic form (native metals). This led to very early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years later, it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC.In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium (metal of Cyprus), later corrupted to сuprum (Latin), from which the words derived, coper (Old English) and copper, first used around 1530.The commonly encountered compounds are copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite, malachite, and turquoise, and have been used widely and historically as pigments.
Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris (or patina). Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents, fungicides, and wood preservatives.
Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found mainly in the liver, muscle, and bone. The adult body contains between 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight.Jun Shibuki
Tanazawa Rika (born November 19, 1969 ), known by her stage name Jun Shibuki (紫吹 淳, Shibuki Jun), is a musical actress and performer of Japanese stage acting. She is a former member of Takarazuka Revue, where she played Otokoyaku. She joined the revue in 1986 and resigned in 2003.List of minerals P–Q (complete)
This list includes those recognised minerals beginning with the letters P and Q. The International Mineralogical Association is the international group that recognises new minerals and new mineral names, however minerals discovered before 1959 did not go through the official naming procedure, although some minerals published previously have been either confirmed or discredited since that date. This list contains a mixture of mineral names that have been approved since 1959 and those mineral names believed to still refer to valid mineral species (these are called "grandfathered" species).
The list is divided into groups:
Introduction • (Main synonyms)
A • B • C • D • E • F • G • H • I • J • K • L • M • N • O • P–Q • R • S • T • U–V • W–X • Y–ZThe data was exported from mindat.org on 29 April 2005; updated up to 'IMA2018'.
The minerals are sorted by name, followed by the structural group (rruff.info/ima and ima-cnmnc by mineralienatlas.de, mainly) or chemical class (mindat.org and basics), the year of publication (if it's before of an IMA approval procedure), the IMA approval and the Nickel–Strunz code. The first link is to mindat.org, the second link is to webmineral.com, and the third is to the Handbook of Mineralogy (Mineralogical Society of America).
D – discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).
Q – questionable/ doubtful (IMA/CNMNC, mindat.org or mineralienatlas.de status).
N – published without approval of the IMA/CNMNC, or just not an IMA approved mineral but with some acceptance in the scientific community nowadays.
I – intermediate member of a solid-solution series.
H – hypothetical mineral (synthetic, anthropogenic, suspended approval procedure, etc.)
ch – incomplete description, hypothetical solid solution end member.
Rd – redefinition of ...
"s.p." – special procedure.
group – a name used to designate a group of species, sometimes only a mineral group name.
no – no link available.
IUPAC – chemical name.
Y: 1NNN – year of publication.
Y: old – known before publications were available.Léon Diguet
Léon Diguet (25 July 1859, Le Havre – 31 August 1926, Paris) was a French naturalist.
He studied science at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris, where he was influenced by scientists that included biologist Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau, zoologist Alphonse Milne-Edwards, and anthropologist Ernest Hamy. From 1889 to 1892, he was employed as a chemical engineer at the French-owned El Boleo mining installation in Santa Rosalia, Baja California Sur. During that period, he explored the peninsula's interior, collecting natural history specimens for the National Museum of Natural History in Paris. Afterwards, from 1893 to 1914, he made six more trips to Mexico as an explorer and collector:
1. A return trip to Baja California in 1893-1894.
2. Jalisco and the territory of Tepic (a trip in which he conducted research of the Huichol and Cora peoples).
3. San Luis Potosi, Colima and northern Jalisco.
4. Puebla, Oaxaca and Tehuantepec.
5. Michoacán and the State of Mexico.
6. Another expedition to Baja California and Jalisco.As a naturalist in Mexico, he amassed an eclectic collection of insects, cacti, orchids, minerals, crustaceans, and other specimens. He performed archaeological studies in the Mixtec-Zapotec region and at Ixtlán del Río, as well as pioneering investigations of the burials and rock art in central and southern Baja California. He also conducted historical research of cochineal, studied the Huichol language, analyzed the different types of agave and investigated the properties of jojoba. On his journeys, he took many photographs of the country. the negatives later being housed at the Musée de l'Homme in Paris.The genus Diguetia bears his name, and his name is also associated with numerous zoological and botanical species, two examples being: Sceloporus digueti (synonym Sceloporus orcutti, the granite spiny lizard) and Ferrocactus diguetii (a species of barrel cactus).Polymetallic replacement deposit
A polymetallic replacement deposit is an orebody of metallic minerals formed by the replacement of sedimentary, usually carbonate rock, by metal-bearing solutions in the vicinity of igneous intrusions. When the ore forms a blanketlike body along the bedding plane of the rock, it is commonly called a manto ore deposit. Other ore geometries are chimneys and veins. Polymetallic replacements/mantos are often stratiform wall-rock replacement orebodies distal to porphyry copper deposits. The term manto is from the Spanish word for mantle, or cloak, although the geologic manto is more like a mantle roll than a sheetlike structure.Although similar in orebody geometry, host-rock lithology, and the presence of lead and zinc, carbonate hosted lead zinc ore deposits, also known as Mississippi Valley type, are considered a different type of ore deposits. Mississippi valley type ore deposits lack silver and gold mineralization, and are not associated with nearby igneous intrusions.Porfirio Díaz
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (; Spanish: [poɾˈfiɾjo ði.as]; 15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of 31 years, from February 17, 1877 to December 1, 1880 and from December 1, 1884 to May 25, 1911. The entire period 1876-1911 is often referred to as the Porfiriato.
A veteran of the War of the Reform (1858–60) and the French intervention in Mexico (1862–67), Díaz rose to the rank of General, leading republican troops against the French-imposed rule of Emperor Maximilian. He subsequently revolted against Presidents Benito Juárez and Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, on the principle of no re-election to the presidency. Diaz succeeded in seizing ousting Lerdo in a coup in 1876, with the help of his political supporters, and Diaz was elected in 1877. In 1880, he stepped down and his political ally Manuel González was elected president, serving from 1880-84. In 1884 Diaz abandoned the idea of no re-election and held office continuously until 1911.Díaz has been a controversial figure in Mexican history. His regime brought "order and progress," ending political turmoil and promoting economic development. Díaz and his allies, a group of technocrats known as Científicos "scientists." His economic policies largely benefited his circle of allies as well as foreign investors, and helped a few wealthy estate-owning hacendados acquire huge areas of land, leaving rural campesinos unable to make a living. It later years grew unpopular due to civil repression and political conflicts, as well as challenges from labor and the peasantry, groups that did not share in Mexico's prosperity.
Despite public statements in 1908 favoring a return to democracy and not running again for office, Díaz reversed himself and ran again in 1910. His failure to institutionalize presidential succession, since he was by then 80 years old, triggered a political crisis between the Científicos and the followers of General Bernardo Reyes, allied with the military and with peripheral regions of Mexico. After Díaz declared himself the winner of an eighth term in office in 1910, his electoral opponent, wealthy estate owner Francisco I. Madero, issued the Plan of San Luis Potosí calling for armed rebellion against Díaz, leading to the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution. After the Federal Army suffered a number of military defeats against the forces supporting Madero, Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911 and went into exile in Paris, where he died four years later.Santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur
Santa Rosalía (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsanta rosaˈli.a]) is a town located in the Mulegé Municipality of northern Baja California Sur, Mexico. It is on the Gulf of California coast of the Baja California Peninsula. As of 2015, the town had a population of 14,160 inhabitants. It was once a company town.