Eight-thousander

The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation or UIAA recognise eight-thousanders as the 14 mountains that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height above sea level, and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence, and since 2012 the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia, and their summits are in the death zone.

The first person to summit all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner in 1986, who completed the feat without the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2010, Spaniard Edurne Pasaban became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders, but with the aid of supplementary oxygen; in 2011 Austrian Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders without the aid of supplementary oxygen. From 1950–1964, all eight-thousanders were summited. As of May 2019, K2 remains the only eight-thousander not summited in a Winter ascent.

Eight Thousanders Map
Locations of the 14 eight-thousanders in the world

Climbing history

Flight over himalaya annotated
Flight over Khumbu-region; six eight-thousanders and some seven-thousanders are visible

The first recorded attempt on an eight-thousander was when Albert F. Mummery and J. Norman Collie tried to climb Pakistan's Nanga Parbat in 1895. The attempt failed when Mummery and two Gurkhas, Ragobir, and Goman Singh, were killed by an avalanche.[1]

The first recorded successful ascent of an eight-thousander was by the French Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, who on the 1950 French Annapurna expedition reached the summit of Annapurna on 3 June 1950.[2] The first winter ascent of an eight-thousander was done by a Polish team led by Andrzej Zawada on Mount Everest. Two climbers Leszek Cichy and Krzysztof Wielicki reached the summit on 17 February 1980.[3]

The first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders was the Italian Reinhold Messner, on 16 October 1986. In 1987, Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka became the second person to accomplish this feat. Kukuczka is also the man who established the most new routes (9) on the main eight-thousanders. Messner summited each of the 14 peaks without the aid of supplemental oxygen. This feat was not repeated until nine years later by the Swiss Erhard Loretan in 1995. Phurba Tashi of Nepal has completed the most climbs of the eight-thousanders, with 30 ascents between 1998 and 2011.[4] Juanito Oiarzabal has completed the second most, with a total of 25 ascents between 1985 and 2011.[5]

The Italian Simone Moro made the most first winter ascents of eight-thousanders (4); Jerzy Kukuczka made four winter ascents as well, but one was a repetition. As of May 2019, K2 remains the only eight-thousander that has never been summited in the winter.[6]

30 highest peaks with more than 500m prominence
30–highest peaks above 500 m in prominence.[7]

In 2010, Spanish climber Edurne Pasaban, became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders with no disputed climbing.[8] In August 2011, Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to climb the 14 eight-thousanders without the use of supplementary oxygen.[9][10]

The first couple and team who summited all 14 eight-thousanders together were the Italians Nives Meroi (second woman without supplementary oxygen), and her husband Romano Benet in 2017. They climbed in alpine style, without the use of supplementary oxygen.[11]

As of November 2018, the country with the most climbers to have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders is Italy with seven climbers, followed by Spain with six climbers, and South Korea with five climbers. Kazakhstan and Poland have three climbers each that completed the "Crown of the Himalaya".

List of 14

Selected data for the 14 eight-thousanders[12][13]
Mountain[12] First ascent[12] First winter ascent[12] From 1950 to March 2012[13] Climber Death
Rate[14][15][a]
Peak Height[16] Prom.[16] Location Date Summiter(s) Date Summiter(s) Total Ascents[b] Total Deaths[c] Deaths / Ascents[d]
Everest 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) Nepal Nepal
China China
29 May 1953 New Zealand Edmund Hillary

Nepal Tenzing Norgay

17 February 1980
Poland Krzysztof Wielicki
Poland Leszek Cichy
5656 223 3.9% 1.52%
K2 8,614 metres (28,261 ft) 4,020 metres (13,190 ft) Pakistan Pakistan
China China[18]
31 July 1954 Italy Achille Compagnoni
Italy Lino Lacedelli
306 81 26.5% [e]
Kangchenjunga 8,586 metres (28,169 ft) 3,922 metres (12,867 ft) Nepal Nepal
India India[19]
25 May 1955 United Kingdom George Band
United Kingdom Joe Brown
11 January 1986 Poland Krzysztof Wielicki
Poland Jerzy Kukuczka
283 40 14.1% 3.00%
Lhotse 8,516 metres (27,940 ft) 610 metres (2,000 ft) Nepal Nepal
China China
18 May 1956 Switzerland Fritz Luchsinger
Switzerland Ernst Reiss
31 December 1988 Poland Krzysztof Wielicki 461 13 2.8% 1.03%
Makalu 8,485 metres (27,838 ft) 2,378 metres (7,802 ft) Nepal Nepal
China China
15 May 1955 France Jean Couzy
France Lionel Terray
9 February 2009 Italy Simone Moro
Kazakhstan Denis Urubko
361 31 8.6% 1.63%
Cho Oyu 8,188 metres (26,864 ft) 2,344 metres (7,690 ft) Nepal Nepal
China China
19 October 1954 Austria Joseph Joechler
Nepal Pasang Dawa Lama
Austria Herbert Tichy
12 February 1985 Poland Maciej Berbeka
Poland Maciej Pawlikowski
3138 44 1.4% 0.64%
Dhaulagiri I 8,167 metres (26,795 ft) 3,357 metres (11,014 ft) Nepal Nepal 13 May 1960 Austria Kurt Diemberger
Germany Peter Diener
Nepal Nawang Dorje
Nepal Nima Dorje
Switzerland Ernst Forrer
Austria Albin Schelbert
21 January 1985 Poland Andrzej Czok
Poland Jerzy Kukuczka
448 69 15.4% 2.94%
Manaslu 8,163 metres (26,781 ft) 3,092 metres (10,144 ft) Nepal Nepal 9 May 1956 Japan Toshio Imanishi
Nepal Gyalzen Norbu
12 January 1984 Poland Maciej Berbeka
Poland Ryszard Gajewski
661 65 9.8% 2.77%
Nanga Parbat 8,125 metres (26,657 ft) 4,608 metres (15,118 ft) Pakistan Pakistan 3 July 1953 Austria Hermann Buhl 26 February 2016 Pakistan Muhammad Ali Sadpara
Italy Simone Moro
Spain Alex Txikon
335 68 20.3% [e]
Annapurna I 8,091 metres (26,545 ft) 2,984 metres (9,790 ft) Nepal Nepal 3 June 1950 France Maurice Herzog
France Louis Lachenal
3 February 1987 Poland Jerzy Kukuczka
Poland Artur Hajzer
191 61 31.9% 4.05%
Gasherbrum I
(Hidden Peak)
8,080 metres (26,510 ft) 2,155 metres (7,070 ft) Pakistan Pakistan
China China
5 July 1958 United States Andrew Kauffman
United States Pete Schoening
9 March 2012 Poland Adam Bielecki
Poland Janusz Gołąb
334 29 8.7% [e]
Broad Peak 8,051 metres (26,414 ft) 1,701 metres (5,581 ft) Pakistan Pakistan
China China
9 June 1957 Austria Fritz Wintersteller
Austria Marcus Schmuck
Austria Kurt Diemberger
Austria Hermann Buhl
5 March 2013 Poland Maciej Berbeka
Poland Adam Bielecki
Poland Tomasz Kowalski
Poland Artur Małek
404 21 5.2% [e]
Gasherbrum II 8,035 metres (26,362 ft) 1,524 metres (5,000 ft) Pakistan Pakistan
China China
7 July 1956 Austria Fritz Moravec
Austria Josef Larch
Austria Hans Willenpart
2 February 2011 Italy Simone Moro
Kazakhstan Denis Urubko
United States Cory Richards
930 21 2.3% [e]
Shishapangma 8,027 metres (26,335 ft) 2,897 metres (9,505 ft) China China 2 May 1964 China Xu Jing
China Chang Chun-yen
China Wang Fuzhou
China Chen San
China Cheng Tien-liang
China Wu Tsung-yue
China Sodnam Doji
China Migmar Trashi
China Doji
China Yonten
14 January 2005 Poland Piotr Morawski
Italy Simone Moro
302 25 8.3%

