Egyptian revolution of 1952

The Egyptian coup d'état of 1952 (Arabic: ثورة 23 يوليو 1952‎), also known as the 1952 Coup d'état (Arabic: إنقلاب 23 يوليو 1952‎) or July 23 revolution, began on July 23, 1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The coup was initially aimed at overthrowing King Farouk.

However, the movement had more political ambitions, and soon moved to abolish the constitutional monarchy and aristocracy of Egypt and Sudan, establish a republic, end the British occupation of the country, and secure the independence of Sudan (previously governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium). The revolutionary government adopted a staunchly nationalist, anti-imperialist agenda, which came to be expressed chiefly through Arab nationalism, and international non-alignment.

The coup d'état was faced with immediate threats from Western imperial powers, particularly the United Kingdom, which had occupied Egypt since 1882, and France, both of whom were wary of rising nationalist sentiment in territories under their control throughout the Arab world, and Africa. The ongoing state of war with Israel also posed a serious challenge, as the Free Officers increased Egypt's already strong support of the Palestinians. These two issues conflated four years after the coup when Egypt was invaded by Britain, France, and Israel in the Suez Crisis of 1956. Despite enormous military losses, the war was seen as a political victory for Egypt, especially as it left the Suez Canal in uncontested Egyptian control for the first time since 1875, erasing what was seen as a mark of national humiliation. This strengthened the appeal of the revolution in other Arab and African countries.

Wholesale agrarian reform, and huge industrialisation programmes were initiated in the first decade and half of the coup, leading to an unprecedented period of infrastructure building, and urbanisation. By the 1960s, Arab socialism had become a dominant theme, transforming Egypt into a centrally planned economy. Official fear of a Western-sponsored counter-revolution, domestic religious extremism, potential communist infiltration, and the conflict with Israel were all cited as reasons compelling severe and longstanding restrictions on political opposition, and the prohibition of a multi-party system. These restrictions on political activity would remain in place until the presidency of Anwar Sadat from 1970 onwards, during which many of the policies of the revolution were scaled back or reversed.

The early successes of the coup encouraged numerous other nationalist movements in other Arab, and African countries, such as Algeria, and Kenya, where there were anti-colonial rebellions against European empires. It also inspired the toppling of existing pro-Western monarchies and governments in the region and the continent.

The revolution is commemorated each year on July 23.

Egyptian coup d'état of 1952
Nasser and Naguib, 1954

The leaders of the coup, Mohammed Naguib (left) and Gamal Abdel Nasser (right) in a Cadillac
DateJuly 23, 1952
Location
Result

Overthrow, abdication, and exile of King Farouk

Territorial
changes
Independence of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Belligerents

 Kingdom of Egypt

Supported by:
 Saudi Arabia
 United Kingdom

Free Officers Movement

Supported by:
Soviet Union Soviet Union
 United States (partial)
Commanders and leaders
Egypt Farouk
Egypt Ahmed Naguib el-Hilaly
Mohammed Naguib
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Anwar Sadat
Khaled Mohieddin

Causes

In 1882, British forces intervened in Egypt during the Anglo-Egyptian War. In 1888 at the Convention of Constantinople, Britain won the right to protect the Suez Canal with military force, giving Britain a base to dominate Egyptian politics. Though nominally still an Ottoman vassal, Egypt became a British protectorate. After World War I, Britain placed a reliable member of Muhammad Ali's dynasty on the throne and declared Egypt a protectorate. During World War II, Egypt was a major Allied base for the North African campaign. After the war, British policy continued to focus on control of the Suez Canal, which was vital for imperial trade.

However, during World War II, Egyptian nationalists within the armed forces gained influence. The 1948 Arab–Israeli War humiliated these nationalists, who blamed the British-backed king, King Farouk. The loss of the 1948 war with Israel led to the Free Officers' accusations of corruption towards the King and his court and the promotion of that feeling among the Egyptian people.

The Free Officers Movement (or sometimes referred to as the Young Officers Movement) was formed by a group of reform-minded officers which, backed by the Soviet Union and the United States, coalesced around a young officer named Gamal Abdel Nasser. They used an army general, Muhammad Naguib, as its head to show their seriousness and attract more army followers.

