The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation or UIAA recognise eight-thousanders as the 14 mountains that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height above sea level, and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence, and since 2012 the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia, and their summits are in the death zone.
The first person to summit all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner in 1986, who completed the feat without the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2010, Spaniard Edurne Pasaban became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders, but with the aid of supplementary oxygen; in 2011 Austrian Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders without the aid of supplementary oxygen. From 1950–1964, all eight-thousanders were summited. As of May 2019, K2 remains the only eight-thousander not summited in a Winter ascent.
The first recorded attempt on an eight-thousander was when Albert F. Mummery and J. Norman Collie tried to climb Pakistan's Nanga Parbat in 1895. The attempt failed when Mummery and two Gurkhas, Ragobir, and Goman Singh, were killed by an avalanche.
The first recorded successful ascent of an eight-thousander was by the French Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, who on the 1950 French Annapurna expedition reached the summit of Annapurna on 3 June 1950. The first winter ascent of an eight-thousander was done by a Polish team led by Andrzej Zawada on Mount Everest. Two climbers Leszek Cichy and Krzysztof Wielicki reached the summit on 17 February 1980.
The first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders was the Italian Reinhold Messner, on 16 October 1986. In 1987, Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka became the second person to accomplish this feat. Kukuczka is also the man who established the most new routes (9) on the main eight-thousanders. Messner summited each of the 14 peaks without the aid of supplemental oxygen. This feat was not repeated until nine years later by the Swiss Erhard Loretan in 1995. Phurba Tashi of Nepal has completed the most climbs of the eight-thousanders, with 30 ascents between 1998 and 2011. Juanito Oiarzabal has completed the second most, with a total of 25 ascents between 1985 and 2011.
The Italian Simone Moro made the most first winter ascents of eight-thousanders (4); Jerzy Kukuczka made four winter ascents as well, but one was a repetition. As of May 2019, K2 remains the only eight-thousander that has never been summited in the winter.
In 2010, Spanish climber Edurne Pasaban, became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders with no disputed climbing. In August 2011, Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to climb the 14 eight-thousanders without the use of supplementary oxygen.
The first couple and team who summited all 14 eight-thousanders together were the Italians Nives Meroi (second woman without supplementary oxygen), and her husband Romano Benet in 2017. They climbed in alpine style, without the use of supplementary oxygen.
As of November 2018, the country with the most climbers to have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders is Italy with seven climbers, followed by Spain with six climbers, and South Korea with five climbers. Kazakhstan and Poland have three climbers each that completed the "Crown of the Himalaya".
|Mountain||First ascent||First winter ascent||From 1950 to March 2012||Climber Death|
|Peak||Height||Prom.||Location||Date||Summiter(s)||Date||Summiter(s)||Total Ascents[b]||Total Deaths[c]||Deaths / Ascents[d]|
|Everest||8,848 metres (29,029 ft)||8,848 metres (29,029 ft)|| Nepal
|29 May 1953||Edmund Hillary||17 February 1980
|| Krzysztof Wielicki
|K2||8,614 metres (28,261 ft)||4,020 metres (13,190 ft)|| Pakistan
|31 July 1954|| Achille Compagnoni
|Kangchenjunga||8,586 metres (28,169 ft)||3,922 metres (12,867 ft)|| Nepal
|25 May 1955|| George Band
|11 January 1986|| Krzysztof Wielicki
|Lhotse||8,516 metres (27,940 ft)||610 metres (2,000 ft)|| Nepal
|18 May 1956|| Fritz Luchsinger
|31 December 1988||Krzysztof Wielicki||461||13||2.8%||1.03%|
|Makalu||8,485 metres (27,838 ft)||2,378 metres (7,802 ft)|| Nepal
|15 May 1955|| Jean Couzy
|9 February 2009|| Simone Moro
|Cho Oyu||8,188 metres (26,864 ft)||2,344 metres (7,690 ft)|| Nepal
|19 October 1954|| Joseph Joechler
Pasang Dawa Lama
|12 February 1985|| Maciej Berbeka
|Dhaulagiri I||8,167 metres (26,795 ft)||3,357 metres (11,014 ft)||Nepal||13 May 1960|| Kurt Diemberger