Proposed expansion

Eight-thousander deaths (to March 2012)
Deaths above base camp on eight-thousanders (1950 to March 2012).[13]

In 2012, to relieve capacity pressure,[20] and develop climbing tourism, Nepal lobbied the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (or UIAA) to reclassify five summits (two on Lhotse and three on Kanchenjunga), as standalone eight-thousanders, while Pakistan lobbied for a sixth summit (on Broad Peak)[21] In 2012, the UIAA set up a project group to consider the proposals called the AGURA Project.[21] The six proposed summits for reclassification are subsidiary-summits of existing eight-thousanders, but which are also themselves above 8,000 metres and have a prominence above 60 metres.

List of the subsidiary peaks of the 14 eight-thousanders.[22]
Proposed new eight-thousander Height (m) Prominence (m) Dominance
(Prom / Height)[23]
Dominance classification[23]
Broad Peak Central 8011 181 2,26 B2
Kangchenjunga W-Peak (Yalung Kang) 8505 135 1,59 C1
Kangchenjunga S-Peak 8476 116 1,37 C2
Kangchenjunga C-Peak 8473 63 0,74 C2
Lhotse C-Peak I 8410 65 0,77 C2
Lhotse Shar 8382 72 0,86 C2
K 2 SW-Peak 8580 30 0,35 D1
Lhotse C-Peak II 8372 37 0,44 D1
Everest W-Peak 8296 30 0,36 D1
Yalung Kang Shoulder 8200 40 0,49 D1
Kangchenjunga SE-Peak 8150 30 0,37 D1
K 2 P. 8134 (SW-Ridge) 8134 35 0,43 D1
Annapurna C-Peak 8013 49 0,61 D1
Nanga Parbat S-Peak 8042 30 0,37 D1
Annapurna E-Peak 7986 65 0,81 C2
Shisha Pangma C-Peak 8008 30 0,37 D1
Everest NE-Shoulder 8423 19 0,23 D2
Everest NE-Pinnacle III 8383 13 0,16 D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle III 8327 10 0,12 D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle II 8307 12 0,14 D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle I 8290 10 0,12 D2
Everest NE-Pinnacle II 8282 25 0,30 D2

The proposed six new eight-thousander peaks would not meet the wider UIAA criteria of 600 meters of elevation change between standalone peaks, called topographic prominence, as used by the UIAA elsewhere for major mountains (the lowest prominence of the existing list of 14 eight-thousanders is Lothse, at 610 metres).[24][25] For example, only Broad Peak Central, with a topographic prominence of 181 meters, would even meet the 150–metre prominence threshold to be a British Isles Marilyn.[24] However, the appeal noted the UIAA's 1994 reclassification of Alpine 4,000 metre peaks where a prominence threshold of 30–metres was used, amongst other criteria; the logic being that if 30–metres worked for 4,000 metres summits, then 60–metres should work for 8,000m summits.[26]

As of November 2018, there has been no conclusion by the UIAA and the proposals appear to have been set aside.

Climbers of all 14

There is no single undisputed source for verified Himalayan ascents, however, Elizabeth Hawley's The Himalayan Database,[27] is considered as an important source for the Nepalese Himalayas.[28][29] Online ascent databases pay close regard to The Himalayan Database, including the website AdventureStats.com,[30] and the Eberhard Jurgalski List.[31] Various mountaineering journals, including the Alpine Journal and the American Alpine Journal, maintain extensive records and archives but do not always opine on ascents.