In the warning that General Naguib conveyed to King Farouk on 26 July upon the king's abdication, he provided a summary of the reasons for the Coup:

In view of what the country has suffered in the recent past, the complete vacuity prevailing in all corners as a result of your bad behavior, your toying with the constitution, and your disdain for the wants of the people, no one rests assured of life, livelihood, and honor. Egypt's reputation among the peoples of the world has been debased as a result of your excesses in these areas to the extent that traitors and bribe-takers find protection beneath your shadow in addition to security, excessive wealth, and many extravagances at the expense of the hungry and impoverished people. You manifested this during and after the Palestine War in the corrupt arms scandals and your open interference in the courts to try to falsify the facts of the case, thus shaking faith in justice. Therefore, the army, representing the power of the people, has empowered me to demand that Your Majesty abdicate the throne to His Highness Crown Prince Ahmed Fuad, provided that this is accomplished at the fixed time of 12 o'clock noon today (Saturday, 26 July 1952, the 4th of Zul Qa'ada, 1371), and that you depart the country before 6 o'clock in the evening of the same day. The army places upon Your Majesty the burden of everything that may result from your failure to abdicate according to the wishes of the people.[1]

The Egyptian monarchy was seen as both corrupt and pro-British, with its lavish lifestyle that seemed provocative to the free officers movement who lived in poverty. Its policies completed the image of the Egyptian government being a puppet-figure in the hands of the British government. Promoting the feeling of corruption of several Egyptian institutions such as the police, the palace and even the political parties by the free officers. Despite allegations of anti-British sentiment, a CIA document dated July 23, 1952 stated that the dissatisfaction within the army over corruption in high command began in 1948 after the discovery of an arms scandal during the Palestine conflict.[2] The loss of the 1948 war with Israel led to the free officers' blame of the King and their promotion of that feeling among the Egyptian people.[2] Tensions between the military and the monarchy resulted in the removal and arrest of Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces Haidar Pasha, Chief of Staff Harid Pasha and other high-ranking officers.[2] However, scandal subsided over time and the King was able to eventually reappoint Haidar and Harid to their old positions.[2]

Prelude

During the winter of 1951–1952 nationalist police officers began protecting and promoting fedayeen (the Egyptian resistance) attacks on British authorities in Cairo, Alexandria, and the Suez Canal. After repelling a particularly devastating attack on British shipping and facilities near Ismailia which resulted in the death of several British soldiers, British troops tracked the fedayeen into the city. On January 25, 1952, British troops discovered the fedayeen had retreated into the local police barracks. When the police refused to surrender the fedayeen, the British officer attempted to negotiate the surrender of the police and the fedayeen. When their negotiator was killed in the parley by the fedayeen, the British force attacked the Egyptian police barracks in Ismailia. Fifty Egyptian police officers were killed and one hundred were wounded. Egypt erupted in fury.

Subsequently, Free Officer Movement cells initiated riots in Cairo which led to arsons. Without suppression from local fire brigades, these arson attacks further inflamed more rioting. American and Soviet newspapers promoted the incident on global wire outlets as the "Cairo Fires" and suggested they were seen as further evidence of the beginning of the end of the monarchy.

The next day, January 26, 1952 ("Black Saturday"), what many Egyptians call "the second revolution" broke out (the first being the Egyptian revolution of 1919).

King Farouk dismissed Mustafa el-Nahhas's government, and in the months that followed, three different politicians were instructed to form governments, each proving short-lived: Ali Maher (27 January – 1 March), Ahmed Naguib El-Hilali (2 March – 29 June, and 22–23 July) and Hussein Sirri (2–20 July). These "salvation ministries", as they were called, failed to halt the country's downward spiral. Corruption remained ubiquitous despite attempts by successive prime ministers to put their political houses in order.

Stirrings of discontent were felt in the army, and in January 1952 opposition officers supported by the Free Officers gained control of the governing board of the Officers Club. On 16 July, the King annulled these elections, appointing his own supporters instead in an attempt to regain control of the army.

A coup d'état had originally been planned for 5 August, but the coup leaders advanced their plans to the night of 22 July, after General Naguib—one of the Free Officers and General Pasha's temporary replacement as Commander and Chief of the Armed Forces—[2] informed that group on 19 July that the Egyptian Royal Army high command had a list of their names.

