Eindhoven (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɛintɦoːvə(n)] (listen)) is the fifth-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country. It had a population of 231.469 in 2019, making it the largest city in the province of North Brabant, although 's-Hertogenbosch is its capital. Eindhoven was originally located at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender.
Neighbouring cities and towns include Son en Breugel, Nuenen, Geldrop-Mierlo, Helmond, Heeze-Leende, Waalre, Veldhoven, Eersel, Oirschot and Best. The agglomeration has a population of 337,487. The metropolitan area consists of 419,045 inhabitants. The city region has a population of 753,426. The Brabantse Stedenrij combined metropolitan area has about 2 million inhabitants.
Coat of arms
Location in North Brabant
|• Body||Municipal council|
|• Mayor||John Jorritsma (VVD)|
|• Municipality||88.87 km2 (34.31 sq mi)|
|• Land||87.72 km2 (33.87 sq mi)|
|• Water||1.15 km2 (0.44 sq mi)|
|Elevation||17 m (56 ft)|
|• Density||2,596/km2 (6,720/sq mi)|
|• Metro region||755,313|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
The name derives from the contraction of the regional words eind (meaning "last" or "end") and hove (or hoeve, a section of some 14 hectares of land). Toponymically, eind occurs commonly as a prefix and postfix in local place- and streetnames. A "hove" comprised a parcel of land which a local lord might lease to private persons (such as farmers). Given that a string of such parcels existed around Woensel, the name Eindhoven may have originated with the meaning "last hoves on the land of Woensel".
The written history of Eindhoven started in 1232, when Duke Hendrik I of Brabant granted city rights to Eindhoven, then a small town right on the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams. At the time of granting of its charter, Eindhoven had approximately 170 houses enclosed by a rampart. Just outside the city walls stood a small castle. The city was also granted the right to organize a weekly market and the farmers in nearby villages were obliged to come to Eindhoven to sell their produce. Another factor in its establishment was its location on the trade route from Holland to Liège.
Around 1388, the city's fortifications were strengthened further. And between 1413 and 1420, a new castle was built within the city walls. In 1486, Eindhoven was plundered and burned by troops from Guelders.
The reconstruction of Eindhoven was finished in 1502, with a stronger rampart and a new castle. However, in 1543 it fell again, its defense works having been neglected due to poverty.
A big fire in 1554 destroyed 75% of the houses but by 1560 these had been rebuilt with the help of William I of Orange. During the Dutch Revolt, Eindhoven changed hands between the Dutch and the Spanish several times during which it was burned down by renegade Spanish soldiers, until finally in 1583 it was captured once more by Spanish troops and its city walls were demolished.
Eindhoven did not become part of the Netherlands until 1629. During the French occupation, Eindhoven suffered again with many of its houses destroyed by the invading forces. Eindhoven remained a minor city after that until the start of the industrial revolution.
The industrial revolution of the 19th century provided a major growth impulse. Canals, roads and railroads were constructed. Eindhoven was connected to the major Zuid-Willemsvaart canal through the Eindhovens Kanaal branch in 1843 and was connected by rail to Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch, Venlo and Belgium between 1866 and 1870. Industrial activities initially centred around tobacco and textiles and boomed with the rise of lighting and electronics giant Philips, which was founded as a light bulb manufacturing company in Eindhoven in 1891.
Industrialisation brought population growth to Eindhoven. On the establishment of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, Eindhoven had 2,310 inhabitants.
By 1920, the population was 47,946; by 1925 it was 63,870 and in 1935 that had ballooned to 103,030. The explosive growth of industry in the region and the subsequent housing needs of workers called for radical changes in administration, as the City of Eindhoven was still confined to its medieval moat city limits. In 1920, the five neighbouring municipalities of Woensel (to the north), Tongelre (northeast and east), Stratum (southeast), Gestel en Blaarthem (southwest) and Strijp (west), which already bore the brunt of the housing needs and related problems, were incorporated into the new Groot-Eindhoven ("Greater Eindhoven") municipality. The prefix "Groot-" was later dropped.
After the incorporation of 1920, the five former municipalities became districts of the Municipality of Eindhoven, with Eindhoven-Centrum (the City proper) forming the sixth. Since then, an additional seventh district has been formed by dividing the largest district, that of Woensel, into Woensel-Zuid and Woensel-Noord.
The early 20th century saw additions in technical industry with the advent of car and truck manufacturing company Van Doorne's Automobiel Fabriek (DAF) and the subsequent shift towards electronics and engineering, with the traditional tobacco and textile industries waning and finally disappearing in the 1970s.