Verified ascents

GianAngelo Pistoia - Reinhold Messner - Foto 1
Reinhold Messner, first to climb all 14 eight-thousanders, and first to do so without supplementary oxygen.
Edurne Pasaban recibe el Premio Vasco Universal 2010 4 (crop)
Edurne Pasaban, first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders after Oh Eun-sun’s claim was disputed.
Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner 2015-07-02 001
Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner, first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders without supplementary oxygen.

The "No O2" column lists people who have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders without supplementary oxygen.

List of climbers who have summited all 14 eight-thousanders.[32]
Order Order
(No O2)
Name Period Born Age Nationality
1 1 Reinhold Messner 1970–1986 1944 42 Italy Italian
2 Jerzy Kukuczka 1979–1987 (deceased) 1948 39 Poland Polish
3 2 Erhard Loretan 1982–1995 (deceased) 1959 36 Switzerland Swiss
4 [33] Carlos Carsolio 1985–1996 1962 33 Mexico Mexican
5 Krzysztof Wielicki 1980–1996 1950 46 Poland Polish
6 3 Juanito Oiarzabal 1985–1999 1956 43 Spain Spanish
7 Sergio Martini 1983–2000 1949 51 Italy Italian
8 Park Young-seok 1993–2001 (deceased)[34] 1963 38 South Korea Korean
9 Um Hong-gil 1988–2001 1960[35] 40 South Korea Korean
10 4 Alberto Iñurrategi 1991–2002[36] 1968 33 Spain Spanish
11 Han Wang-yong 1994–2003 1966 37 South Korea Korean
12 5[37] Ed Viesturs 1989–2005 1959 46 United States American
13 6[38][39][40] Silvio Mondinelli 1993–2007 1958 49 Italy Italian
14 7[41] Ivan Vallejo 1997–2008 1959 49 Ecuador Ecuadorian
15 8[42] Denis Urubko 2000–2009 1973 35 Kazakhstan Kazakhstani
16 Ralf Dujmovits 1990–2009 1961[43] 47 Germany German
17 9 Veikka Gustafsson 1993–2009 1968 41 Finland Finnish
18[44] Andrew Lock 1993–2009 1961[45] 48 Australia Australian
19 10 João Garcia 1993–2010 1967 43 Portugal Portuguese
20[46] Piotr Pustelnik 1990–2010 1951 58 Poland Polish
21[47] Edurne Pasaban 2001–2010 1973 36 Spain Spanish
22[48] Abele Blanc 1992–2011[49][50] 1954 56 Italy Italian
23 Mingma Sherpa 2000–2011[49] 1978 33 Nepal Nepali
24 11 Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner 1998–2011[49] 1970 40 Austria Austrian
25 Vassily Pivtsov 2001–2011[49] 1975 36 Kazakhstan Kazakhstani
26 12 Maxut Zhumayev 2001–2011[49] 1977 34 Kazakhstan Kazakhstani
27 Kim Jae-soo 2000–2011[49] 1961 50 South Korea Korean
28[51] 13 Mario Panzeri 1988–2012 1964 48 Italy Italian
29[52] Hirotaka Takeuchi 1995–2012[52] 1971 41 Japan Japanese
30 Chhang Dawa Sherpa 2001–2013[49] 1982 30 Nepal Nepali
31 14 Kim Chang-ho 2005–2013[49] (deceased) 1970 43 South Korea Korean
32 Jorge Egocheaga 2002–2014[53] 1968 45 Spain Spanish
33 15 Radek Jaroš 1998–2014[49] 1964 50 Czech Republic Czech
34/35[54] 16/17[54] Nives Meroi 1998–2017[55][56] 1961 55 Italy Italian
34/35[54] 16/17[54] Romano Benet 1998–2017[55][56][57] 1962 55 Italy Italian
Slovenia Slovenian
36 Peter Hámor 1998–2017[58] 1964 52 Slovakia Slovak
37 18 Azim Gheychisaz 2008–2017[59] 1981 37 Iran Iranian
38 Ferran Latorre 1999–2017[60] 1970 46 Spain Spanish
39 19 Òscar Cadiach 1984–2017[61] 1952 64 Spain Spanish

Disputed ascents

Claims in which not enough evidence was provided to verify the ascents of all 14 peaks. The disputed ascent in each claim is shown in parentheses. In most cases, the influential Himalayan chronicler Elizabeth Hawley, is an important source regarding the fact-base of the dispute. Her well-regarded The Himalayan Database is the source for other online Himalayan ascent databases (e.g. AdventureStats.com).[28][29]

Cho Oyu is a recurrent problem peak as it is a small hump circa 30 mins into the summit plateau, and the main proxy – "Did you see Everest" – requires clear weather.[62][63] Shishapangma is another problem peak because of its dual summits, which despite being close in height, are up to two hours climbing time apart.[64] Elizabeth Hawley famously got Ed Viesturs to re-climb the main summit of Shishapangma.[65]

Name Period Born Age Nationality
Fausto De Stefani (Lhotse 1997)[66]
(His partner Sergio Martini reclimbed Lhotse in 2000 to verify his 14, see above)
1983–1998 1952 46 Italy Italian
Alan Hinkes (Cho Oyu 1990)[67][68]
(Hinkes rejects Hawley's decision to "unrecognise" his Cho Oyu ascent, see "Cho Oyu dispute")
1987–2005 1954 53 United Kingdom British
Vladislav Terzyul (Shishapangma (West) Summit 2000, Broad Peak 1995[69][70])[71][72]
(As he did not claim the main summit of Shishapangma, this status is unlikely to change)
1993–2004 (deceased) 1953 49 Ukraine Ukrainian
Oh Eun-sun (Kangchenjunga 2009)[73][74][75]
(As the potential first female climber of all 14, this dispute was followed internationally)[74]
1997–2010 1966 44 South Korea Korean
Carlos Pauner (Shishapangma 2012)[76]
(Pauner is very open about his uncertainty as it was dark, but says he might reclimb to remove the doubt)[77]
2001–2013 1963 50 Spain Spanish
Zhang Liang (Shishapangma 2018)[78][79][80]
(According Chinese state media and The Himalayan Times, Zhang completed all 14 with other three climbers in the 2018 Chinese Shishapangma expedition, which is suspected that they only reached the central summit)
2000–2018 1964 54 China Chinese