|21 January 1985|| Andrzej Czok
|Manaslu||8,163 metres (26,781 ft)||3,092 metres (10,144 ft)||Nepal||9 May 1956|| Toshio Imanishi
|12 January 1984|| Maciej Berbeka
|Nanga Parbat||8,125 metres (26,657 ft)||4,608 metres (15,118 ft)||Pakistan||3 July 1953||Hermann Buhl||26 February 2016|| Muhammad Ali Sadpara
|Annapurna I||8,091 metres (26,545 ft)||2,984 metres (9,790 ft)||Nepal||3 June 1950|| Maurice Herzog
|3 February 1987|| Jerzy Kukuczka
|8,080 metres (26,510 ft)||2,155 metres (7,070 ft)|| Pakistan
|5 July 1958|| Andrew Kauffman
|9 March 2012|| Adam Bielecki
|Broad Peak||8,051 metres (26,414 ft)||1,701 metres (5,581 ft)|| Pakistan
|9 June 1957|| Fritz Wintersteller
|5 March 2013|| Maciej Berbeka
|Gasherbrum II||8,035 metres (26,362 ft)||1,524 metres (5,000 ft)|| Pakistan
|7 July 1956|| Fritz Moravec
|2 February 2011|| Simone Moro
|Shishapangma||8,027 metres (26,335 ft)||2,897 metres (9,505 ft)||China||2 May 1964|| Xu Jing
|14 January 2005|| Piotr Morawski
In 2012, to relieve capacity pressure, and develop climbing tourism, Nepal lobbied the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (or UIAA) to reclassify five summits (two on Lhotse and three on Kanchenjunga), as standalone eight-thousanders, while Pakistan lobbied for a sixth summit (on Broad Peak) In 2012, the UIAA set up a project group to consider the proposals called the AGURA Project. The six proposed summits for reclassification are subsidiary-summits of existing eight-thousanders, but which are also themselves above 8,000 metres and have a prominence above 60 metres.
|Proposed new eight-thousander||Height (m)||Prominence (m)||Dominance
(Prom / Height)
|Broad Peak Central||8011||181||2,26||B2|
|Kangchenjunga W-Peak (Yalung Kang)||8505||135||1,59||C1|
|Lhotse C-Peak I||8410||65||0,77||C2|
|K 2 SW-Peak||8580||30||0,35||D1|
|Lhotse C-Peak II||8372||37||0,44||D1|
|Yalung Kang Shoulder||8200||40||0,49||D1|
|K 2 P. 8134 (SW-Ridge)||8134||35||0,43||D1|
|Nanga Parbat S-Peak||8042||30||0,37||D1|
|Shisha Pangma C-Peak||8008||30||0,37||D1|
|Everest NE-Pinnacle III||8383||13||0,16||D2|
|Lhotse N-Pinnacle III||8327||10||0,12||D2|
|Lhotse N-Pinnacle II||8307||12||0,14||D2|
|Lhotse N-Pinnacle I||8290||10||0,12||D2|
|Everest NE-Pinnacle II||8282||25||0,30||D2|
The proposed six new eight-thousander peaks would not meet the wider UIAA criteria of 600 meters of elevation change between standalone peaks, called topographic prominence, as used by the UIAA elsewhere for major mountains (the lowest prominence of the existing list of 14 eight-thousanders is Lothse, at 610 metres). For example, only Broad Peak Central, with a topographic prominence of 181 meters, would even meet the 150–metre prominence threshold to be a British Isles Marilyn. However, the appeal noted the UIAA's 1994 reclassification of Alpine 4,000 metre peaks where a prominence threshold of 30–metres was used, amongst other criteria; the logic being that if 30–metres worked for 4,000 metres summits, then 60–metres should work for 8,000m summits.
As of November 2018, there has been no conclusion by the UIAA and the proposals appear to have been set aside.
There is no single undisputed source for verified Himalayan ascents, however, Elizabeth Hawley's The Himalayan Database, is considered as an important source for the Nepalese Himalayas. Online ascent databases pay close regard to The Himalayan Database, including the website AdventureStats.com, and the Eberhard Jurgalski List. Various mountaineering journals, including the Alpine Journal and the American Alpine Journal, maintain extensive records and archives but do not always opine on ascents.
The "No O2" column lists people who have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders without supplementary oxygen.
|2||Jerzy Kukuczka||1979–1987 (deceased)||1948||39||Polish|
|3||2||Erhard Loretan||1982–1995 (deceased)||1959||36||Swiss|
|8||Park Young-seok||1993–2001 (deceased)||1963||38||Korean|
|30||Chhang Dawa Sherpa||2001–2013||1982||30||Nepali|
|31||14||Kim Chang-ho||2005–2013 (deceased)||1970||43||Korean|
|34/35||16/17||Romano Benet||1998–2017||1962||55|| Italian|
Claims in which not enough evidence was provided to verify the ascents of all 14 peaks. The disputed ascent in each claim is shown in parentheses. In most cases, the influential Himalayan chronicler Elizabeth Hawley, is an important source regarding the fact-base of the dispute. Her well-regarded The Himalayan Database is the source for other online Himalayan ascent databases (e.g. AdventureStats.com).