Military coup

Free Officers, 1953
Members of the Free Officers gathered after the coup d'état. From left to right: Zakaria Mohieddin, Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Kamel el-Din Hussein, Gamal Abdel Nasser (seated), Abdel Hakim Amer, Muhammad Naguib, Youssef Seddik and Ahmed Shawki

While the Free Officers planned to overthrow the monarchy on 2–3 August, they decided to make their move earlier after their official leader, Muhammad Naguib, gained knowledge, leaked from the Egyptian cabinet on 19 July, that King Farouk acquired a list of the dissenting officers and was set to arrest them. The officers thus decided to launch a preemptive strike and after finalizing their plans in meeting at the home of Khaled Mohieddin, they began their coup on the night of 22 July. Mohieddin stayed in his home and Anwar Sadat went to the cinema.[3]

Meanwhile, the chairman of the Free Officers, Gamal Abdel Nasser, contacted the Muslim Brotherhood and the communist Democratic Movement for National Liberation to assure their support. On the morning of 23 July, he and Abdel Hakim Amer left Mohieddin's home in civilian clothes and drove around Cairo in Nasser's automobile to collect men to arrest key royalist commanders before they reached their barracks and gain control over their soldiers. As they approached the el-Qoba Bridge, an artillery unit led by Youssef Seddik met with them before he led his battalion to take control the Military General Headquarters to arrest the royalist army chief of staff, Hussein Sirri Amer and all the other commanders who were present in the building. At 6:00 am the Free Officers air force units began circling Cairo's skies.[4]

Declaration of revolution

At 7:30 a.m., the Egyptian populace heard broadcast station issue the first communiqué of the coup d'état in the name of Gen. Naguib to the Egyptian people that stated the justification for the coup d'état or the "Blessed Movement". The voice everyone heard reading the message belonged to Free Officer and future president of Egypt, Anwar Sadat:[5] The coup was conducted by less than a hundred officers - almost all drawn from junior ranks — and prompted scenes of celebration in the streets by cheering mobs.[6]

Egypt has passed through a critical period in her recent history characterized by bribery, mischief, and the absence of governmental stability. All of these were factors that had a large influence on the army. Those who accepted bribes and were thus influenced caused our defeat in the Palestine War [1948]. As for the period following the war, the mischief-making elements have been assisting one another, and traitors have been commanding the army. They appointed a commander who is either ignorant or corrupt. Egypt has reached the point, therefore, of having no army to defend it. Accordingly, we have undertaken to clean ourselves up and have appointed to command us men from within the army whom we trust in their ability, their character, and their patriotism. It is certain that all Egypt will meet this news with enthusiasm and will welcome it. As for those whose arrest we saw fit from among men formerly associated with the army, we will not deal harshly with them, but will release them at the appropriate time. I assure the Egyptian people that the entire army today has become capable of operating in the national interest and under the rule of the constitution apart from any interests of its own. I take this opportunity to request that the people never permit any traitors to take refuge in deeds of destruction or violence because these are not in the interest of Egypt. Should anyone behave in such ways, he will be dealt with forcefully in a manner such as has not been seen before and his deeds will meet immediately the reward for treason. The army will take charge with the assistance of the police. I assure our foreign brothers that their interests, their personal safety [lit. "their souls"], and their property are safe, and that the army considers itself responsible for them. May God grant us success [lit. "God is the guardian of success"].

With his British support network now neutralized, King Farouk sought the intervention of the United States, which unsurprisingly would not respond. By the 25th, the army had occupied Alexandria, where the king was in residence at the Montaza Palace. Now plainly terrified, Farouk abandoned Montaza, and moved to Ras Al-Teen Palace on the waterfront. Naguib ordered the captain of Farouk's yacht, al-Mahrusa, not to sail without orders from the army.

Debate broke out among the Free Officers concerning the fate of the deposed king. While some (including Gen. Naguib and Nasser) viewed the best solution as to send him into exile, others argued the urge to put him on trial and even execute him for the "crimes he committed to the Egyptian people". Finally, the order came for Farouk to abdicate in favour of his son, Crown Prince Ahmed Fuad - who was acceded to the throne as King Fuad II - and a Regency Council was appointed. Departure into exile finally came on Saturday, July 26, 1952 and at 6 o'clock that evening, the king set sail for Italy with protection from the Egyptian army. On July 28, 1953, Muhammad Naguib became the first President of Egypt, which marked the beginning of modern Egyptian governance.