Gallery

Everest kalapatthar crop

No. 1 – Everest

K2 2006b

No. 2 – K2

Kangchenjunga

No. 3 – Kangchenjunga

LhotseMountain.jos.500pix

No. 4 – Lhotse

Makalu from Island Peak

No. 5 – Makalu

ChoOyu-fromGokyo

No. 6 – Cho Oyu

DhaulagiriMountain.jos.500pix

No. 7 – Dhaulagiri

Manaslu, from base camp trip

No. 8 – Manaslu

Nanga parbat, Pakistan by gul791

No. 9 – Nanga Parbat

AnnapurnaSouthMountain.jos.500pix

No. 10 – Annapurna

HiddenPeak

No. 11 – Gasherbrum I

7 15 BroadPeak

No. 12 – Broad Peak

Gasherbrum2

No. 13 – Gasherbrum II

Shishapangma

No. 14 – Shishapangma

Comparison of the heights of the Eight-thousanders (red triangles) with the Seven Summits and Seven Second Summits.
Comparison of the heights of the Eight-thousanders (red triangles) with the Seven Summits and Seven Second Summits.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Per The Himalayan Database (HDB) tables, the Climber (or Member) Death Rate is the ratio of deaths above base camp, of all climbers who were hoping to summit and who went above base camp, for 1950 to 2009, and is closer to a true probability of death; the data is only for Nepalese Himalaya. Summary tables from the HDB report for all mountains above 8,000 metres, imply that the death rate for the period 1990 to 2009 (e.g. modern expeditions), is roughly half that of the combined 1950 to 2009 period.[14]
  2. ^ As recorded by Eberhard Jurgalski
  3. ^ As recorded by Eberhard Jurgalski and being any death (climber or other) above Base Camp.[17]
  4. ^ This should not be mistaken as being a death rate; it does not imply a probabiltiy of death for a climber attempting to climb an eight-thousander as it includes all deaths from all activities undertaken above base camp (e.g. training or reconissance trips, camp stocking activities by porters who will not be summiting the mountain, rescue attempts etc.). It therefore compares deaths from the larger group of people who were, and were not, making a summit attempt, with the smaller group who were making a summit attempt. While it is not a probability, the statistic does reflect the ratio of people who died above base camp for each climber who summited.
  5. ^ a b c d e Data is not available for the Pakistani Himalayas