Cho Oyu is a recurrent problem peak as it is a small hump circa 30 mins into the summit plateau, and the main proxy – "Did you see Everest" – requires clear weather. Shishapangma is another problem peak because of its dual summits, which despite being close in height, are up to two hours climbing time apart. Elizabeth Hawley famously got Ed Viesturs to re-climb the main summit of Shishapangma.
|Fausto De Stefani (Lhotse 1997)
(His partner Sergio Martini reclimbed Lhotse in 2000 to verify his 14, see above)
|Alan Hinkes (Cho Oyu 1990)
(Hinkes rejects Hawley's decision to "unrecognise" his Cho Oyu ascent, see "Cho Oyu dispute")
|Vladislav Terzyul (Shishapangma (West) Summit 2000, Broad Peak 1995)
(As he did not claim the main summit of Shishapangma, this status is unlikely to change)
|Oh Eun-sun (Kangchenjunga 2009)
(As the potential first female climber of all 14, this dispute was followed internationally)
|Carlos Pauner (Shishapangma 2012)
(Pauner is very open about his uncertainty as it was dark, but says he might reclimb to remove the doubt)
|Zhang Liang (Shishapangma 2018)
(According Chinese state media and The Himalayan Times, Zhang completed all 14 with other three climbers in the 2018 Chinese Shishapangma expedition, which is suspected that they only reached the central summit)
For every three thrill-seekers that make it safely up and down Annapurna I, one dies trying, according to data from Eberhard Jurgalski of website 8000ers.com, collected in his forthcoming book "On Top of the World: The New Millennium", co-authored by Richard Sale.
Table D-3: Deaths for peaks with more than 750 members above base camp from 1950–2009
Included are only fatalities from, at or above BC or caused from there. Fatalities on approach or return marches are not listed.
Nepal is to tackle overcrowding on the world’s highest mountain by placing greater restrictions on expeditions to the summit of Mount Everest. The move is a response to growing problems with litter, pollution and recent clashes between Sherpas and Western climbers. But in an attempt to appease those hoping to conquer the 29,029 feet tall peak, the Nepalese government is to open access to five other summits that sit over 26,246 feet, or 8,000 meters.
The UIAA initiated in 2012 what it calls the ARUGA project with an aim to see if new 8,000m-plus could feasibly achieve international recognition. Under that project, Nepal had tabled five new peaks and Pakistan one.
There are several different subsidiary peaks! Here are the geographical facts, from the one "relative independent Main-Peak" (EU category B) over the important subsidiary peaks (C) to the major notable points (D1) Especially the last category is just guessed by contours or from photographs.
Accordingly, the author introduced altitude classes (AC) and a proportional prominence, which he named orometrical dominance (D). D is calculated easily but fittingly: (P/Alt) x 100. Thus, it indicates the percentage of independence for every elevation, no matter what the altitude, prominence or mountain type it is. From a scientific point of view, altitude could be seen as the thesis, prominence as the antithesis, whereas dominance would be the synthesis.
The most prominent one, Broad Peak Central is just 196m high and the least prominent, Lhotse Middle, is a meagre 60m. To put this in context, the highest mountain in Malta is 253m, while the Eiffel Tower stands a whopping 300m.
Topographic criterium: for each summit, the level difference between it and the highest adjacent pass or notch should be at least 30 m (calculated as average of the summits at the limit of acceptability). An additional criterium can be the horizontal distance between a summit and the base of another adjacent 4000er.
...the American climber became one of only five men in the world to accomplish the quest entirely without supplementary oxygen.
Last year, Silvio 'Gnaro' Mondinelli broke the haunted 13 when he summited the last peak on his list of 14, 8000ers – becoming only the 6th mountaineer in the world to have bagged them all without supplementary oxygen.
13/07 interview with Silvio Mondinelli after the summit of his 14th 8000m peak without supplementary oxygen.
Implied in text: ...Following Italian Silvio "Gnaro" Mondinelli last year and American Ed Viesturs in 2005, Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen.
...Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen.
