The Egyptian pound (Egyptian Arabic: جنيه مصرى Genēh Maṣri [ɡeˈneː(h) ˈmɑsˤɾi]; sign: E£, L.E. ج.م; code: EGP) is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into 100 piastres, or ersh (Egyptian Arabic: قرش [ʔeɾʃ]; plural قروش [ʔʊˈɾuːʃ]), or 1,000 milliemes (Egyptian Arabic: مليم [mælˈliːm]; French: millième).
The Egyptian pound is frequently abbreviated as LE or L.E., which stands for livre égyptienne (French for Egyptian pound). E£ and £E are commonly used on the internet. The name Genēh [ɡeˈneː(h)] is derived from the Guinea coin, which had almost the same value of 100 piastres at the end of the 19th century.
|جنيه مصرى (Egyptian Arabic)|
Obverse of £200 banknote
|1⁄100||Piastre (قرش, Ersh)|
|1⁄1,000||Millieme (مليم, Mallīm)|
|Symbol||E£ or ج.م or L.E.|
|Piastre (قرش, Ersh)||pt.|
|Banknotes||25pt, 50pt, £1, £5, £10, £20, £50, £100, £200|
|Coins||25pt, 50pt, £1|
|Unofficial user(s)||Gaza Strip|
|Central bank||Central Bank of Egypt|
|Inflation||13.5% (August 2018)|
In 1834, a khedival decree was issued, adopting an Egyptian currency based on a bimetallic standard (gold and silver) on the basis of the Maria Theresa thaler, a popular trade coin in the region. The Egyptian pound, known as the geneih, was introduced, replacing the Egyptian piastre (ersh) as the chief unit of currency. The piastre continued to circulate as 1⁄100 of a pound, with the piastre subdivided into 40 para. In 1885, the para ceased to be issued, and the piastre was divided into tenths (عشر القرش 'oshr el-ersh). These tenths were renamed milliemes (malleem) in 1916.
The legal exchange rates were fixed by force of law for important foreign currencies which became acceptable in the settlement of internal transactions. Eventually this led to Egypt using a de facto gold standard between 1885 and 1914, with E£1 = 7.4375 grams pure gold. At the outbreak of World War I, the Egyptian pound was pegged to the British pound sterling at EG£0.975 per GB£1.
Egypt remained part of the Sterling Area until 1962, when Egypt devalued slightly and switched to a peg to the United States dollar, at a rate of EG£1 = US$2.3. This peg was changed to 1 pound = 2.55555 dollars in 1973 when the dollar was devalued. The pound was itself devalued in 1978 to a peg of 1 pound = 1.42857 dollars (1 dollar = 0.7 pound). The pound floated in 1989. However, until 2001, the float was tightly managed by the Central Bank of Egypt and foreign exchange controls were in effect. The Central Bank of Egypt voted to end the managed-float regime and allowed the pound to float freely on 3 November 2016; the bank also announced an end to foreign exchange controls that day. The official rate fell twofold.
The Egyptian pound was also used in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan between 1899 and 1956, and Cyrenaica when it was under British occupation and later an independent emirate between 1942 and 1951. The National Bank of Egypt issued banknotes for the first time on 3 April 1899. The Central Bank of Egypt and the National Bank of Egypt were unified into the Central Bank of Egypt in 1961.
Several unofficial popular names are used to refer to different values of Egyptian currency. These include (from the word nickel) nekla (نكلة) [ˈneklæ] for 2 milliemes, ta'rifa (تعريفة) [tæʕˈɾiːfæ] for 5 milliemes, shelen (شلن) [ˈʃelen] (i.e. a shilling) for 5 piastres, bariza (بريزة) [bæˈɾiːzæ] for 10 piastres, and reyal (ريال) [ɾeˈjæːl] ("real") for 20 piastres. Since the piastre and millieme are no longer legal tender, the smallest denomination currently minted being the 25-piastre coin (functioning as one-quarter of one pound), these terms have mostly fallen into disuse and survive as curios. A few have survived to refer to pounds: bariza now refers to a ten-pound note and reyal can be used in reference to a 20-pound note.
Different sums of EGP have special nicknames, for example: 1 EGP Bolbol meaning nightingale or Gondi meaning soldier, 1,000 EGP baku (باكو) [ˈbæːku] "pack"; 1,000,000 EGP arnab (أرنب) [ˈʔæɾnæb] "rabbit"; 1,000,000,000 EGP feel (فيل) [fiːl] "elephant".