References

  1. ^ "Fast Facts About Nanga Parbat". climbing.about.com. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  2. ^ Herzog, Maurice (1951). Annapurna: First Conquest of an 8000-meter Peak. Translated from the French by Nea Morin and Janet Adam Smith. New York: E.P Dutton & Co. p. 257.
  3. ^ https://www.alpinejournal.org.uk/Contents/Contents_1984_files/AJ%201984%2050-59%20Zawada%20Everest.pdf
  4. ^ "Preliminary stats: Himalaya and Everest 2011 spring review". ExplorersWeb. 8 June 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  5. ^ "Lhotse Summits". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  6. ^ Planetmountain.com, Nanga Parbat: summit and first winter ascent by Simone Moro, Ali Sadpara and Alex Txikon, 26 February 2016
  7. ^ PEAKBAGGER: World 7200-meter Peaks (Ranked Peaks have 500 meters of Clean Prominence)
  8. ^ "Oh Eun-Sun report, final: Edurne Pasaban takes the throne". ExplorersWeb. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  9. ^ "Austrian woman claims Himalayas climbing record". BBC News. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
  10. ^ "Austrian is first woman to scale 14 peaks without oxygen". AsiaOne. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  11. ^ "Alpinismo, il record di Meroi-Benet: è italiana la prima coppia su tutti gli Ottomila". 11 May 2017.
  12. ^ a b c d Eberhard Jurgalski. "General Info". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  13. ^ a b c "DAILY CHART: Stairway to heaven, how deadly are the world's highest mountains?". The Economist. 29 March 2013. For every three thrill-seekers that make it safely up and down Annapurna I, one dies trying, according to data from Eberhard Jurgalski of website 8000ers.com, collected in his forthcoming book "On Top of the World: The New Millennium", co-authored by Richard Sale.
  14. ^ a b Elizabeth Hawley; Richard Sailsbury (2011). "The Himalaya by the Numbers: A Statistical Analysis of Mountaineering in the Nepal Himalaya" (PDF). p. 129. Table D-3: Deaths for peaks with more than 750 members above base camp from 1950–2009
  15. ^ "Himalayan Death Tolls". The Washington Post. 24 April 2014.
  16. ^ a b PeakBagger: World 8000–metre Peaks
  17. ^ Eberhard Jurgalski. "Fatalities tables". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 23 November 2018. Included are only fatalities from, at or above BC or caused from there. Fatalities on approach or return marches are not listed.
  18. ^ "K2 lies in Pakistan, near the northern border with China". BBC News.
  19. ^ Harding, Luke (13 July 2000). "Climbers banned from sacred peak". the Guardian. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  20. ^ Richard Gray (23 August 2013). "The new peaks opened as alternatives to Mount Everest". The Telegraph. Nepal is to tackle overcrowding on the world’s highest mountain by placing greater restrictions on expeditions to the summit of Mount Everest. The move is a response to growing problems with litter, pollution and recent clashes between Sherpas and Western climbers. But in an attempt to appease those hoping to conquer the 29,029 feet tall peak, the Nepalese government is to open access to five other summits that sit over 26,246 feet, or 8,000 meters.
  21. ^ a b c Navin Singh Khadka (18 October 2013). "Nepal mountain peak expansion bid stalls". BBC News. The UIAA initiated in 2012 what it calls the ARUGA project with an aim to see if new 8,000m-plus could feasibly achieve international recognition. Under that project, Nepal had tabled five new peaks and Pakistan one.
  22. ^ Eberhard Jurgalski. "Subsidiary Peaks". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 23 November 2018. There are several different subsidiary peaks! Here are the geographical facts, from the one "relative independent Main-Peak" (EU category B) over the important subsidiary peaks (C) to the major notable points (D1) Especially the last category is just guessed by contours or from photographs.
  23. ^ a b Eberhard Jurgalski. "Dominance". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 23 November 2018. Accordingly, the author introduced altitude classes (AC) and a proportional prominence, which he named orometrical dominance (D). D is calculated easily but fittingly: (P/Alt) x 100. Thus, it indicates the percentage of independence for every elevation, no matter what the altitude, prominence or mountain type it is. From a scientific point of view, altitude could be seen as the thesis, prominence as the antithesis, whereas dominance would be the synthesis.
  24. ^ a b "Do we really need more 8000m peaks". Mark Horrell. 23 October 2013. The most prominent one, Broad Peak Central is just 196m high and the least prominent, Lhotse Middle, is a meagre 60m. To put this in context, the highest mountain in Malta is 253m, while the Eiffel Tower stands a whopping 300m.
  25. ^ "A funny name for a mountain". Mark Horrell. 4 June 2014.
  26. ^ "UIAA Mountain Classification: 4,000ERS OF THE ALPS". UIAA. March 1994. Topographic criterium: for each summit, the level difference between it and the highest adjacent pass or notch should be at least 30 m (calculated as average of the summits at the limit of acceptability). An additional criterium can be the horizontal distance between a summit and the base of another adjacent 4000er.
  27. ^ Elizabeth Hawley; Richard Salisbury (2018). "The Himalayan Database, The Expedition Archives of Elizabeth Hawley". The Himalayan Database.
  28. ^ a b If a mountaineer wants worldwide recognition that they have reached the summit of some of the most formidable mountains in the world, they will need to get the approval of Elizabeth Hawley."Elizabeth Hawley, unrivalled Himalayan record keeper". BBC News. 29 August 2010.
  29. ^ a b "Elizabeth Hawley, Who Chronicled Everest Treks, Dies at 94". New York Times. 26 January 2018.
  30. ^ "High Altitude Mountaineering statistics". AdventureStats.com. 2018.
  31. ^ "Climbers who have ascended to the summits of all of the world's 14 mountains over 8000 metres". 8000ers.com (Eberhard Jurgalski). 2018.
  32. ^ Eberhard Jurgalski (26 May 2012). "Climbers – First 14". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  33. ^ Carlos Carsolio required emergency oxygen on his descent from Makalu in 1988.
  34. ^ Coley, Mariah. "Koreans Missing on Annapurna Presumed Dead". Alpinist.com. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
  35. ^ EverestNews2004.com, News (age calculated: in 2004 Hong-Gil Um was 44). "Mr. Um Hong Gil has bagged his 15th 8000 meter peak". Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  36. ^ Kukuxumusu, Spanish News. "Alberto Iñurrategi achieves his fourteenth "eight thousand meters"". Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  37. ^ "Best of ExplorersWeb 2005 Awards: Ed Viesturs and Christian Kuntner". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30. ...the American climber became one of only five men in the world to accomplish the quest entirely without supplementary oxygen.
  38. ^ Mounteverest.net. "The wolf is back: Gnaro bags Baruntse". Retrieved 2008-11-30. Last year, Silvio 'Gnaro' Mondinelli broke the haunted 13 when he summited the last peak on his list of 14, 8000ers – becoming only the 6th mountaineer in the world to have bagged them all without supplementary oxygen.