But a South Korean climber, who followed in their footprints on the crusted snow three days later [in 1997] in clearer weather, did not consider that they actually gained the top. While [Sergio] Martini and [Fausto] De Stefani indicated they were perhaps only a few meters below it, Park Young-Seok claimed that their footprints stopped well before the top, perhaps 30 meters below a small fore-summit and 150 vertical meters below the highest summit. Now in 2000 [Sergio] Martini was back again, and this time he definitely summited Lhotse.
But his claim to have now climbed all 8000ers is open to question. In April 1990 he and others reached the summit plateau of Cho Oyu. It was misty so they could not see well; nine years later Hinkes said he had “wandered around for a while” in the summit area but could see very little and eventually descended to join the others, one of whom said they had not reached the top.
8K or 8k may stand for:
8K UHDTV, a digital video format
8 K, the quantity 8 kelvins
8000 (number), a natural number
Form 8-K, a United States Securities and Exchange Commission form
8,000 metres or 8K, a common running race distance
Eight-thousander, a class of tall mountains
GCR Class 8K, a class of British 2-8-0 steam locomotive
China Railways 8K, an Alstom-built electric locomotive
K-Mile Air (IATA airline code)Andrew Lock
Andrew James Lock OAM (born 26 December 1961) is an Australian high-altitude mountaineer. He became the first, and still remains the only, Australian to climb all 14 "eight-thousanders" (the peaks over 8,000-metres above sea level) on the 2 October 2009, and is the 18th person to ever complete this feat. He climbed 13 of the 14 without using bottled oxygen, only using it on Mount Everest, which he has summited twice. He retired from eight-thousander climbing in 2012.Ashish Mane
Ashish Mane (Born 14 August 1990) is one of the prominent professional mountaineer from India. He has scaled Mt. Everest (2012)., Mt. Lhotse (2013), Mt. Makalu (2014), Mt Manaslu (2017) and Kanchenjunga (2019). Ashish is the only climber from Maharashtra as of now, to ascend five of the fourteen Eight-thousander|peaks over 8,000 metres means about 26,000 ft above sea level. In the year 2016, he attempted to scale Daulagiri, but due to technical reasons he had to quit the expeditionBaltoro Muztagh
The Baltoro Muztagh (simplified Chinese: 巴尔托洛慕士塔格山; traditional Chinese: 巴爾托洛慕士塔格山; pinyin: Bā'ěrtuōluò Mùshìtǎgé Shān, Urdu: بلتورو موز تاغ) is a subrange of the Karakoram mountain range, in Baltistan region of the Gilgit-Baltistan, northern most political entity of Pakistan; and in Xinjiang, China. The crest of the range forms part of the Pakistan-China border.
The range is home to K2 (8,611 metres (28,251 ft)), the second highest mountain in the world, and to three other Eight-thousander peaks. They are located on the north and east sides of the Baltoro Glacier.Broad Peak
Broad Peak (Urdu: بروڈ پیک) is the 12th highest mountain in the world at 8,047 metres (26,401 ft) above sea level. The literal translation of "Broad Peak" to Falchan Kangri is not used among the Balti people. The English name was introduced in 1892 by the British explorer Martin Conway, in reference to the similarly named Breithorn in the Alps.Carlos Carsolio
Carlos Carsolio Larrea (born 4 October 1962 in Mexico City) is a Mexican mountain climber. Carsolio is known for being the fourth man (first non-European) and the second youngest to climb the world's 14 eight-thousander mountain peaks, all of them without supplementary oxygen (but he required emergency oxygen on his descent from Makalu in 1988).Chamar (mountain)
Chamar is the highest peak of the Sringi (or Serang) Himal, which is a subrange of the Nepalese Himalayas.
Chamar and the entire Sringi Himal lie in Central Nepal, just south of the Tibetan border, between the Shyar Khola valley on the east and the Tom Khola–Trisuli Gandaki valley on the west. Chamar is about 90 km northwest of Kathmandu, and about 25 km east of Manaslu, the nearest eight-thousander.Cho Oyu
Cho Oyu (Nepali: चोयु; Tibetan: ཇོ་བོ་དབུ་ཡ) is the sixth-highest mountain in the world at 8,188 metres (26,864 ft) above sea level. Cho Oyu means "Turquoise Goddess" in Tibetan. The mountain is the westernmost major peak of the Khumbu sub-section of the Mahalangur Himalaya 20 km west of Mount Everest. The mountain stands on the China–Nepal border.
