Eggplant

Eggplant (US[1]), aubergine (UK[2]), or brinjal (South Asia and South Africa[3]) is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae, Solanum melongena, grown for its often purple edible fruit.

The spongy, absorbent fruit of the plant is widely used in cooking in many different cuisines, and is often considered a vegetable, even though it is a berry by botanical definition. As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to the tomato and the potato. Like the tomato, its skin and seeds can be eaten, but, like the potato, it is not advisable to eat it raw. Eggplant is nutritionally low in macronutrient and micronutrient content, but the capability of the fruit to absorb oils and flavors into its flesh through cooking expands its use in the culinary arts.

It was originally domesticated from the wild nightshade species thorn or bitter apple, S. incanum,[4][5][6] probably with two independent domestications: one in South Asia, and one in East Asia.[7]

Eggplant
Solanum melongena 24 08 2012 (1)
The fruit developing on the plant
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species:
S. melongena
Binomial name
Solanum melongena
Synonyms

Solanum ovigerum Dunal
Solanum trongum Poir.
and see text

Description

Eggplant Flower in Hong Kong
Closeup of an eggplant flower

The eggplant is a delicate, tropical perennial plant often cultivated as a tender or half-hardy annual in temperate climates. The stem is often spiny. The flowers are white to purple in color, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. Some common cultivars have fruit that is egg-shaped, glossy, and purple with white flesh and a spongy, "meaty" texture. Some other cultivars are white and longer in shape. The cut surface of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is cut open (oxidation).

Eggplant grows 40 to 150 cm (1.3 to 4.9 ft) tall, with large, coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2.0 to 3.9 in) broad. Semiwild types can grow much larger, to 225 cm (7.38 ft), with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (5.9 in) broad. On wild plants, the fruit is less than 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter; in cultivated forms: 30 cm (12 in) or more in length are possible for long, narrow types or the large fat purple ones common to the West.

Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, soft, edible seeds that taste bitter because they contain or are covered in nicotinoid alkaloids, like the related tobacco.

History

Eleven long purple eggplants
Long purple eggplants

The plant species is believed to have originated in India, where it continues to grow wild.[8] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qimin Yaoshu, an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544.[9] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it, along with the lack of the ancient Greek and Roman names, indicate it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. A book on agriculture by Ibn Al-Awwam in 12th-century Arabic Spain described how to grow aubergines.[10] Records exist from later medieval Catalan and Spanish.[11]

The aubergine is unrecorded in England until the 16th century. An English botany book in 1597 described the madde or raging Apple:

This plant groweth in Egypt almost everywhere... bringing foorth fruit of the bignes of a great Cucumber.... We have had the same in our London gardens, where it hath borne flowers, but the winter approching before the time of ripening, it perished: nothwithstanding it came to beare fruite of the bignes of a goose egge one extraordinarie temperate yeere... but never to the full ripenesse.[12]

Because of the plant's relationship with various other nightshades, the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely poisonous. The flowers and leaves can be poisonous if consumed in large quantities due to the presence of solanine.[13]

The eggplant has a special place in folklore. In 13th-century Italian traditional folklore, the eggplant can cause insanity.[14] In 19th-century Egypt, insanity was said to be "more common and more violent" when the eggplant is in season in the summer.[15]

Etymology and regional names

Eggplant with chicken eggs
White eggplant compared to two chicken eggs

The plant and fruit have a profusion of English names.

Eggplant-type names

The name eggplant is usual in North American English and Australian English. First recorded in 1763, the word "eggplant" was originally applied to white cultivars, which look very much like hen's eggs (see right image).[16][17][18] Similar names are widespread in other languages, such as the Icelandic term eggaldin or the Welsh planhigyn ŵy.

The white, egg-shaped varieties of the egg-plant's fruits are also known as garden eggs,[19] a term first attested in 1811.[20] The Oxford English Dictionary records that between 1797 and 1888, the name vegetable egg was also used.[21]

Aubergine-type names

BT Brinjal Protest Bangalore India TV Interview
Protesters in Bangalore promote the diversity of non-genetically modified eggplants in India.

Whereas eggplant was coined in English, most of the diverse other European names for the plant derive from the Arabic word bāḏinjān (Arabic: باذنجان‎).[22] Bāḏinjān is itself a loan-word in Arabic, whose earliest traceable origins lie in the Dravidian languages. The Hobson-Jobson dictionary comments that 'probably there is no word of the kind which has undergone such extraordinary variety of modifications, whilst retaining the same meaning, as this'.[23]

In English usage, modern names deriving from Arabic bāḏinjān include:

From Dravidian to Arabic

Muhammad ibn Muhammad Shakir Ruzmah-'i Nathani - An Eggplant, a Plant Called Parsiyavushan, and Dungwort - Walters W659225B - Full Page
Illustration of an eggplant (upper picture) in a 1717 manuscript of a work by the thirteenth-century Persian Zakariya al-Qazwini.

All the aubergine-type names have the same origin, in the Dravidian languages. Modern descendants of this ancient Dravidian word include Malayalam vaṟutina and Tamil vaṟutuṇai.