  39. ^ "The day after: Silvio Mondinelli, Broad Peak and all 14 8000m summits". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 13/07 interview with Silvio Mondinelli after the summit of his 14th 8000m peak without supplementary oxygen.
  40. ^ "The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30. Implied in text: ...Following Italian Silvio "Gnaro" Mondinelli last year and American Ed Viesturs in 2005, Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen.
  41. ^ "The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30. ...Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen.
  42. ^ "Denis Urubko, Cho Oyu and all 14 8000m peaks". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 2009-05-18.
  43. ^ "Ralf Dujmovits". Ralf-dujmovits.de. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  44. ^ "Summit 8000 – Andrew Lock's quest to climb all fourteen of the highest mountains in the world". Andrew-lock.com. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  45. ^ "Australia's Most Accomplished Mountaineer". Andrew Lock. 2 October 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  46. ^ "Piotr Pustelnik summits Annapurna – bags the 14x8000ers!". Explorersweb.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  47. ^ "Shisha Pangma: Edurne Pasaban summits – completes the 14x800ers". Explorersweb.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  48. ^ "Abele Blanc summits Annapurna and all 8000ers". Planetmountain.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Climbers - First 14, updated table on 8000ers.com". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  50. ^ "Everest – Mount Everest by climbers, news". Mounteverest.net. 18 May 2005. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
  51. ^ "Mario Panzeri: sono in cima! E finalmente sono 14 ottomila". Montagna.tv. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  52. ^ a b "日本人初の快挙、8000m峰14座登頂 竹内洋岳". Nikkei.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  53. ^ "Climbers – First 14". 8000ers.com. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-13.
  54. ^ a b c d Nives Meroi and Romano Benet climbed all the Eight-thousanders together, it wasn't revealed if one of them climbed the last peak a few moments before the other, thus they share the same position
  55. ^ a b "Nives Meroi and Romano Benet summit Annapurna, their 14th 8000er". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  56. ^ a b "Nives Meroi in Roman Benet preplezala 14 osemtisočakov". Sta.si (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  57. ^ "Slovenec s 15. osemtisočaka". Delo.si (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  58. ^ "Pokoril všetky osemtisícovky". skrsi.rtvs.sk. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  59. ^ "قیچی‌ساز حماسه ساز شد/کوهنورد تبریزی به هشت هزاری‌ها پیوست". yjc. 19 May 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-19.
  60. ^ "Ferran Latorre completa los catorce ochomiles en el Everest" (in Spanish). desnivel.com. 27 May 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-27.
  61. ^ "Cadiach, camino del campo 3 tras coronar el Broad Peak" (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
  62. ^ I have summitted Cho Oyu 4 times and will be heading for my fifth this coming season. Each time I have watched the Koreans and Japanese go only to where they can see Everest, not the summit, because they know this is what will be asked."Cho Oyu summit: Where is it exactly". Explorersweb.com. September 2017.
  63. ^ Many people who climb Cho Oyu in Tibet stop at a set of prayer flags with views of Everest and believe they’ve reached the top, unaware they still have to walk for 15 minutes across the summit plateau until they can see the Gokyo Lakes in Nepal."When is a summit not a summit?". Mark Horrell. 12 November 2014.
  64. ^ "Asia, Tibet, Cho Oyu and Shisha Pangma Central (West) Summit". American Alpine Journal. 1991.
  65. ^ "Keeper of the Mountains: The Elizabeth Hawley Story". Rocky Mountain Books. 5 October 2012. pp. 185–195.
  66. ^ Elizabeth Hawley (2014). "Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 1985–2014" (PDF). The Himalayan Database. p. 274. But a South Korean climber, who followed in their footprints on the crusted snow three days later [in 1997] in clearer weather, did not consider that they actually gained the top. While [Sergio] Martini and [Fausto] De Stefani indicated they were perhaps only a few meters below it, Park Young-Seok claimed that their footprints stopped well before the top, perhaps 30 meters below a small fore-summit and 150 vertical meters below the highest summit. Now in 2000 [Sergio] Martini was back again, and this time he definitely summited Lhotse.
  67. ^ AdventureStats.net, Official records. "Climbers that have summited 10 to 13 of the 14 Main-8000ers". Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  68. ^ Elizabeth Hawley (2014). "Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 1985–2014" (PDF). The Himalayan Database. p. 347. But his claim to have now climbed all 8000ers is open to question. In April 1990 he and others reached the summit plateau of Cho Oyu. It was misty so they could not see well; nine years later Hinkes said he had “wandered around for a while” in the summit area but could see very little and eventually descended to join the others, one of whom said they had not reached the top.
  69. ^ "Vladislav Terz". www.russianclimb.com. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  70. ^ "AdventureStats – by Explorersweb". www.adventurestats.com. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  71. ^ Russianclimb.com, Mountaineering World of Russia & CIS. "Vladislav Terzyul, List of ascents". Retrieved 2009-10-06.
  72. ^ "Sad results on Makalu and Unanswered Questions: 1 missing climber and 1 passed away on Makalu". Everestnews2004.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  73. ^ "Everest K2 News ExplorersWeb – More dark clouds mounting on Anna summit push; Miss Oh's Kanchen summit "disputed" after renewed accusations". Explorersweb.com. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
  74. ^ a b "New doubts over Korean Oh Eun-Sun's climbing record, Hawley to investigate". BBC News. 27 August 2010.
  75. ^ What would appear to be the most serious blow to Miss Oh, on 26 August this year the Korean Alpine Federation, the nation's largest climbing association, concluded that Miss Oh had not reached the top of Kangchenjunga."Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 1985–2014" (PDF). Elizabeth Hawley. 2014. p. 394.
  76. ^ "Desnivel; Carlos Pauner consigue la cima del Everest". Desnivel.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
  77. ^ "Carlos Pauner is not sure if they hit the top of the Shisha Pangma (8,027)". lainformacion.com. 18 February 2016.
  78. ^ "CCTV; 罗静等23名中国登山者登顶希夏邦马峰". CCTV. 29 September 2018. Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  79. ^ "The Himalayan Times; Four Chinese climbers complete all 14 peaks above 8,000m this autumn". The Himalayan Times. 29 September 2018. Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  80. ^ "Desnivel; Luo Jing no alcanzó la cima principal del Shisha Pangma". Desnivel.com. Retrieved 2019-06-05.