Consolidation

1953 Egypt revolution celebrations
Members of the Free Officers welcomed by crowds in Cairo in January 1953. Standing in the automobile, from left to right: Youssef Seddik, Salah Salem, Gamal Abdel Nasser and Abdel Latif Boghdadi

The Revolution Command Council (RCC), made up of the previous nine-member command committee of the Free Officers in addition to five more members, chaired by Naguib, was formed. Ali Maher was asked to form a civilian government. When the Free Officers started isolating elements sympathizing with the Soviet Union, communist cadres led workers riots in Kafr Dawar on August 12, 1952, which resulted in two death sentences. Ali Maher who still sympathized with the British resigned on 7 September following differences with the officers, principally over proposed land reform. Naguib became prime minister, with Nasser as deputy prime minister. On 9 September, the Agrarian Reform Law was passed, which immediately seized any European-owned, especially British owned property in Egypt. This was followed by signaling a major land redistribution programme among peasant farmers which gained most of the seized land. In a bid to stop concentration of land ownership, the regime placed a ceiling of 200 feddans on land ownership. On 9 December, the RCC without due process decreed that the 1923 Constitution of Egypt was abrogated "in the name of the people."

On 16 January 1953 the officers of the RCC dissolved and banned all political parties, declaring a three-year transitional period during which the RCC would rule. A provisional Constitutional Charter, written by the close circle of usurpers, was written with the intention of giving a veneer of legitimacy to the RCC. This new Constitution was proclaimed on 10 February, and the Liberation Rally — the first of three political organisations linked to the July regime — was launched soon afterwards with the aim of mobilising popular support. The Rally was headed by Nasser and included other Free Officers as secretaries-general. On 18 June, the RCC declared Egypt a republic abolishing the monarchy (the infant son of Farouk had been reigning as King Fuad II) and appointing General Naguib, aged 52, as first president and prime minister. Gamal Abdel Nasser, 35, was appointed deputy premier and minister of the interior. A "Revolutionary Tribunal" consisting of RCC members Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Sadat and Hassan Ibrahim, was set up to try politicians of the ancien régime.

In opposition to the Constitution with its overt secularism was the Muslim Brotherhood. Additionally, contrary to orders issued by the Council, members of the Liberation Rally accumulated much of the seized non-Muslim property and distributed amongst their closed networks. Angered at being left out of the political and economic spoils and seeing a continuation of secularism and modernity within the Free Officers Movement such as had existed under the King, the Muslim Brotherhood organized its street elements. From June 1953 into the following year, Egypt was wracked by street riots, clashes, arson, and civil tumult as the regime and the Muslim Brotherhood battled for popular support.

1954

In January, the Muslim Brotherhood was outlawed. It remained an illegal political organization until the revolution of 2011. The move came in the wake of clashes between members of the Brotherhood and Liberation Rally student demonstrators on 12 January 1954. March witnessed clashes within the RCC, symbolized in the attempt, ultimately successful, to oust Naguib. The move faced opposition from within the army, and some members of the RCC, especially Khaled Mohieddin, favored a return to constitutional government. On 26 October, an assassination attempt suspected by the Brotherhood was directed at Nasser during a rally in Alexandria. This led to the regime acting against the Brotherhood, executing Brotherhood leaders on 9 December. Nasser subsequently cemented power, first becoming chairman of the RCC, and finally prime minister, with Naguib's constitutional position remaining vague until 14 November, when he was dismissed from office and placed under house arrest.

Meanwhile, the RCC, backed by both the Soviet Union and the United States, managed to remain united in its opposition to the British and French, specifically in regard to the Suez Canal. Despite continued calls from the RCC, in debates in the United Nations, and pressure from both the U.S. and USSR, the British refused to transfer control of the Canal to the new regime. The RCC began funding and coordinating ever greater attacks on the British and French in the Suez Canal Zone, and Damietta. Finally, on 19 October, Nasser signed a treaty for the evacuation of British troops from Egypt, to be completed over the following 20 months. Two years later, on 18 June 1956, Nasser raised the Egyptian flag over the Canal Zone, announcing the complete evacuation of British troops.