The Dravidian word was borrowed into the Indic languages, giving ancient forms such as Sanskrit and Pali vātiṅ-gaṇa (alongside Sanskrit vātigama) and Prakrit vāiṃaṇa. According to the entry brinjal in the Oxford English Dictionary, the Sanskrit word vātin-gāna denoted 'the class (that removes) the wind-disorder (windy humour)': that is, vātin-gāna came to be the name for egg-plants because they were thought to cure flatulence. The modern Hindustani words descending directly from the Sanskrit name are baingan and began.

The Indic word vātiṅ-gaṇa was then borrowed into Persian as bādingān. Persian bādingān was borrowed in turn into Arabic as bāḏinjān (or, with the definite article, al-bāḏinjān). From Arabic, the word was borrowed into European languages.

From Arabic into Iberia and beyond

In al-Andalus, the Arabic word (al-)bāḏinjān was borrowed into the Romance languages in forms beginning with b- or, with the definite article included, alb-:

The Spanish word alberengena was then borrowed into French, giving aubergine (along with French dialectal forms like albergine, albergaine, albergame, and belingèle). The French name was then borrowed into British English, appearing there first in the late eighteenth century.

Through the colonial expansion of Portugal, the Portuguese form bringella was borrowed into a variety of other languages:

  • Indian English and South African English brinjal, brinjaul (first attested in the seventeenth century).
  • Malay berinjalā.
  • West Indian English brinjalle and (through folk-etymology) brown-jolly.

Thus although Indian English brinjal ultimately originates in languages of the Indian Subcontinent, it actually came into Indian English via Portuguese.

From Arabic into Greek and beyond

MS 626, folio CLXXV Wellcome L0075018
Illustrations of an eggplant from a possibly fifteenth-century French manuscript of a work by Matthaeus Platearius. The word melonge, below the illustration, has a blue initial M-.

The Arabic word bāḏinjān was borrowed into Greek by the eleventh century CE. The Greek loans took a variety of forms, but crucially they began with m-, partly because Greek lacked the initial b- sound and partly through folk-etymological association with the Greek word μέλας (melas), 'black'. Attested Greek forms include ματιζάνιον (matizanion, eleventh-century), μελιντζάνα (melintzana, fourteenth-century), and μελιντζάνιον (melintzanion, seventeenth-century).

From Greek, the word was borrowed into Italian and medieval Latin, and onwards into French. Early forms include:

  • Melanzāna, recorded in Sicilian in the twelfth century.
  • Melongena, recorded in Latin in the thirteenth century.
  • Melongiana, recorded in Veronese in the fourteenth century.
  • Melanjan, recorded in Old French.

From these forms came the botanical Latin melongēna. This was used by Tournefort as a genus name in 1700, then by Linnaeus as a species name in 1753. It remains in scientific use.

These forms also gave rise to the Caribbean English melongene.

The Italian melanzana, through folk-etymology, was adapted to mela insana ('mad apple'): already by the thirteenth century, this name had given rise to a tradition that egg-plants could cause insanity. Translated into English as 'mad-apple', 'rage-apple', or 'raging apple', this name for eggplants is attested from 1578 and the form 'mad-apple' may still be found in Southern American English.[25]

Other English names

The plant is also known as guinea squash in Southern American English. The term guinea in the name originally denoted the fact that the fruits were associated with West Africa.[25]

It has been known as 'Jew's apple', apparently in relation to a belief that the fruit was first imported to the West Indies by Jewish people.[26]

Cultivars

Three Types of Eggplant
Three cultivars of eggplant, showing size, shape, and color differences

Different cultivars of the plant produce fruit of different size, shape, and color, though typically purple. The less common white varieties of eggplant are also known as Easter white eggplants, garden eggs, Casper or white eggplant. The most widely cultivated varieties—cultivars—in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid, 12–25 centimetres (4 12–10 in) long and 6–9 cm (2 123 12 in) broad with a dark purple skin.

A much wider range of shapes, sizes, and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Larger cultivars weighing up to a kilogram (2.2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna Rivers, while smaller ones are found elsewhere. Colors vary from white to yellow or green, as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Some cultivars have a color gradient—white at the stem, to bright pink, deep purple or even black. Green or purple cultivars with white striping also exist. Chinese cultivars are commonly shaped like a narrower, slightly pendulous cucumber. Also, Asian cultivars of Japanese breeding are grown.

  • Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include 'Harris Special Hibush', 'Burpee Hybrid', 'Bringal Bloom', 'Black Magic', 'Classic', 'Dusky', and 'Black Beauty'.
  • Slim cultivars in purple-black skin include 'Little Fingers', 'Ichiban', 'Pingtung Long', and 'Tycoon'
    • In green skin, 'Louisiana Long Green' and 'Thai (Long) Green'
    • In white skin, 'Dourga'.
  • Traditional, white-skinned, egg-shaped cultivars include 'Casper' and 'Easter Egg'.
  • Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include 'Rosa Bianca', 'Violetta di Firenze', 'Bianca Sfumata di Rosa' (heirloom), and 'Prosperosa' (heirloom).
  • Bicolored cultivars with striping include 'Listada de Gandia' and 'Udumalapet'.
  • In some parts of India, miniature cultivars, most commonly called vengan, are popular.