Between 1837 and 1900, copper 1 and 5 para*, silver 10 and 20 para, 1, 5, 10 and 20 piastre, gold 5, 10 and 20 piastre and 1 pound coins were introduced, with gold 50 piastre coins following in 1839.
Copper 10 para coins were introduced in 1853, although the silver coin continued to be issued. Copper 10 para coins were again introduced in 1862, followed by copper 4 para and 21⁄2 piastre coins in 1863. Gold 25 piastre coins were introduced in 1867.
In 1885, a new coinage was introduced consisting of bronze 1⁄4, 1⁄2, 1, 2 and 5 millieme, silver 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 piastre coins. The gold coinage practically ceased, with only small numbers of 5 and 10 piastre coins issued.
In 1916 and 1917, a new base metal coinage was introduced consisting of bronze 1⁄2 millieme and holed, cupro-nickel 1, 2, 5 and 10 millieme coins. Silver 2, 5, 10 and 20 piastre coins continued to be issued, and a gold 1 pound coin was reintroduced. Between 1922 and 1923, the gold coinage was extended to include 20 and 50 piastre and 1 and 5 pound coins. In 1924, bronze replaced cupro-nickel in the 1 millieme coin and the holes were removed from the other cupro-nickel coins. In 1938, bronze 5 and 10 millieme coins were introduced, followed in 1944 by silver, hexagonal 2 piastre coins.
Between 1954 and 1956, a new coinage was introduced, consisting of aluminium-bronze 1, 5 and 10 millieme and silver 5, 10 and 20 piastre coins, with the size of the silver coinage significantly reduced. An aluminium-bronze 2 millieme coin was introduced in 1962. In 1967 the silver coinage was abandoned and cupro-nickel 5 and 10 piastre coins were introduced.
Aluminium replaced aluminium-bronze in the 1, 5 and 10 millieme coins in 1972, followed by brass in the 5 and 10 millieme coins in 1973. Aluminium-bronze 2 piastre and cupro-nickel 20 piastre coins were introduced in 1980, followed by aluminium-bronze 1 and 5 piastre coins in 1984. In 1992, brass 5 and 10 piastre coins were introduced, followed by holed, cupro-nickel 25 piastre coins in 1993. The size of 5 piastre coins was reduced in 2004, 10 and 25 piastre coins - in 2008.
On June 1, 2006, 50 piastre and 1 pound coins dated 2005 were introduced, and its equivalent banknotes were phased out and completely disappeared from circulation in 2010. The coins bear the face of Cleopatra VII and Tutankhamun's mask, and the 1 pound coin is bimetallic. The size and composition of 50 piastre coins was reduced in 2007.
|Coins in circulation|
|Obverse||Reverse||Diameter (mm)||Thickness (mm)||Mass (g)||Composition||Obverse||Reverse|
|5pt**||1984||23||1.2||4.9||Copper 95% Aluminum 5%||3 pyramids of Giza|
|2004/2008||17||1.04||2.4||Steel 94% |
Copper plating 4%
|10pt**||1984||25||1.35||5.2||Copper 75% Nickel 25%||Mosque of Muhammad Ali|
|1992||23||1.2||4.9||Copper 95% Aluminum 5%|
|2008||19||1.1||3.2||Steel 94% |
Nickel plating 4%
|20pt**||1984||27||1.4||6||Copper 75% Nickel 25%|
|2008||21||1.26||4.5||Steel 94% |
Nickel plating 4%
|2007||23||1.7||Steel 94% |
Copper plating 4%
|Copper 75% |
Nickel plating 4%
|Steel 94% |
Copper plating 4%
* 1 para = 1⁄40 piastre.
** Not in circulation as of 2008.
*** As to commemorate the branching of the Suez canal, the obverse had the Arabic phrase, قناة السويس الجديدة "New Suez Canal".
In 1899, the National Bank of Egypt introduced notes in denominations of 50 piastres, £1, £5, £10, £50 and £100 were introduced. Between 1916 and 1917, 25 piastre notes were added, together with government currency notes for 5 and 10 piastres. Issued intermittently, the 5 and 10 piastres are today produced by the Ministry of Finance.
In 1961, the Central Bank of Egypt took over from the National Bank and issued notes in denominations of 25 and 50 piastres, £1, £5, £10 and £20 notes were introduced in 1976, followed by £100 in 1978, £50 in 1993 and £200 in 2007.