1956

President Nasser announced a new Constitution on 16 January at a popular rally, setting up a presidential system of government in which the president has the power to appoint and dismiss ministers. An elections law was passed on 3 March granting women the right to vote for the first time in Egyptian history. Nasser was elected as the second president of the Republic on 23 June. In 1957, Nasser announced the formation of the National Union (Al-Ittihad Al-Qawmi), paving the way to July elections for the National Assembly, the first parliament since 1952.

Commemoration

The anniversary of the coup d'état is commemorated on Revolution Day, an annual public holiday in Egypt, on 23 July.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Long Struggle: The Seeds of the Muslim World's Frustration by Amil Khan (2010), p. 58
  2. ^ a b c d e https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP91T01172R000200280003-8.pdf
  3. ^ Alexander, 2005, p. 41.
  4. ^ Alexander, p. 42.
  5. ^ Ibrahim, Sammar. 'Profile: Anwar Al-Sadat' Archived 2007-11-25 at the Wayback Machine, Egypt State Information Service, Retrieved on 2008-07-20.
  6. ^ Egypt on the Brink by Tarek Osman, Yale University Press, 2010, p. 40

6. Watry, David M. Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014.

External links

Alexandria University

Alexandria University (Arabic: جامعة الإسكندرية‎) is a public university in Alexandria, Egypt. It was established in 1938 as a satellite of Fouad University (the name of which was later changed to Cairo University), becoming an independent entity in 1942. It was known as Farouk University until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 when its name was changed to the University of Alexandria. Taha Hussein was the founding rector of Alexandria University. It is now the second largest university in Egypt and has many affiliations to various universities for ongoing research.

Cairo International Stadium

The Cairo International Stadium or "Stad El Qahira El Dawly", is an Olympic-standard, multi-use stadium with an all-seated capacity of 75,000. The architect of the stadium is the German Werner March, who had built from 1934 to 1936 the Olympic Stadium in Berlin. Before becoming an all seater stadium, it had the ability to hold over 100,000 spectators, reaching a record of 120,000. It is the foremost Olympic-standard facility befitting the role of Cairo, Egypt as the center of events in the region. It is also the 69th largest stadium in the world. Located in Nasr City; a suburb north east of Cairo, it was completed in 1960, and was inaugurated by President Gamal Abd El Nasser on 23 July that year, the eighth anniversary of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Zamalek currently use the Petro Sport Stadium for most of their home games and Al Ahly use Al-Salam Stadium for most of their home games.

Cairo fire

The Cairo fire (Arabic: حريق القاهرة‎), also known as Black Saturday, was a series of riots that took place on 26 January 1952, marked by the burning and looting of some 750 buildings—retail shops, cafes, cinemas, hotels, restaurants, theatres, nightclubs, and the city's Opera House—in downtown Cairo. The direct trigger of the riots was the killing by British occupation troops of 50 Egyptian auxiliary policemen in the city of Ismaïlia in a one-sided battle a day earlier. The spontaneous anti-British protests that followed these deaths were quickly seized upon by organized elements in the crowd, who burned and ransacked large sectors of Cairo amidst the unexplained absence of security forces. The fire is thought by some to have signalled the end of the Kingdom of Egypt. The perpetrators of the Cairo Fire remain unknown to this day, and the truth about this important event in modern Egyptian history has yet to be established. The disorder that befell Cairo during the 1952 fire has recently been compared to the chaos that followed the anti-government protests of 28 January 2011, which saw demonstrations take place amidst massive arson and looting, an inexplicable withdrawal of the police and organized prison-breaking.

Corrective Revolution (Egypt)

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Democratic Movement for National Liberation

The Democratic Movement for National Liberation (Arabic: الحركة الديمقراطية للتحرر الوطنى‎, abbreviated حدتو, HADITU, French: Mouvement démocratique de libération nationale, abbreviated M.D.L.N.) was a communist organization in Egypt from 1947 to 1955. HADITU was led by Henri Curiel. The movement followed the line of the National Democratic Revolution.

Egyptian Armed Forces

The Egyptian Armed Forces are the state military organisation responsible for the defence of Egypt. They consist of the Egyptian Army, Egyptian Navy, Egyptian Air Force and Egyptian Air Defense Command.In addition, Egypt maintains large paramilitary forces. The Central Security Forces comes under the control of the Ministry of Interior. The Border Guard Forces and the National Guard falls under the control of the Ministry of Defense.