A first air raid in World War II was flown by the RAF on 6 December 1942 targeting the Philips factory downtown. 148 civilians died, even though the attack was carried out on a Sunday by low-flying Mosquito bombers. Large-scale air raids, including the bombing by the Luftwaffe on 18 September, 1944 during Operation Market Garden, destroyed large parts of the city. The reconstruction that followed left very little historical remains and the postwar reconstruction period saw drastic renovation plans in highrise style, some of which were implemented. At the time, there was little regard for historical heritage. During the 1960s, a new city hall was built and its neogothic predecessor (1867) demolished to make way for a planned arterial road that never materialised.
The 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s saw large-scale housing developments in the districts of Woensel-Zuid and Woensel-Noord, making Eindhoven the fifth-largest city in the Netherlands. At the start of the 21st century, a whole new housing development called Meerhoven was constructed at the site of the old airport of Welschap, west of Eindhoven. The airport itself, now called Eindhoven Airport, had moved earlier to a new location, paving the way for much needed new houses. Meerhoven is part of the Strijp district and partially lies on lands annexed from the municipality of Veldhoven.
The villages and city that make up modern Eindhoven were originally built on sandy elevations between the Dommel, Gender and Tongelreep streams. Beginning in the 19th century, the basins of the streams themselves have also been used as housing grounds, resulting in occasional floodings in the city centre. Partly to reduce flooding, the bed of the Gender stream, which flowed directly through the city centre, was dammed off and filled up after the War, and the course of the Dommel was regulated. New ecological and socio-historical insights have led to parts of the Dommel's course being restored to their original states, and plans to have the Gender flow through the centre once again.
The large-scale housing developments of the 20th century saw residential areas being built on former agricultural lands and woods, former heaths that had been turned into cultivable lands in the 19th century.
The city is currently divided into seven districts:
Eindhoven has an oceanic climate with slightly warmer summers and colder winters than the coastal parts of the Netherlands. Its all-time record is 36.7 °C (98.1 °F) set on 26 July 2018 and −21.7 °C (−7.1 °F) set on 13 January 1968, while winter lows have dipped below −15 °C (5 °F) during extreme cold snaps. Although frosts are frequent in winter, there is no lasting snow cover in a normal winter due to the mild daytime temperatures.
As of May 2018, the population of Eindhoven consisted of 229,637 persons (according to the CBS). Of these, 29.5% or some 63,873 people are of foreign descent. People are classified as being of foreign descent when they were born outside of the Netherlands, or when at least one of their parents was born outside of the Netherlands.
The municipal agglomeration of Eindhoven (an administrative construct which includes only some of the surrounding towns and villages) has 327,245 inhabitants as of 1 January 2010.
The spoken language is a combination of Kempenlands (a Dutch dialect spoken in a large area east and south east of the city, including Arendonk and Lommel in Belgium) and North Meierijs (between the south of Den Bosch and into Eindhoven). Both dialects belong to the East Brabantian dialect group), which is very similar to colloquial Dutch).
Of all Eindhoven districts, the historical centre is by far the smallest in size and population, numbering only 5,419 in 2006. Woensel-Noord is the largest, having been the city's main area of expansion for several decades.
Population figures for all districts, as of 1 January 2008, ranked by size:
Eindhoven is located in the southeast of the province of North Brabant. This area is historically Roman Catholic and the population of Eindhoven was similarly mostly Catholic for a very long time until the late 1970s. However, the internationalizing influence of the university, Philips and other companies have created a more mixed population over the last few decades.
The Eindhoven agglomeration had the following religious makeup in 2015:
In research by the Dutch newspaper Algemeen Dagblad based on the police's statistical data on crime rates, Eindhoven was found to have the highest crime rate in the Netherlands for 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010. In 2011, Eindhoven has slipped down the list to number six.
In 2009, in the Eindhoven agglomeration, the following numbers of crimes were recorded:
|Monetary (including burglary, theft)||37,266|
|Destruction and public disorder||9,861|
|Other crimes (criminal code)||562|
|Other crimes (other laws)||161|
After the resurrection of the Netherlands in 1815 and the end of the Belgian Revolution, Eindhoven was a small village of some 1250 people in an economically backward and mostly agricultural area. Cheap land, cheap labor and the existence of pre-industrial homesourcing (huisnijverheid in Dutch) made Eindhoven an attractive area for the developing industries which were being stimulated by the government of King William I. During the 19th century, Eindhoven grew into an industrial town with factories for textile weaving, cigar manufacturing, match making and hat making. Most of these industries disappeared again after World War II, though.