External links

8K

8K or 8k may stand for:

8K resolution

8K UHDTV, a digital video format

8 K, the quantity 8 kelvins

8000 (number), a natural number

Form 8-K, a United States Securities and Exchange Commission form

8,000 metres or 8K, a common running race distance

Eight-thousander, a class of tall mountains

GCR Class 8K, a class of British 2-8-0 steam locomotive

China Railways 8K, an Alstom-built electric locomotive

K-Mile Air (IATA airline code)

Andrew Lock

Andrew James Lock OAM (born 26 December 1961) is an Australian high-altitude mountaineer. He became the first, and still remains the only, Australian to climb all 14 "eight-thousanders" (the peaks over 8,000-metres above sea level) on the 2 October 2009, and is the 18th person to ever complete this feat. He climbed 13 of the 14 without using bottled oxygen, only using it on Mount Everest, which he has summited twice. He retired from eight-thousander climbing in 2012.

Ashish Mane

Ashish Mane (Born 14 August 1990) is one of the prominent professional mountaineer from India. He has scaled Mt. Everest (2012)., Mt. Lhotse (2013), Mt. Makalu (2014), Mt Manaslu (2017) and Kanchenjunga (2019). Ashish is the only climber from Maharashtra as of now, to ascend five of the fourteen Eight-thousander|peaks over 8,000 metres means about 26,000 ft above sea level. In the year 2016, he attempted to scale Daulagiri, but due to technical reasons he had to quit the expedition

Baltoro Muztagh

The Baltoro Muztagh (simplified Chinese: 巴尔托洛慕士塔格山; traditional Chinese: 巴爾托洛慕士塔格山; pinyin: Bā'ěrtuōluò Mùshìtǎgé Shān, Urdu: بلتورو موز تاغ‎) is a subrange of the Karakoram mountain range, in Baltistan region of the Gilgit-Baltistan, northern most political entity of Pakistan; and in Xinjiang, China. The crest of the range forms part of the Pakistan-China border.

The range is home to K2 (8,611 metres (28,251 ft)), the second highest mountain in the world, and to three other Eight-thousander peaks. They are located on the north and east sides of the Baltoro Glacier.

Broad Peak

Broad Peak (Urdu: بروڈ پیک‎) is the 12th highest mountain in the world at 8,047 metres (26,401 ft) above sea level. The literal translation of "Broad Peak" to Falchan Kangri is not used among the Balti people. The English name was introduced in 1892 by the British explorer Martin Conway, in reference to the similarly named Breithorn in the Alps.

Carlos Carsolio

Carlos Carsolio Larrea (born 4 October 1962 in Mexico City) is a Mexican mountain climber. Carsolio is known for being the fourth man (first non-European) and the second youngest to climb the world's 14 eight-thousander mountain peaks, all of them without supplementary oxygen (but he required emergency oxygen on his descent from Makalu in 1988).

Chamar (mountain)

Chamar is the highest peak of the Sringi (or Serang) Himal, which is a subrange of the Nepalese Himalayas.

Chamar and the entire Sringi Himal lie in Central Nepal, just south of the Tibetan border, between the Shyar Khola valley on the east and the Tom Khola–Trisuli Gandaki valley on the west. Chamar is about 90 km northwest of Kathmandu, and about 25 km east of Manaslu, the nearest eight-thousander.

Cho Oyu

Cho Oyu (Nepali: चोयु; Tibetan: ཇོ་བོ་དབུ་ཡ) is the sixth-highest mountain in the world at 8,188 metres (26,864 ft) above sea level. Cho Oyu means "Turquoise Goddess" in Tibetan. The mountain is the westernmost major peak of the Khumbu sub-section of the Mahalangur Himalaya 20 km west of Mount Everest. The mountain stands on the China–Nepal border.

Just a few kilometres west of Cho Oyu is Nangpa La (5,716m/18,753 ft), a glaciated pass that serves as the main trading route between the Tibetans and the Khumbu's Sherpas. This pass separates the Khumbu and Rolwaling Himalayas. Due to its proximity to this pass and the generally moderate slopes of the standard northwest ridge route, Cho Oyu is considered the easiest 8,000 metre peak to climb. It is a popular objective for professionally guided parties.

Edurne Pasaban

Edurne Pasaban Lizarribar (born August 1, 1973) is a Basque Spanish mountaineer. On May 17, 2010, she became the 21st person and the first woman to climb all of the fourteen eight-thousander peaks in the World. Her first 8,000 peak had been achieved 9 years earlier, on May 23, 2001, when she climbed to the summit of Mount Everest.

Hermann Buhl

Hermann Buhl (21 September 1924 – 27 June 1957) was an Austrian mountaineer and is considered one of the best climbers of all time. He was particularly innovative in applying Alpine style to Himalayan climbing. His accomplishments include:

1953 First ascent of Nanga Parbat, 8,126 metres (26,660 ft) (solo and without bottled oxygen). On the way back from the summit he was forced to stand erect on a rock ledge for the entire night at 8000m altitude, in order to survive until the following morning.

1957 First ascent of Broad Peak, 8,051 metres (26,414 ft).Before his successful Nanga Parbat expedition, 31 people had died trying to make the first ascent.

Buhl is the only mountaineer to have made the first ascent of an eight-thousander solo. His climbing partner, Otto Kempter, was too slow in joining the ascent, so Buhl struck off alone. He returned 41 hours later, having barely survived the arduous climb to the summit, 6.5 kilometers (4 miles) distant from, and 4,000 feet (1.2 kilometers) higher than camp V. Experienced climbers, upon hearing later of Buhl's near-death climb, faulted him for making the attempt solo. Regardless, his monumental efforts, along with spending the night untethered, on the edge of a 60-degree ice slope, standing on a tiny pedestal too small to squat upon, have become mountaineering legend.

Just a few weeks after the successful first ascent of Broad Peak (with Fritz Wintersteller and Marcus Schmuck), Buhl and Kurt Diemberger made an attempt on nearby, unclimbed Chogolisa (7665 m) in Alpine style. Buhl lost his way in an unexpected snow storm and walked over a huge cornice on the south-east ridge, near the summit of Chogolisa II (7654 m; also known as Broad Peak), subsequently triggering an avalanche that hurled him down 900 m over Chogolisa's north face. His body could not be recovered and remains in the ice.

Iñaki Ochoa de Olza

Iñaki Ochoa de Olza (May 29, 1967 in Pamplona, Navarre – May 23, 2008 in Annapurna, Nepal) was a Spanish mountaineer, alpinist and climber. Ochoa de Olza took part in more than thirty separate climbing expeditions in the Himalayas over the course of his career, and he was involved in more than 200 expeditions as a guide. His records included climbing 12 of the world's 14 tallest mountains (repeating one of them, Cho Oyu) without the aid of oxygen. Ochoa went on record as saying that he did not believe in using oxygen to climb mountains, claiming "if you use oxygen, you are not an alpinist, you are more of an astronaut or a scuba diver.". He died of pulmonary edema in May 2008 while attempting to climb Annapurna (which would have been his 13th eight thousander).