The modern Egyptian armed forces have been involved in numerous crises and wars since independence, from the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Egyptian Revolution of 1952, Suez Crisis, North Yemen Civil War, Six-Day War, Nigerian Civil War, War of Attrition, Yom Kippur War, Egyptian bread riots, 1986 Egyptian conscripts riot, Libyan–Egyptian War, Gulf War, War on Terror, Egyptian Crisis, Second Libyan Civil War, War on ISIL and the Sinai insurgency.

Egyptian Revolution of 1919

The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 was a countrywide revolution against the British occupation of Egypt and Sudan. It was carried out by Egyptians from different walks of life in the wake of the British-ordered exile of the revolutionary Egyptian Nationalist leader Saad Zaghlul, and other members of the Wafd Party in 1919.

The revolution led to Great Britain's later recognition of Egyptian independence in 1922 as the Kingdom of Egypt, and the implementation of a new constitution in 1923. Britain, however, refused to recognise full Egyptian sovereignty over Sudan, or to withdraw its forces from the Suez Canal Zone, factors that would continue to sour Anglo-Egyptian relations in the decades leading up to the Egyptian revolution of 1952.

Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council

The Revolutionary Command Council (RCC; Arabic: مجلس قيادة الثورة‎ Majlis Qiyāda ath-Thawra) was the body established to supervise the Republic of Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan after the Revolution of 1952. It initially selected Ali Maher Pasha as Prime Minister, but forced him to resign after conflict over land reform. At that time, the Council took full control of Egypt. The RCC controlled the state until 1954, when the Council dissolved itself.

Flag of Yemen

The Flag of Yemen (Arabic: علم اليمن‎) was adopted on May 22, 1990, the day that North Yemen and South Yemen were unified. The flag is essentially the Arab Liberation Flag of 1952, introduced after the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 in which Arab nationalism was a dominant theme. The Arab Liberation Flag served as the inspiration for the flags of both North and South Yemen prior to unification, as well as for the current flags of Egypt, Iraq, Sudan, and Syria.According to the official description, the red stands for unity and the bloodshed of martyrs, the white for a bright future, and the black for the dark past. The flag's design is also similar to that of the flag of the German Empire, albeit inverted. The flag is identical to the flag of Libya from 1969–1972.

Free Officers Movement (Egypt)

The Free Officers (Egyptian Arabic: حركة الضباط الأحرار‎ Ḥarakat aḍ-Ḍubbāṭ al-ʾAḥrār) were a group of Egyptian nationalist officers in the armed forces of Egypt and Sudan that instigated the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Originally established in 1945 as a cell within the Muslim Brotherhood under Abdel Moneim Abdel Raouf, which included Gamal Abdel Nasser, Hussein Hamouda, Khaled Mohieddin, Kamal el-Din Hussein, Salah Naṣr, Abdel Hakim Amer, and Sa’ad Tawfiq, it operated as a clandestine movement of junior officers during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Muhammad Naguib joined the Free Officers in 1949, after the war, and became their official leader during the turmoil leading up the revolution because of the hero status he had earned during the war, and his influence in the army.

Gamal Salem

Gamal Salem (1918–1968; Egyptian Arabic: جمال سالم‎) was a prominent member of the Egyptian Free Officers who led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 that toppled the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan. Prior to the Revolution, he served as an officer in Royal Egyptian Air Force.

King of Egypt

King of Egypt (Arabic: ملك مصر‎ Malik Miṣr) was the title used by the ruler of Egypt between 1922 and 1951. When the United Kingdom ended its protectorate over Egypt on 28 February 1922, Egypt's Sultan Fouad I issued a decree on 15 March 1922 whereby he adopted the title of King of Egypt. It has been reported that the title change was due not only to Egypt's newly independent status, but also to Fouad I's desire to be accorded the same title as the newly installed rulers of the newly created kingdoms of Hejaz, Syria and Iraq. The only other monarch to be styled King of Egypt was Fouad I's son Farouk I, whose title was changed to King of Egypt and the Sudan in October 1951 following the Wafdist government's unilateral abrogation of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The monarchy was abolished on 18 June 1953 following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 and the establishment of a republic. The then-king, the infant Fuad II of Egypt (Farouk having abdicated following the revolution), went into exile in Switzerland.