In 1891, brothers Gerard and Anton Philips founded the small light bulb factory that would grow into one of the largest electronics firms in the world. Philips' presence is probably the largest single contributing factor to the major growth of Eindhoven in the 20th century. It attracted and spun off many hi-tech companies, making Eindhoven a major technology and industrial hub. In 2005, a full third of the total amount of money spent on research in the Netherlands was spent in or around Eindhoven. A quarter of the jobs in the region are in technology and ICT, with companies such as FEI Company (once Philips Electron Optics), NXP Semiconductors (formerly Philips Semiconductors), ASML, ALTEN, Simac, Neways Electronics and the aforementioned Philips and DAF.
Eindhoven has long been a centre of cooperation between research institutes and industry. This tradition started with Philips (the NatLab was a physical expression of this) and has since expanded to large cooperative networks. The Eindhoven University of Technology hosts an incubator for technology startups and the NatLab has developed into the High Tech Campus Eindhoven. Also, TNO has opened a branch on the university campus. This tradition has also fostered inter-industry cooperation in the region; one example of this is the announcement in September 2010 of a new research lab for high-grade packaging materials, a cooperation of IPS Packaging and Thales Cryognetics.
This cooperative tradition has also developed into a different direction than the traditional technology research done at the university. Starting in 2002, the university, the Catharina hospital, Philips Medical and the University of Maastricht joined forces and started joint research into biomedical science, technology and engineering. Within Eindhoven, this research has been concentrated in a new university faculty (BioMedical Technology or BMT). This development has also made Eindhoven a biomedical technology hub within the country and its (European) region.
Prime examples of industrial heritage in Eindhoven are the renovated Witte Dame ("White Lady") complex, a former Philips lamp factory; and the Admirant building (informally known as Bruine Heer or "Brown Gentleman" in reference to the Witte Dame across the street), the former Philips main offices. The Witte Dame currently houses the municipal library, the Design Academy and a selection of shops. The Admirant has been renovated into an office building for small companies. Across the street from the Witte Dame and next to the Admirant is Philips' first light bulb factory (nicknamed Roze Baby, or "Pink Baby", in reference to its pink colour and much smaller size when compared to the "White Lady" and "Brown Gentleman"). The small building now houses the "Centrum Kunstlicht in de Kunst" (centre artificial light in art) and the "Philips Incandescent Lamp Factory of 1891" museum.
Due to its high-tech environment, Eindhoven is part of several initiatives to develop, foster and increase a knowledge economy. Chief among these are:
As a result of these efforts, the Intelligent Community Forum named the Eindhoven metro region one of the top-21 intelligent communities in 2008 and one of the top-7 intelligent communities in 2009 and 2010. Finally, in 2011, the ICF named Eindhoven the Intelligent Community of the Year.
Eindhoven is one of the co-location centres of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT). It hosts two Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs): Innoenergy (Sustainable Energy) and EIT ICT Labs (Information and Communication Technology). The co-locations are on the High Tech Campus Eindhoven.
Eindhoven, being a city with a 200,000+ population, is served by a large number of schools both at primary and secondary education levels. In addition, Eindhoven is a higher-education hub within the southern Netherlands, with several institutes of higher education that serve students from the extended region of North Brabant, Zeeland, Limburg and parts of the surrounding provinces.
Primary education is provided to the children aged 4 to 12 in Eindhoven through a large number of primary schools:
Secondary education is provided to the children aged 12 to 18 in Eindhoven through several highschools:
Special needs secondary education:
Eindhoven hosts four different public institutions for higher and adult education, as well as a number of private institutions offering courses and trainings. The public institutions hosted in Eindhoven are:
The Open University also has a study center in Eindhoven.
Among the private institutions is the Centrum voor Kunsten Eindhoven, which offers art-related courses to adults (including a DJ-education).
The municipal council is the legislative council at the municipal level in Eindhoven; its existence is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands. The Eindhoven city council consists of 45 elected representatives from the Eindhoven municipality. These are elected during municipal elections from candidates running in Eindhoven. Eindhoven politics consists of local branches of the national political parties and purely local parties with strictly local interests. The city council reflects this mix in its makeup.