Just a few kilometres west of Cho Oyu is Nangpa La (5,716m/18,753 ft), a glaciated pass that serves as the main trading route between the Tibetans and the Khumbu's Sherpas. This pass separates the Khumbu and Rolwaling Himalayas. Due to its proximity to this pass and the generally moderate slopes of the standard northwest ridge route, Cho Oyu is considered the easiest 8,000 metre peak to climb. It is a popular objective for professionally guided parties.Edurne Pasaban
Edurne Pasaban Lizarribar (born August 1, 1973) is a Basque Spanish mountaineer. On May 17, 2010, she became the 21st person and the first woman to climb all of the fourteen eight-thousander peaks in the World. Her first 8,000 peak had been achieved 9 years earlier, on May 23, 2001, when she climbed to the summit of Mount Everest.Hermann Buhl
Hermann Buhl (21 September 1924 – 27 June 1957) was an Austrian mountaineer and is considered one of the best climbers of all time. He was particularly innovative in applying Alpine style to Himalayan climbing. His accomplishments include:
1953 First ascent of Nanga Parbat, 8,126 metres (26,660 ft) (solo and without bottled oxygen). On the way back from the summit he was forced to stand erect on a rock ledge for the entire night at 8000m altitude, in order to survive until the following morning.
1957 First ascent of Broad Peak, 8,051 metres (26,414 ft).Before his successful Nanga Parbat expedition, 31 people had died trying to make the first ascent.
Buhl is the only mountaineer to have made the first ascent of an eight-thousander solo. His climbing partner, Otto Kempter, was too slow in joining the ascent, so Buhl struck off alone. He returned 41 hours later, having barely survived the arduous climb to the summit, 6.5 kilometers (4 miles) distant from, and 4,000 feet (1.2 kilometers) higher than camp V. Experienced climbers, upon hearing later of Buhl's near-death climb, faulted him for making the attempt solo. Regardless, his monumental efforts, along with spending the night untethered, on the edge of a 60-degree ice slope, standing on a tiny pedestal too small to squat upon, have become mountaineering legend.
Just a few weeks after the successful first ascent of Broad Peak (with Fritz Wintersteller and Marcus Schmuck), Buhl and Kurt Diemberger made an attempt on nearby, unclimbed Chogolisa (7665 m) in Alpine style. Buhl lost his way in an unexpected snow storm and walked over a huge cornice on the south-east ridge, near the summit of Chogolisa II (7654 m; also known as Broad Peak), subsequently triggering an avalanche that hurled him down 900 m over Chogolisa's north face. His body could not be recovered and remains in the ice.Iñaki Ochoa de Olza
Iñaki Ochoa de Olza (May 29, 1967 in Pamplona, Navarre – May 23, 2008 in Annapurna, Nepal) was a Spanish mountaineer, alpinist and climber. Ochoa de Olza took part in more than thirty separate climbing expeditions in the Himalayas over the course of his career, and he was involved in more than 200 expeditions as a guide. His records included climbing 12 of the world's 14 tallest mountains (repeating one of them, Cho Oyu) without the aid of oxygen. Ochoa went on record as saying that he did not believe in using oxygen to climb mountains, claiming "if you use oxygen, you are not an alpinist, you are more of an astronaut or a scuba diver.". He died of pulmonary edema in May 2008 while attempting to climb Annapurna (which would have been his 13th eight thousander).Juanito Oiarzabal
Juan Eusebio Oiarzabal Urteaga (born 30 March 1956), commonly known as Juanito Oiarzabal, is a noted Spanish Basque mountaineer and has written four books on the subject. He was the sixth man to reach all 14 eight-thousander summits, and the third one in reaching them without supplementary oxygen. He was the first person to conquer the top 3 summits twice (Everest + K2 + Kangchenjunga), and was the oldest climber to summit Kangchenjunga, at almost 53, until Carlos Soria Fontan made his successful attempt in 2014, when he was 75 years old.