Juanito Oiarzabal

Juan Eusebio Oiarzabal Urteaga (born 30 March 1956), commonly known as Juanito Oiarzabal, is a noted Spanish Basque mountaineer and has written four books on the subject. He was the sixth man to reach all 14 eight-thousander summits, and the third one in reaching them without supplementary oxygen. He was the first person to conquer the top 3 summits twice (Everest + K2 + Kangchenjunga), and was the oldest climber to summit Kangchenjunga, at almost 53, until Carlos Soria Fontan made his successful attempt in 2014, when he was 75 years old.

In 2004, he lost all his toes to frostbite after summiting K2.In 2009 he announced he wants to become the first person in history to reach a "double 14", summiting each 8000er twice. In April 2010 he reached 24 eight-thousanders, after climbing Annapurna, a world record. In 2011 he climbed Lhotse for a second time, which was his 25th eight-thousander. He is second all-time for 8000er ascents behind Nepali climber Phurba Tashi Sherpa, who has 28.

Langtang Lirung

Langtang Lirung is the highest peak of the Langtang Himal,

which is a subrange of the Nepalese Himalayas, southwest of the Eight-thousander Shishapangma.

Lhotse Middle

Lhotse Middle is a subsidiary peak to Lhotse, and was the final eight-thousander to be summited. It is a sharp, jagged peak rising 8,410 metres (27,590 ft) high, and has been described as the most difficult peak over eight thousand meters to climb.

Maciej Berbeka

Maciej Berbeka (17 October 1954, Zakopane, Poland – 6 March 2013, Broad Peak, Baltistan) was a Polish mountaineer, mountain guide UIAGM and member of TOPR. He and his teammate Tomasz Kowalski went missing on 6 March 2013 as they were descending from Broad Peak. They were declared dead two days later.Berbeka's accomplishments include making the first winter ascent of the eight-thousanders Manaslu, on 12 January 1984, with Ryszard Gajewski; of Cho Oyu, on 12 February 1985, with Maciej Pawlikowski (the only winter ascent on eight-thousander made along a new route); and of Broad Peak, on 5 March 2013 with Adam Bielecki, Tomasz Kowalski and Artur Małek. He also climbed and summited Annapurna and Mount Everest. He was also the first person in the world to have reached 8000 m winter in Karakoram - Rocky Summit (8028 m) of 1988, on 6 March. This occurred exactly 25 years to the day before he was reported missing on Broad Peak.

Nemjung

Nemjung (also: Himlung Himal) is a mountain in the Himalayas of Nepal. It is located approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) northwest of the Nepalese capital Kathmandu and about 25 km northwest of the eight-thousander, Manaslu. Its summit has an elevation of 7,140 metres (23,425 ft).

Nemjung was first climbed via the east ridge on October 27, 1983 by a Joint expedition from Nepal and the Hirosaki University Alpine Club led by Junji Kurotaki. Previous attempts had been made in 1963 by a Japanese expedition from the Den Den Kyushu Alpine Club led by Hisachika Zengyou; in 1994 by a British expedition; and in 2009 by a French team. On October 30, 2009 a Japanese team led by climber Osamu Tanabe summitted Nemjung via its previously unclimbed west face and west ridge.

Peter Habeler

Peter Habeler (born 22 July 1942) is an Austrian mountaineer. He was born in Mayrhofen, Austria. He developed an interest in mountain climbing at age six.Among his accomplishments as a mountaineer are his first ascents in the Rocky Mountains. He was also the first European to climb on the Big Walls in Yosemite National Park.

He began climbing with Reinhold Messner in 1969. Several accomplishments in mountaineering followed. The most notable event was the first ascent without supplemental oxygen of Mount Everest on 8 May 1978 together with Messner, which was previously thought to be impossible. A year after his climb on Everest he published Lonely Victory ("Der einsame Sieg". Autor: Eberhard Fuchs) in 1978. Habeler set further records by descending from the summit to the South Col in only one hour and climbing the North Face of the Eiger in ten hours.Other eight-thousanders (mountains over 8,000 meters) that Habeler has summited are Cho Oyu, Nanga Parbat, Kangchenjunga and Gasherbrum I. He has also climbed Yerupaja Chico (6089 m) in Peru's Cordillera Huayhuash. The ascent of Gasherbrum I was made with Messner in 1975, Alpine-style in three days, and is seen by some as ushering in a new era of Alpine-style ascents of eight-thousanders, in contrast to the "siege" tactics which had largely prevailed to this time. It was the first time an eight-thousander had been climbed Alpine-style. Habeler attempted to climb Everest again in 2000 but failed to do so due to fluid in his lungs.Habeler became a skiing instructor at age twenty one and founded the Peter Habeler Ski and Mountaineering School in his hometown of Mayrhofen, Austria. The school is now run by his son, though Habeler still teaches on occasion.At age 74, he repeated an ascent on The Eiger's north face with David Lama.

Tomasz Mackiewicz

Tomasz Mackiewicz alias Czapkins (January 13, 1975 – probably 26 January 2018) was a Polish high-altitude climber. He died on an eight-thousander Nanga Parbat, known as the "Killer Mountain", in Pakistan. He was the first climber in the world who climbed an eight-thousander in the alpine style in winter.

Vladislav Terzyul

Vladyslav Terzyul (Ukrainian: Владислав Олександрович Терзиул; 18 June 1953 in Artyom, Primorsky Krai, Soviet Union – 17 May 2004), was a Ukrainian alpinist, one of the world's premier high-altitude climbers.

He is said to be one of the few people to have climbed all eight-thousander peaks and the first Ukrainian ever. However this claim is disputed because he did not reach the highest point on Shishapangma (8027m), but instead stopped at Shishapangma Central (8013m).

Vladislav Terzyul died descending from the summit of Makalu on May 17, 2004, at an altitude of about 8300 metres.

Eight-thousanders

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