The last three municipal elections were held on 7 March 2006, 3 March 2010 and 19 March 2014. The division of the 45 seats in the Eindhoven city council after these elections is shown below:
|Party||Percentage in 2006||Seats in 2006||Percentage in 2010||Seats in 2010||Percentage in 2014||Seats in 2014|
|Senior Appeal Eindhoven||4.88%||2||6.23%||3||9.7%||5|
|Pim Fortuyn List||2.27%||1||4.57%||2||3.7%||1|
|Students List Eindhoven||1.69%||0||-||-||-||-|
|Future Party (PvdT)||1.05%||0||0.8%||0||0.6%||0|
|Trots op Nederland/Lijst Rita Verdonk||-||-||2.84%||1||-||-|
|J.C.W.M. Vlemmix List||-||-||0.80%||0||-||-|
|Human and Spirit Party||-||-||0.49%||0||-||-|
|Blanco lijst, 1e kand. M. Leenders||-||-||-||-||1.5%||0|
|Election results (percentages) 2010|
The executive council in Dutch municipalities is called the College of the Mayor and Aldermen (Dutch: College van Burgemeester en Wethouders or College van B&W for short). The mayor is appointed by the monarch, but the council of aldermen is composed as a result of the formation of a local coalition government. This coalition is formed in such a way as to be able to rely on a majority of the votes in the city council.
The mayors of the Netherlands are not elected but appointed by the crown. Nevertheless, there has been a movement over the last few years to give the municipalities more say in who will be their mayor, which has resulted in consultative referenda being held in the larger cities to "suggest" a candidate for the post. This was also tried in Eindhoven and as a result the current mayor is Rob van Gijzel (PvdA).
On 23 January 2008, a referendum to elect a mayor was held in Eindhoven. This referendum, the second of its kind in the Netherlands, was attended by 24.6% of the inhabitants. This was less than the required 30% needed to make a referendum binding. Nevertheless, the city council would choose the winner of the referendum as the preferred candidate. The main reason for the low attendance was that the candidates, Leen Verbeek and Rob van Gijzel, were from the same party. Rob van Gijzel won the referendum with 61.8% of the votes and was appointed the city's new mayor.
The mayor is the chairman of the Council of B&W. He also has responsibility for a number of specific posts (like the aldermen). In the current council, mayor Van Gijzel holds responsibility for the following posts:
If unavailable, the mayor is temporarily replaced by one of the aldermen.
Culturally and recreationally, Eindhoven was formed by two forces:
Eindhoven is also known as the City of Light, due to Philips originating from there and because of several projects involving lighting up buildings of the city. During Carnival, Eindhoven is rechristened Lampegat (Hamlet of Lamps, although for the ironic purposes of carnival the translation Hole in the ground with lamps is closer to the mark); this refers again to the important role of Philips in the Eindhoven community.
There are several cultural institutions in and around the city.
The Eindhoven public space contains many forms of artistic expression (a book published by the Eindhoven tourist board records 550 as of 2001 and more have been added since), with high "concentrations" of them in the parks. The Stadswandelpark for instance, contains over 30 works of modern art. There are also several other works of art on permanent display throughout the city, such as Flying Pins (by Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, who considered the location on the southern stretch of the John F. Kennedylaan to be like a bowling alley) and Swing (a construct on the Karel de Grotelaan, which morphs into different geometric shapes as you move around it). There are also a number of statues of famous city inhabitants, such as Jan van Hooff (by Auke Hettema, 1992) and Frits Philips (by Kees Verkade) on the Market Square. There is a statue of Anton Philips in front of the central railway station.
Strijp-S is a place for experimentiation with LED lighting, which keeps the historic connection with Philips' past. Some light art includes the project Fakkel by Har Hollands. In the underground passage to NatLab artist Daan Roosegaarde installed his project Crystal.
In 1992, the Muziekcentrum Frits Philips was opened as a stage for classical and popular music in Eindhoven, reviewed by critics as a concert hall with acoustics that rival the best halls in Europe. Before that, Philips sponsored the POC.
Parktheater Eindhoven is Eindhoven's stage for opera, cabaret, ballet etc. Opened in 1964, it has received over 250,000 visitors every year. With its 1,000 m2 it has one of the largest stages in the Netherlands. With a major renovation ending in 2007, the new Parktheater will receive an estimated 300,000 visitors a year.
Eindhoven's Plaza Futura is now a cinema featuring cultural movies, lectures and special cultural events.
Especially for students, Studium Generale Eindhoven organizes "socially, culturally and intellectually formative events". From within the student body, two Tunas provide entertainment from time to time at university and city events: Tuna Ciudad de Luz (Tuna of the City of Light) and the ladies tuna La Tuniña.
The general music and theatre scene in Eindhoven (in the broadest sense) is supported by a foundation called PopEi. The purpose of this foundation is to support artistic groups with facilities, especially rehearsal stages and areas (housed in the old Philips location of Strijp-S) but also storage facilities. PopEi also provides a working environment for groups (through cafeteria facilities in Strijp-S, so groups can have real working days) and provides some logistical support for organizing events.