In 2004, he lost all his toes to frostbite after summiting K2.In 2009 he announced he wants to become the first person in history to reach a "double 14", summiting each 8000er twice. In April 2010 he reached 24 eight-thousanders, after climbing Annapurna, a world record. In 2011 he climbed Lhotse for a second time, which was his 25th eight-thousander. He is second all-time for 8000er ascents behind Nepali climber Phurba Tashi Sherpa, who has 28.Langtang Lirung
Langtang Lirung is the highest peak of the Langtang Himal,
which is a subrange of the Nepalese Himalayas, southwest of the Eight-thousander Shishapangma.Lhotse Middle
Lhotse Middle is a subsidiary peak to Lhotse, and was the final eight-thousander to be summited. It is a sharp, jagged peak rising 8,410 metres (27,590 ft) high, and has been described as the most difficult peak over eight thousand meters to climb.Maciej Berbeka
Maciej Berbeka (17 October 1954, Zakopane, Poland – 6 March 2013, Broad Peak, Baltistan) was a Polish mountaineer, mountain guide UIAGM and member of TOPR. He and his teammate Tomasz Kowalski went missing on 6 March 2013 as they were descending from Broad Peak. They were declared dead two days later.Berbeka's accomplishments include making the first winter ascent of the eight-thousanders Manaslu, on 12 January 1984, with Ryszard Gajewski; of Cho Oyu, on 12 February 1985, with Maciej Pawlikowski (the only winter ascent on eight-thousander made along a new route); and of Broad Peak, on 5 March 2013 with Adam Bielecki, Tomasz Kowalski and Artur Małek. He also climbed and summited Annapurna and Mount Everest. He was also the first person in the world to have reached 8000 m winter in Karakoram - Rocky Summit (8028 m) of 1988, on 6 March. This occurred exactly 25 years to the day before he was reported missing on Broad Peak.Nemjung
Nemjung (also: Himlung Himal) is a mountain in the Himalayas of Nepal. It is located approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) northwest of the Nepalese capital Kathmandu and about 25 km northwest of the eight-thousander, Manaslu. Its summit has an elevation of 7,140 metres (23,425 ft).
Nemjung was first climbed via the east ridge on October 27, 1983 by a Joint expedition from Nepal and the Hirosaki University Alpine Club led by Junji Kurotaki. Previous attempts had been made in 1963 by a Japanese expedition from the Den Den Kyushu Alpine Club led by Hisachika Zengyou; in 1994 by a British expedition; and in 2009 by a French team. On October 30, 2009 a Japanese team led by climber Osamu Tanabe summitted Nemjung via its previously unclimbed west face and west ridge.Peter Habeler
Peter Habeler (born 22 July 1942) is an Austrian mountaineer. He was born in Mayrhofen, Austria. He developed an interest in mountain climbing at age six.Among his accomplishments as a mountaineer are his first ascents in the Rocky Mountains. He was also the first European to climb on the Big Walls in Yosemite National Park.
He began climbing with Reinhold Messner in 1969. Several accomplishments in mountaineering followed. The most notable event was the first ascent without supplemental oxygen of Mount Everest on 8 May 1978 together with Messner, which was previously thought to be impossible. A year after his climb on Everest he published Lonely Victory ("Der einsame Sieg". Autor: Eberhard Fuchs) in 1978. Habeler set further records by descending from the summit to the South Col in only one hour and climbing the North Face of the Eiger in ten hours.Other eight-thousanders (mountains over 8,000 meters) that Habeler has summited are Cho Oyu, Nanga Parbat, Kangchenjunga and Gasherbrum I. He has also climbed Yerupaja Chico (6089 m) in Peru's Cordillera Huayhuash. The ascent of Gasherbrum I was made with Messner in 1975, Alpine-style in three days, and is seen by some as ushering in a new era of Alpine-style ascents of eight-thousanders, in contrast to the "siege" tactics which had largely prevailed to this time. It was the first time an eight-thousander had been climbed Alpine-style. Habeler attempted to climb Everest again in 2000 but failed to do so due to fluid in his lungs.Habeler became a skiing instructor at age twenty one and founded the Peter Habeler Ski and Mountaineering School in his hometown of Mayrhofen, Austria. The school is now run by his son, though Habeler still teaches on occasion.At age 74, he repeated an ascent on The Eiger's north face with David Lama.Tomasz Mackiewicz
Tomasz Mackiewicz alias Czapkins (January 13, 1975 – probably 26 January 2018) was a Polish high-altitude climber. He died on an eight-thousander Nanga Parbat, known as the "Killer Mountain", in Pakistan. He was the first climber in the world who climbed an eight-thousander in the alpine style in winter.Vladislav Terzyul
Vladyslav Terzyul (Ukrainian: Владислав Олександрович Терзиул; 18 June 1953 in Artyom, Primorsky Krai, Soviet Union – 17 May 2004), was a Ukrainian alpinist, one of the world's premier high-altitude climbers.
He is said to be one of the few people to have climbed all eight-thousander peaks and the first Ukrainian ever. However this claim is disputed because he did not reach the highest point on Shishapangma (8027m), but instead stopped at Shishapangma Central (8013m).
Vladislav Terzyul died descending from the summit of Makalu on May 17, 2004, at an altitude of about 8300 metres.