All Egyptian banknotes are bilingual, with Arabic texts and Eastern Arabic numerals on the obverse, and English texts and Western Arabic numerals on the reverse. Obverse designs tend to feature an Islamic building with reverse designs featuring Ancient Egyptian motifs (buildings, statues and inscriptions). During December 2006, it was mentioned in articles in Al Ahram and Al Akhbar newspapers that there were plans to introduce £200 and £500 notes. As of 2015, there are £200 notes circulating but there are still no plans for making £500 notes. Starting from 2011 the 25, 50 piastres and £1 banknotes have been phased out and replaced by more extensive use of coins. As of June 2016 the National Bank of Egypt reintroduced the £1 banknote into circulation as well as the 25 and 50 piastres notes in response to a shortage of small change.
|Current series of the Egyptian pound|
|Image||Value||Dimensions (millimeters)||Main color||Description||Year of first issue|
|25pt||130 × 70||Blue||Ayesha mosque||Coat of arms of Egypt||1985|
|50pt||135 × 70||Brown||Al-Azhar Mosque||Ramesses II||1985|
|£1||140 × 70||Orange||Mosque of Qaitbay||Abu Simbel temples||1978|
|£5||145 × 70||Bluish-green||Mosque of Ibn Tulun||A Pharaonic engraving of Hapi (god of the annual flooding of the Nile) offering bounties.||1981|
|£10||150 × 70||Pink||Al Rifa'i Mosque||Khafra||2003|
|£20||155 × 70||Green||Mosque of Muhammad Ali||A Pharaonic war chariot and frieze from the chapel of Sesostris I||1978|
|£50||160 × 70||Brownish-red||Abu Huraiba Mosque||Temple of Edfu||1993|
|£100||165 × 70||Purple||Sultan Hassan Mosque||Sphinx||1994|
|£200||165 × 72||Olive||Mosque of Qani-Bay||The Seated Scribe||2007|
This table shows the value of one British pound sterling in Egyptian pounds:
|1885 to 1949||E£0.975|
|2014||E£11.97 to E£12.03|
|2016||E£12.60 to E£21.21|
This table shows the historical value of 1.00 US dollar in Egyptian pounds:
|1789 to 1799||E£0.03|
|1800 to 1824||E£0.06|
|1825 to 1884||E£0.14|
|1885 to 1939||E£0.20|
|1940 to 1949||E£0.25|
|1950 to 1967||E£0.36|
|1968 to 1978||E£0.40|
|1979 to 1988||E£0.60|
|1993 to 1998||E£3.39|
|2000||E£3.42 to E£3.75|
|2001||E£3.75 to E£4.50|
|2002||E£4.50 to E£4.62|
|2003||E£4.82 to E£6.25|
|2004||E£6.13 to E£6.28|
|2005 to 2006||E£5.75|
|2007||E£5.64 to E£5.5|
|2008||E£5.5 to E£5.29|
|2013||E£6.5 to E£6.96|
|2014||E£6.95 to E£7.15|
|2015||E£7.15 to E£11.00|
|2016||E£15.00 to E£18.00|
|2017||E£17.70 to E£17.83|
|Current EGP exchange rates|
|From Google Finance:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD ILS JOD TRY|
|From Yahoo! Finance:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD ILS JOD TRY|
|From XE:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD ILS JOD TRY|
|From OANDA:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD ILS JOD TRY|
|From fxtop.com:||AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD ILS JOD TRY|
The piastre of 1839 contained 1.146 grammes of fine silver, the piastre of 1801 approximately 4.6 grammes of fine silver. The most important Egyptian coins, the bedidlik in gold (= 100 piastres; 7.487 grammes of fine gold) and the rial in silver (20 piastres; 23.294 grammes of fine silver)
Amir Qijmas al-Ishaqi Mosque (Arabic: مسجد قجماس الإسحاقي) or Abu Heriba Mosque (Arabic: مسجد أبو حريبة) is a historic mosque in Cairo. It is located in El-Darb El-Ahmar district, near Bab Zuweila of the Muizz Street.British currency in the Middle East
British involvement in the Middle East began with the Aden Settlement in 1839. The British East India Company established an anti-piracy station in Aden to protect British shipping that was sailing to and from India. The Trucial States were similarly brought into the British Empire as a base for suppressing sea piracy in the Persian Gulf. Involvement in the region expanded to Egypt because of the Suez canal, as well as to Bahrain, Qatar, and Muscat. Kuwait was added in 1899 because of fears about the proposed Berlin-Baghdad Railway. There was a growing fear in the United Kingdom that Germany was a rising power, and there was concern about the implications of access to the Persian Gulf that would arise from the Berlin-Baghdad Railway. After the First World War the British influence in the Middle East reached its maximum extent with the inclusion of Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq. At first, Indian rupees were introduced to Aden and the Gulf States, and later during the First World War to Mesopotamia. After the First World War, the Indian rupee in British East Africa was replaced by a florin and then a shilling, which eventually replaced the Indian Rupee in Aden by 1951. Meanwhile, in 1927 a new Palestine pound at par with the pound sterling was introduced in the mandated territories of Palestine and Transjordan to replace the Turkish and Egyptian currencies. The East African Shilling in Aden was replaced in 1965 with the South Arabian Dinar at par with the pound sterling.Economy of Egypt
The economy of Egypt was a highly centralised economy focused on import substitution under President Gamal Abdel Nasser. In the 1990s, a series of International Monetary Fund arrangements, coupled with massive external debt relief resulting from Egypt's participation in the Gulf War coalition, helped Egypt improve its macroeconomic performance.