Eindhoven has a lively recreational scene. For going out, there are numerous bars on the Market square, Stratumseind (Stratum's End) which is the largest pub-street in the Netherlands, Dommelstraat, Wilhelmina square and throughout the rest of the city. In addition to the more culturally oriented Plaza Futura, there are three cinemas in the centre of town ("Servicebioscoop Zien", "Vue" and Pathé Eindhoven, which offers THX sound, IMAX screens and 3D movie viewing).
Eindhoven also hosts a large number of cultural and entertainment-oriented festivals. The biggest festivals in Eindhoven are:
Eindhoven contains several parks and a lot of open, green space. Of the five largest cities in the Netherlands, it has the highest percentage of green area (encompassing about ⅓ of all public space). It is also the greenest of the five largest cities in North Brabant. The green area per house is about 100 square metres (1,100 square feet).
Some of the major parks in Eindhoven are the Stadswandelpark, Genneper Parken, the Philips van Lenneppark, Philips de Jongh Wandelpark and the Henri Dunantpark. There is also a green area surrounding the Karpendonkse Plas (a water area). The combination of park area, water and general atmosphere got the Ooievaarsnest neighborhood elected the "Best large-city neighborhood of the Netherlands" by the NRC Handelsblad in 1997.
The old Philips factory complex has been transformed into a multi-purpose cultural and residential complex called Strijp-S. This includes conference and event space, space for concerts and events, art of lighting, space for sports such as BMX, bouldering, and more, a walking promenade, etc.
Eindhoven features several print media. The local newspaper, called the Eindhovens Dagblad, is a daily newspaper with over 110,000 subscribers in the Samenwerkingsverband Regio Eindhoven region. It has a national and international section, as well as a section dedicated to regional news; the editorial department is located in Eindhoven.
In addition to the newspaper, Eindhoven is served by a number of weekly door-to-door publications. Chief among these is Groot Eindhoven (which carries publications of the city council, as well as other articles and advertisements). Other than that there are de Trompetter, dé Weekendkrant and the ZondagsNieuws. The first two are delivered midweek, the last two are weekend publications.
Eindhoven Airport is the closest airport, located approximately 8 kilometres (5 miles) from the town centre. The airport serves as a military air base and a civilian commercial airport. Eindhoven Airport is the second-busiest in the Netherlands (after Schiphol).
Ryanair serves London Stansted airport, Dublin, Kiev, Rome, Milan, Pisa, Bordeaux, Marseille, Glasgow, Madrid, Valencia, Stockholm, Kaunas, Malta, Sofia and Barcelona. Wizz air serves Belgrade, Brno, Bucharest-Baneasa, Budapest, Cluj-Napoca, Debrecen, Gdańsk, Katowice, Prague, Riga, Sofia, Timișoara, Vilnius, Wrocław. In the summer season, Reykjavík is served with 2 weekly flights operated by Iceland Express. Transavia services Alicante, Antalya, Bodrum, Corfu, Dalaman, Faro, Gran Canaria, Innsbruck, Málaga, Majorca, Munich, Prague, Rhodes and Salzburg, though some destinations are served only seasonally. Eindhoven Airport served more than 4.6 million passengers in 2015.
Eindhoven's central railway station is served by both intercity and local services while the smaller station, Eindhoven Strijp-S is only served by local trains. Towards 's-Hertogenbosch, Utrecht and Amsterdam trains run every ten minutes, on every day of the week.
Up until World War II, a train service connected Amsterdam to Liège via Eindhoven and Valkenswaard, but the service was discontinued and the line broken up. Recently, talks have resumed to have a service to Neerpelt, Belgium via Weert.
The A2/E25 motorway from Amsterdam to Luxembourg passes Eindhoven to the west and south of the city. The A2 connects to the highway A58 to Tilburg and Breda just north of the city. Just south of Eindhoven, the A2 connects to the A67 / E34 between Antwerp and Duisburg. In 2006, the A50 was completed connecting Eindhoven to Nijmegen and Zwolle.
The public transport of Eindhoven consists of more than 20 city bus lines, which also serve neighbouring cities like Veldhoven, Geldrop and Nuenen. Seven of these buslines (400 - 407) are marketed as high quality public transport and run with 43 electric articulated busses. Two specially built separated busways (HOV1 & HOV2) are used by lines 401 to 406. Line 401 to the airport runs almost completely on separated busways. Apart from the city lines there are some 30 regional and rush-hour lines.