The rulers of Ancient Egypt may be described using the title King (a translation of the Egyptian word nsw) or Pharaoh (derived from pr ˤ3).

Land reform in Egypt

The post-revolution Egyptian Land Reform was an effort to change land ownership practices in Egypt following the 1952 Revolution launched by Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Free Officers Movement.

Lebanese people in Egypt

The Lebanese people of Egypt are people from Lebanon or those of Lebanese descent who live or have lived in the country of Egypt. Many prominent figures that have emerged in Egypt were of Lebanese origin, such as the world-famous actor, Omar Sharif (born Michel Chalhoub), and the highly acclaimed Egyptian filmmaker, Youssef Chahine. Most Lebanese who resided in Egypt were highly educated, and the community as a whole contributed to both Egypt's cultural and financial well being, especially during the era of the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Since the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, most of Egypt's Lebanese community left the country immigrating to the Americas, Europe, and Australia, as well as many returning to their native Lebanon (especially Beirut).

The height of Lebanese immigration into Egypt occurred between the 19th and early 20th centuries. As Lebanon was part of Ottoman Syria during this time, Christians from all over the Levant (modern-day Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine) were immigrating to Egypt as one "Shawam" (شوام), or "Levantine" group. Hence, an umbrella term for their community is "Syro-Lebanese". The number of Lebanese Christians in Egypt grew drastically during the 1860 Lebanon conflict, in which thousands of Christians were killed along with hundreds of their villages destroyed. The vast majority of Lebanese and other Levantine migrants who arrived in Egypt were well-educated and French-speaking.

The historic Lebanese community of Egypt, especially during the 19th and early 20th centuries, was almost exclusively Christian (Melkite Greek Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Maronite Catholic), with small numbers of Muslims and Jews among them. Today, many Lebanese nationals who live in Egypt, mostly for education or employment, tend to be Muslim.

Military ranks of the Kingdom of Egypt

The Turco-Egyptian ranks were the military ranks used by the Kingdom of Egypt from 1922 until they were changed in 1958 after the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 and the abolition of the monarchy. The names are Turco-Egyptian (i.e. derived from Ottoman Turkish and Arabic), and are derived at least in part from the pre-existing military structure developed out of the reforms of Muhammad Ali Pasha. The design of the rank insignia was completely British with high ranks given only to British officers during Britain's occupation of Egypt. The rank of Sirdar was given to the British Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Army.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Egypt)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Arab Republic of Egypt (Arabic: وزارة الخارجية المصرية‎) is the Egyptian government ministry which oversees the foreign relations of Egypt. On 17 July 2014 Sameh Shoukry was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Public holidays in Egypt

Public holidays are celebrated by the entire population of Egypt. Holidays in Egypt have many classifications. Some holidays are religious and others are secular, while some can be fixed holidays on the calendar while others are movable. There are four Islamic holidays and two Christian holidays. The national day of Egypt is celebrated on July, 23 which coincides with the annual celebration of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 when the modern republic of Egypt was declared, ending the period of the Kingdom of Egypt.

Government offices and ministries in Egypt rest on Fridays of each week. In addition, banks and many institutes have non-working days on Saturdays too which is an official resting-day or Sundays which is not official but commonly used as a resting-day by non-governmental institutes and shops with Christian religious observance. Some barbershops and hairdressers close their shops on Mondays instead of Friday, Saturday and Sunday when they keep their shops open.

Revolution Day (Egypt)

Revolution Day refers to the public holiday in Egypt on 23 July, the anniversary of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 which led to the declaration of the modern republic of Egypt, ending the period of the Kingdom of Egypt. It is the biggest secular public holiday in Egypt. This day is considered the national day of Egypt.

Annual celebrations marking the Revolution begin on the preceding evening, as the evening of 23 July 1952 was when the Free Officers Movement led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser commenced the military coup d'état that launched the Revolution, and ultimately led to the abdication of King Farouk (the penultimate King of Egypt and Sudan). The public holiday itself is characterised by large and elaborate celebrations, including televised concerts with heavily nationalistic themes, and military parades.

Salah Salem

Salah Salem (Egyptian Arabic: صلاح سالم‎) (September 25, 1920 – February 18, 1962) was an Egyptian military officer, and politician, and a member of the Free Officers Movement that orchestrated the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.

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