Since 2000, the pace of structural reforms, including fiscal, monetary policies, taxation, privatization and new business legislations, helped Egypt move towards a more market-oriented economy and prompted increased foreign investment. The reforms and policies have strengthened macroeconomic annual growth results which averaged 8% annually between 2004 and 2009 but the government largely failed to equitably share the wealth and the benefits of growth have failed to trickle down to improve economic conditions for the broader population, especially with the growing problem of unemployment and underemployment.Farouk Gouida
Farouk Gouida is an African poet
Gouida's newspaper columns - criticising the privatization of state assets by politicians such as Atef Ebeid and Ahmed Nazif - were collected in Raping a Country (2010). Writing in May 2011, Gouida characterized Hosni Mubarak's regime as guilty of "three crimes": floating the Egyptian pound in 2003; misusing public banks to grant easy loans to favoured businessmen; and indiscriminate privatization.In March 2012, he was announced as one of the members of the Constituent Assembly of Egypt. He criticised the composition of the assembly, suggesting that 15 assembly members be replaced with constitutional law professors and legal experts. In August he was reported by Al-Ahram as having turned down an offer from President Morsi to be culture secretary.Guinea (coin)
The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814. The name came from the Guinea region in West Africa, where much of the gold used to make the coins originated. It was the first English machine-struck gold coin, originally worth one pound sterling, equal to twenty shillings, but rises in the price of gold relative to silver caused the value of the guinea to increase, at times to as high as thirty shillings. From 1717 to 1816, its value was officially fixed at twenty-one shillings.
When Britain adopted the gold standard the guinea became a colloquial or specialised term. Although the coin itself no longer circulated, the term guinea survived as a unit of account in some fields. Notable usages included professional fees (medical, legal etc), which were often invoiced in guineas, and horse racing and greyhound racing, and the sale of rams. In each case a guinea meant an amount of one pound and one shilling (21 shillings), or one pound and five pence (£1.05) in decimalised currency. The name also forms the basis for the Arabic word for the Egyptian pound الجنيه el-Genēh / el-Geni, as a sum of 100 qirsh (one pound) was worth approximately 21 shillings at the end of the 19th century.Ibrahim Yehia
Ibrahim Yehia (Arabic: إبراهيم يحيى; born October 17, 1987) is an Egyptian professional footballer who currently plays as a Center-back for the Egyptian club Enppi. He previously played for Ismaily SC before signing a 3-year contract for Enppi for 750,000 Egyptian pound per season.Israeli new shekel
The Israeli new shekel (Hebrew: שֶׁקֶל חָדָשׁ sheqel ẖadash; Arabic: شيكل جديد šēkal jadīd; sign: ₪; code: ILS), also known as simply the Israeli shekel (Hebrew: שקל ישראלי, Arabic: شيكل إسرائيلي), is the currency of Israel and is also used as a legal tender in the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The new shekel is divided into 100 agora. The new shekel has been in use since 1 January 1986, when it replaced the hyperinflated old shekel at a ratio of 1000:1.
The currency sign for the new shekel ⟨ ₪ ⟩ is a combination of the first Hebrew letters of the words shekel (ש) and ẖadash (ח) (new). It was previously known as the new Israeli shekel and the non-official abbreviation of NIS (ש"ח and ش.ج) is still commonly used domestically to denominate prices and also appears on the Bank of Israel's web site. However, the official international currency code of the Israeli new shekel is ILS, as set by the International Organization for Standardization under ISO 4217.Lebanese pound
The Lebanese pound (Arabic: ليرة لبنانية lira libnaniyya; French: livre libanaise; sign: ل.ل., ISO 4217: LBP) is the currency of Lebanon. It used to be divided into 100 piastres (or qirsh) but high inflation in the Lebanese Civil War has eliminated the subdivisions.