Eindhoven has two hospitals in three locations: the Catharina Hospital and the Máxima Medisch Centrum, which has a branch in Woensel-Zuid (the old Diaconessenhuis) and one in Veldhoven (the old Sint Joseph Hospital). These three have an extensive cooperation and have divided specialties among each other. Emergency medicine, for example, is concentrated in the MMC Veldhoven branch and the Catharina Hospital, the MMC Eindhoven branch has no emergency department. Cardiac procedures are done in the Catharina.
Catharina is also an academic and research hospital and participates in a shared research program with Philips Medical, the Eindhoven University of Technology and the Maastricht University into biomedical science, technology and engineering.
Eindhoven is twinned with:
The 1978 UEFA Cup Final was a football match played on 26 April 1978 and 9 May 1978 between PSV Eindhoven of Netherlands and Bastia of France. PSV Eindhoven won the tie 3–0 on aggregate, with a 3–0 victory at home following a goalless draw in Bastia.1987–88 European Cup
The 1987–88 European Cup was the 33rd season of the European Cup club football tournament. The competition was won for the first time by PSV Eindhoven, who defeated two-time winners Benfica in the final at Neckarstadion in Stuttgart. PSV became the first Dutch team to win the title in 15 years. They also set a record by winning only three matches on their route to the Cup, including no wins from the quarter-final onwards.
Porto, the defending champions, were eliminated by Real Madrid in the second round.
English clubs were still banned, following the Heysel Stadium disaster of 1985, so Everton were denied a place in the competition for the second time in three years.1988 European Cup Final
The 1988 European Cup Final was a football match played between PSV Eindhoven of the Netherlands and Benfica of Portugal. PSV won 6–5 on penalties after a goalless draw after extra time. The match was played at Neckarstadion, Stuttgart, on 25 May 1988. According to PSV-player Berry van Aerle, it was not a particularly good match, with both teams very cautious. However, it was exciting until the end and a tense penalty shoot-out.For PSV, this win secured a Treble of the Dutch Cup, the Dutch Championship and the European Cup. Five of the PSV team were part of the Dutch team that went on to win UEFA Euro 1988 in Germany that summer.1999 World Table Tennis Championships
The 1999 World Table Tennis Championships were held in Eindhoven from August 2 to August 8, 1999. The Championships were originally scheduled from April 26 to May 9 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia but were postponed after the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War in March 1999. Individual events were relocated to Eindhoven and team competitions were moved to Kuala Lumpur in 2000.2006 UEFA Cup Final
The 2006 UEFA Cup Final was a football match that took place at Philips Stadion in Eindhoven, Netherlands on 10 May 2006. The match was contested by Middlesbrough of England and Sevilla of Spain. Sevilla won the UEFA Cup with a 4–0 win.2018 Johan Cruyff Shield
The 2018 Johan Cruyff Shield was the twenty-third Johan Cruyff Shield (Dutch: Johan Cruijff Schaal), an annual Dutch football match played between the winners of the previous season's Eredivisie and KNVB Cup. The match was contested by PSV, champions of the 2017–18 Eredivisie, and Feyenoord, winners of the 2017–18 KNVB Cup. It was held at the Philips Stadion on 4 August 2018.Angeliño (footballer)
José Ángel Esmorís Tasende (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse ˈaŋxel ezmoˈɾis taˈsende]; born 4 January 1997), commonly known as Angeliño [aŋxeˈliɲo], is a Spanish footballer who plays as a left back for Premier League club Manchester City.Eindhoven Airport
Eindhoven Airport (IATA: EIN, ICAO: EHEH) is an airport located 7.6 km (4.7 mi) west of Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands. In terms of the number of served passengers it is the second largest airport in the Netherlands, with 5.7 million passengers in 2017 (well behind Schiphol, which serves more than 68 million passengers). The airport is used by both civilian and military traffic.Eindhoven University of Technology
The Eindhoven University of Technology (Dutch: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven), abbr. TU/e, is a technical university in the Netherlands, operating in English. It focuses on engineering and technology.
The 2019 QS World University Rankings place Eindhoven 99th in the world, 34th in Europe, and 3rd in the Netherlands - TU/e has moved up 59 places in this world ranking since 2012 (in two other main world rankings it is 167th and 51-75th).
TU/e is the Dutch member of the EuroTech Universities Alliance, a strategic partnership of universities of science & technology in Europe: Technical University of Denmark (DTU), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), École Polytechnique (L’X), The Technion, Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), and Technical University of Munich (TUM).FC Eindhoven
FC Eindhoven is a Dutch football club based in Eindhoven, North Brabant. They currently play in the Eerste Divisie (second tier of Dutch football), and are one of two professional clubs which are based in the city of Eindhoven, the other one being PSV Eindhoven.
FC Eindhoven play their home games at Jan Louwers Stadion, on the southern part of the city. The club's official colours are blue and white, hence their nickname Blauw-Witten (The Blue-Whites).Hirving Lozano
Hirving Rodrigo Lozano Bahena (born 30 July 1995) is a Mexican professional footballer who plays as a winger for Dutch club PSV Eindhoven and the Mexican national team. He is popularly referred to by his nickname Chucky.He began his career with Pachuca, winning the 2016 Clausura and the 2016–17 CONCACAF Champions League, playing in 149 games and scoring 43 goals for the team. In June 2017, he signed for PSV Eindhoven, winning the Eredivisie in his first season in the Netherlands, and finished as the team’s top scorer.
Participating with various youth teams, Lozano won the 2015 CONCACAF U-20 Championship and played at the 2016 Summer Olympics. He made his senior international debut in February 2016 and represented the nation at the Copa America Centenario, 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup, and 2018 FIFA World Cup.Jong PSV
Jong PSV is a Dutch football team, based in Eindhoven. It is the reserve team of PSV Eindhoven and plays in the Eerste Divisie since the 2013–14 season.Luuk de Jong
Luuk de Jong (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈlyɡ də ˈjɔŋ], born 27 August 1990) is a Dutch professional footballer who plays as a forward and serves as striker for La Liga club Sevilla. He is also a member of the Netherlands national team.
He previously played for DZC '68, De Graafschap, Twente, Borussia Mönchengladbach, Newcastle United and PSV before joining Sevilla in 2019. His brother Siem de Jong is also a professional football player, currently playing for Ajax.Martijn van Dam
Martinus Hendricus Petrus "Martijn" van Dam (born 1 February 1978) is a Dutch engineer and politician. A member of the Labour Party (PvdA), he served as State Secretary for Economic Affairs from 3 November 2015 until 1 September 2017 in the Second Rutte cabinet. He was a member of the House of Representatives between 2003 and 2015. He previously served as councillor for the municipality of Eindhoven from April 1998 to January 2003. From the time he entered the States General on 30 January 2003 to 29 November 2006 he was the youngest member of the House.North Brabant
North Brabant (Dutch: Noord-Brabant; [ˌnoːrd ˈbraːbɑnt] (listen)), also unofficially called Brabant, is a province in the south of the Netherlands. It borders the provinces of South Holland and Gelderland to the north, Limburg to the east, Zeeland to the west, and Belgium to the south. The northern border follows the Meuse westward to its mouth in the Hollands Diep strait, part of the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta.PSV Eindhoven
The Philips Sport Vereniging (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈfilɪps ˌspɔrt fəˌreːnəɣɪŋ], English: Philips Sports Union), abbreviated as PSV and internationally known as PSV Eindhoven [ˌpeːjɛsˈfeː ˈɛi̯ntɦoːvə(n)] is a sports club from Eindhoven, Netherlands, that plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. It is best known for its professional football department, which plays in the Eredivisie since its inception in 1956. Along with Ajax and Feyenoord, PSV is one of the country's "big three" clubs that have dominated the Eredivisie.
The club was founded in 1913 as a team for Philips employees. PSV's history contains two golden eras revolving around the UEFA Cup victory in 1978 and the 1987–88 European Cup victory as part of the seasonal treble in 1988. The team has won the Eredivisie 24 times, the KNVB Cup nine times and the Johan Cruyff Shield ten times. Currently (as of Nov 2018), PSV is 39th on the UEFA club coefficients ranking.
Throughout the years, PSV established itself as a stepping stone for future world class players like Ruud Gullit, Ronald Koeman, Romário, Ronaldo, Phillip Cocu, Jaap Stam, Jisung Park, Ruud van Nistelrooy, and Arjen Robben.
Since its foundation, it has played in the Philips Stadion and has upheld its club colours (red and white). Its elaborate connection with Philips can be witnessed in its sponsoring, shared technology and board member ties. Fans have named themselves 'boeren' (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈbuːrə(n)], Dutch for either peasants or farmers), taking pride in Eindhoven's status of being a provincial city and their Brabantian heritage.Philips
Koninklijke Philips N.V. (literally Royal Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Amsterdam, one of the largest electronics companies in the world, currently focused in the area of healthcare and lighting. It was founded in Eindhoven in 1891 by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik, with their first products being light bulbs. It was once one of the largest electronic conglomerates in the world and currently employs around 74,000 people across 100 countries. The company gained its royal honorary title in 1998 and dropped the "Electronics" in its name in 2013.Philips is organized into two main divisions: Philips Consumer Health and Well-being (formerly Philips Consumer Electronics and Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care) and Philips Professional Healthcare (formerly Philips Medical Systems). The lighting division was spun off as a separate company, Signify N.V. (formerly Philips Lighting prior to 2018). The company started making electric shavers in 1939 under the Philishave brand, and post-war they developed the Compact Cassette format and co-developed the Compact Disc format with Sony, as well as numerous other technologies. As of 2012, Philips was the largest manufacturer of lighting in the world as measured by applicable revenues.