The plural form of lira, as used on the currency, is either lirat (ليرات) or the same, whilst there were four forms for qirsh: the dual qirshan (قرشان), the plural qirush (قروش) used with numbers 3–10, the accusative singular qirsha (قرشا) used with 11–99, or the genitive singular qirshi (قرش) used with multiples of 100. In both cases, the number determines which plural form is used. Before the Second World War, the Arabic spelling of the subdivision was غرش (girsh). All of Lebanon's coins and banknotes are bilingual in Arabic and French.List of central banks of Africa
There are two African currency unions associated with multinational central banks; the West African Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (BCEAO) and the Central African Banque des États de l'Afrique Centrale (BEAC). Members of both currency unions use the CFA Franc as their legal tender.
Below is a list of the central banks and currencies of Africa.Luxembourgian livre
The livre was the currency of Luxembourg until 1795. It was subdivided into 20 sols, each of 4 liards. In the late 18th century, coins were issued in denominations of ½ and 2 liards, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 72 sols, with the lower three denominations in copper, the highest minted in silver and the others in billon. The last issues of 1795 were 1 sol coins minted during the siege of Luxembourg.Mohamed Mamdouh (footballer)
Mohamed Mamdouh (Arabic: محمد ممدوح; born May 24, 1993) is an Egyptian professional footballer who currently plays as a Right back for the Egyptian club Raja CA. In 2014, he signed a 3-year contract for El Gouna FC from El Sharkia Dokhan in a 220,000 Egyptian pound transfer.Momtaz El-Saeed
Momtaz El-Saeed (also known as Momtaz Saeed Abu El Nour; born 1948) is an Egyptian civil servant who served in the government of Egypt as minister of finance from 2011 to 2013.Mosque of Qani-Bay
The Mosque of Qani-Bay is a mosque in Cairo, Egypt. The complex is named after Qani-Bay al-Sayfi, nicknamed "al-Rammah", who was Grand Master of the Horse during the reign of Sultan al-Ghuri. It was built between AD 1503 and 1504 (AH 908) on a hill watching over the hippodrome and Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan. The site was chosen since the horse market and stables of the Citadel were originally located just off the square.
The complex has a main façade that takes maximum advantage of the view and at the same time exposes itself to the people below. The complex was restored first in 1895 and then again in the early 2000s.
The mosque features on the 200 Egyptian pound banknote.Palestine pound
The Palestine pound (Arabic: جُنَيْه فِلَسْطَينِيّ, junyah filastini; Hebrew: פֿוּנְט פַּלֶשְׂתִינָאִי א"י)), funt palestina'i (eretz-yisra'eli), also Hebrew: לירה א"י)) lira eretz-yisra'elit) was the currency of the British Mandate of Palestine from 1927 to May 14, 1948, and of the State of Israel between May 15, 1948, and June 23, 1952, when it was replaced with the Israeli lira. It was divided into 1000 mils (Arabic: مِل,; Hebrew: מִיל) and 1000 prutot (Hebrew: פרוטות) in Israel from 1949. The Palestine pound was also the currency of Transjordan until 1949 and was replaced by the Jordanian dinar, and remained in usage in the West Bank Governorate of Jordan until 1950.
Today, the currencies in use in the Palestinian territories are the Israeli new shekel and the Jordanian dinar.Pound sign
The pound sign (£) is the symbol for the pound sterling—the currency of the United Kingdom and previously of Great Britain and the Kingdom of England. The same symbol is used for similarly named currencies, such as the Gibraltar pound, the Egyptian pound, the Syrian pound, etc. It is also sometimes used for currencies named lira, for example the now withdrawn Italian lira.
The symbol derives from a capital "L", representing libra pondo, the basic unit of weight in the Roman Empire, which in turn is derived from the Latin word, libra, meaning scales or a balance. The pound became an English unit of weight and in England became defined as the tower pound (equivalent to 350 grams) of fine (pure) silver. According to the Royal Mint Museum:
It is not known for certain when the horizontal line or lines, which indicate an abbreviation, first came to be drawn through the L. However, there is in the Bank of England Museum a cheque dated 7 January 1661 with a clearly discernible £ sign. By the time the Bank was founded in 1694 the £ sign was in common use.