Philips has a primary listing on the Euronext Amsterdam stock exchange and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Acquisitions include that of Signetics and Magnavox. They also have had a sports club since 1913 called PSV Eindhoven.Philips Stadion
The Philips Stadion (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈfilɪps ˌstaːdijɔn]) is a football stadium in Eindhoven, Netherlands, and it is the home of PSV (Philips Sport Vereniging), also known as PSV Eindhoven. With a capacity of 35,000, it is the third-largest football stadium in the country. Established as the Philips Sportpark, it was constructed as a sports field for Philips employees in 1910. The Philips Elftal played football matches from 1911 until 1913, when the team was succeeded by PSV. Since 1913, PSV has used the original ground as its home stadium.
The stadium has gone through several extensions in its history: after a wooden stand in 1916, seating and standing places slowly enclosed the field throughout the first decades. Two extensive renovations in the 1970s and 1990s first created a covered stadium, and then a two-tiered ground with extensive commercial spaces. The completion of the four corners in 2002 eventually led to its current capacity.
The Philips Stadion currently holds a four-star rating by UEFA. It has hosted a range of Netherlands national team fixtures since 1971. In 2013, PSV's reserve team, Jong PSV, also played their league matches at the stadium. They now play their games at the training complex De Herdgang. Furthermore, the Philips Stadion was the location for three UEFA Euro 2000 group stage matches, as well as the 2006 UEFA Cup Final. Aside from football-related purposes, the ground is incidentally used for music concerts.Phillip Cocu
Phillip John-William Cocu (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈfilɪb ˈɟɔn ˈʋɪlijɑm koːˈky]; born 29 October 1970) is a Dutch professional football manager and former player who is the current manager of Championship club Derby County.Cocu was born in Eindhoven but raised in Zevenaar, playing youth football for local clubs DCS and De Graafschap. After a year at AFC '34, he started his professional career at AZ. In 1990, Cocu moved to Vitesse. A broken fibula disrupted his first season, but he became a first-team regular in the following four seasons. In 1995, he joined PSV, where he won the KNVB Cup and the Eredivisie title in 1997. Cocu played for Barcelona between 1998 and 2004. There, he would become club captain, win La Liga in 1999 and play two Champions League semi-finals. He left the club in 2004 as club record holder for the most league appearances by a foreign player. During Cocu's second stint at PSV, he won another three Eredivisie titles and reached the Champions League semi-finals. After a year at Al Jazira, Cocu retired from professional football.
Cocu debuted for the Netherlands national team in 1996 and appeared at the 1998 World Cup, scoring two goals but missing a penalty in the semi-finals against Brazil. He also played at the 2006 World Cup, as well as the 1996, 2000 and 2004 European Championships. Cocu reached the semi-finals in the latter two tournaments and in 2004, he served as captain of the Dutch team. With 101 caps, Cocu is eighth on the list of most Dutch international appearances. During his career, he mainly played as a defensive "playmaker" midfielder, but became equally known for his ability to be fielded as a defender, wing back, winger or forward.
After his retirement from playing professional football, Cocu joined PSV again as youth coach and later assistant manager. He also served as assistant at the Dutch team under Bert van Marwijk between 2008 and 2012. Cocu was caretaker manager at PSV in 2012, during which he won the KNVB Cup. In 2013, he was officially appointed as PSV manager.
|Climate data for Eindhoven, Netherlands for 1981– (Source: KNMI)|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.3
|Average high °C (°F)||5.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.0
|Average low °C (°F)||0.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−21.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||63.6
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||16||14||16||13||13||14||14||13||14||15||17||17||176|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 cm)||6||6||4||1||0||—||—||—||—||0||2||5||24|
|Average relative humidity (%)||87||84||80||74||73||75||75||77||83||85||89||90||81|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||61.5||84.0||120.8||170.2||202.5||191.5||204.8||188.8||141.7||115.9||65.1||48.1||1,603.6|
Places adjacent to Eindhoven
Municipalities of North Brabant