However, the simple letter L, in lower- or uppercase, was used to represent the pound sterling in printed books and newspapers until well into the 19th century.
The pound sign is placed before the number (e.g. "£12,000") and separated from the following digits by no space or only a thin space.
The symbol ₤ (note the double dash at its middle) was called the lira sign in Italy, before the adoption of the euro. It was used (in free variation with £) as an alternative to the more usual L. or Lit. to show prices in lire. It was also used unofficially as the symbol of the Maltese lira instead of the official Lm.
In American English, the term "pound sign" usually refers to the symbol #, and the corresponding telephone key is called the "pound key". In Canadian English the symbols £ and # are both called the pound sign, but the # is also referred to as the "number sign" and the "noughts-and-crosses board".In the eighteenth-century Caslon metal fonts, the pound sign was identical to the italic capital "J" rotated 180 degrees.Siege of Khartoum currency
Siege of Khartoum currency, an emergency paper money, was issued by Governor-General of the Sudan, British Major-General Charles George Gordon during the Siege of Khartoum. Denominated in piastre (and a 50 Egyptian pound bill), the first issue notes were dated 25 April 1884 and produced as late as November 1884.Sudanese pound
The Sudanese pound (Arabic: جنيه سوداني (Junaih Sudani) is the basic unit of the Sudanese currency. The pound consists of 100 piasters. The pound is issued by the Central Bank of Sudan. Its value is linked to gold and convertible into foreign currencies. There are no restrictions on money transfers to and from Sudan. The Sudanese pound is equivalent to $ 0.021. It has been pegged to the United States dollar since around 1984.
The pound fell for the first time since 1997 after the United States imposed economic sanctions on Sudan. The Sudanese pound continued its decline to an unprecedented number, falling to 53 pounds against the dollar. This situation, which drained all economic measures, led to heavy losses in the external repercussions of the Sudan as a whole, in the light of the government cut, interrupted by some of the failed actions announced by the Central Bank of Sudan, a severe shortage of liquidity.
The Sudanese pound fell against the US dollar after the Central Bank of Sudan announced the lifting of the cash reserve to counter inflation. Since the Secession of South Sudan in 2011, Sudan has suffered from a scarcity of foreign exchange for the loss of three quarters of its oil resources and 80% of foreign exchange resources. The Sudanese government quoted the official price of the dollar from 6.09 pounds to 18.07 pounds in the budget of 2018.Tourism in Egypt
Tourism is one of the leading sources of income, crucial to Egypt's economy. At its peak in 2010 the sector employed about 12% of Egypt's workforce serving approximately 14.7 million visitors Egypt, and providing revenues of nearly $12.5 billion. as well as contributing more than 11% of GDP and 14.4% of foreign currency revenues.Western Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East (or the Near East), the main difference usually being the exclusion of the majority of Egypt (which would be counted as part of North Africa) and the inclusion of the Caucasus. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. The total population of Western Asia is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. Although the term "Western Asia" is mostly used as a convenient division of contemporary sovereign states into a manageable number of world regions for statistical purposes, it is sometimes used instead of the more geopolitical term "Middle East".
In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt. As a geographic concept, Western Asia includes the Levant, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Iran, the Armenian Highlands, the South Caucasus, the Arabian peninsula as well as the Sinai Peninsula, making Egypt a transcontinental country.
The term is used pragmatically and has no "correct" or generally agreed-upon definition. The National Geographic Style Manual as well as Maddison's The World Economy: Historical Statistics (2003) by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) only includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Palestinian territories (called West Bank and Gaza in the latter), Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, UAE, and Yemen as West Asian countries. In contrast to this definition, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in its 2015 yearbook also includes Armenia and Azerbaijan, and excludes Israel (as Other) and Turkey (as Europe).
Unlike the UNIDO, the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) excludes Iran from Western Asia and includes Turkey, Georgia, and Cyprus in the region. In the United Nation's geopolitical Eastern European Group, Armenia and Georgia are included in Eastern Europe, whereas Cyprus and East Thracian Turkey are in Southern Europe. These three nations are listed in the European category of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).
National members of West Asian sports governing bodies are limited to Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The Olympic Council of Asia's multi-sport event West Asian Games are contested by athletes representing these thirteen countries. Among the region's sports organisations are the West Asia Basketball Association, West Asian Billiards and Snooker Federation, West Asian Football Federation, and the West Asian Tennis Federation.
Currency: Egyptian pound
Currencies of Africa
Currencies of Asia
|Local alternative currency|