Varieties

  • S. m. var. esculentum – common aubergine, including white varieties, with many cultivars[27]
  • S. m. var. depressum – dwarf aubergine
  • S. m. var. serpentium – snake aubergine

Genetically engineered aubergine

Bt brinjal is a transgenic aubergine that contains a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis.[28] This variety was designed to give the plant resistance to lepidopteran insects such as the brinjal fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera).[28][29]

On 9 February 2010, the Environment Ministry of India imposed a moratorium on the cultivation of Bt brinjal after protests against regulatory approval of cultivated Bt brinjal in 2009, stating the moratorium would last "for as long as it is needed to establish public trust and confidence".[28] This decision was deemed controversial, as it deviated from previous practices with other genetically modified crops in India.[30] Bt brinjal was approved for commercial cultivation in Bangaladesh in 2013.[31]

Cooking and preparing

Raw eggplant can have a bitter taste, with an astringent quality, but it becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich, complex flavor. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces, which may enrich dishes.

Many recipes advise salting, rinsing, and draining the sliced fruit (a process known as "degorging") to remove the bitterness inherent in earlier cultivars, and also to soften it and reduce the amount of fat absorbed. Modern cultivars, including the large purple ones common in the Western world, do not need this treatment to remove bitterness, although it still reduces the fat absorbed in frying.[32]

Eggplant is used in the cuisines of many countries. Due to its texture and bulk, it is sometimes used as a meat substitute in vegan and vegetarian cuisines.[33] Eggplant flesh is smooth. Its numerous seeds are small, soft and edible, along with the rest of the fruit, and do not have to be removed. Its thin skin is also edible, and so it does not have to be peeled. However, the green part at the top, the calyx, does have to be removed when preparing an eggplant for cooking.

Eggplant can be steamed, stir-fried, pan fried, deep fried, barbecued, roasted, stewed, curried, or pickled. Many eggplant dishes are sauces made by mashing the cooked fruit. It can be stuffed. It is frequently, but not always, cooked with fat.

East Asia

Korean and Japanese eggplant varieties are typically thin-skinned.[34]

In Chinese cuisine, eggplants are known as qiézi (茄子). They are often deep fried and made into dishes such as yúxiāng-qiézi ("fish fragrance eggplant")[35] or di sān xiān ("three earthen treasures"). Elsewhere in China, such as in Yunnan cuisine (in particular the cuisine of the Dai people) they are barbecued or roasted, then split and either eaten directly with garlic, chilli, oil and coriander, or the flesh is removed and pounded to a mash (typically with a wooden pestle and mortar) before being eaten with rice or other dishes.

In Korean cuisine, eggplants are known as gaji (가지). They are steamed, stir-fried, or pan-fried and eaten as banchan (side dishes), such as namul, bokkeum, and jeon.[36][37]

Qiezi

Chinese yúxiāng-qiézi (fish-fragrance eggplants)

Dureup-gaji-jeon

Korean dureup-gaji-jeon (pan-fried eggplants and angelica tree shoots)

Southeast Asia

In the Philippines, eggplants are of the long and slender purple variety. They are known as talong and is widely used in many stew and soup dishes, like pinakbet.[38] However the most popular eggplant dish is tortang talong, an omelette made from grilling an eggplant, dipping it into beaten eggs, and pan-frying the mixture. The dish is characteristically served with the stalk attached. The dish has several variants, including rellenong talong which is stuffed with meat and vegetables.[39][40] Eggplant can also be grilled, skinned and eaten as a salad called ensaladang talong.[41] Another popular dish is adobong talong, which is diced eggplant prepared with vinegar, soy sauce, and garlic as an adobo.[42]

Tortang-Talong-Eggplant-Fritter-1068x801

Philippine tortang talong, an eggplant omelette made from grilled skinned eggplants

03073jfEnsaladang Talong Bulacanfvf 06

Philippine ensaladang talong, a salad on grilled and skinned green eggplant

Rellenong talong

Philippine rellenong talong, a variant of tortang talong stuffed with ground meat and various vegetables

Pinakbet3

Philippine pinakbet, a mixed vegetable dish seasoned with bagoong (fermented shrimp paste)

South Asia

Eggplant is widely used in its native India, for example in sambar (a tamarind lentil stew), dalma (a dal preparation with vegetables, native to Odisha), chutney, curry, and achaar (a pickled dish). Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food, it is often described as the "king of vegetables". Roasted, skinned, mashed, mixed with onions, tomatoes, and spices, and then slow cooked gives the South Asian dish baingan bharta or gojju, similar to salată de vinete in Romania. Another version of the dish, begun-pora (eggplant charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh and the east Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander, and mustard oil. Sometimes fried tomatoes and deep-fried potatoes are also added, creating a dish called begun bhorta. In a dish from Maharashtra called bharli vangi, small brinjals are stuffed with ground coconut, peanuts, onions, tamarind, jaggery and masala spices, and then cooked in oil. Maharashtra and the adjacent state of Karnataka also have a eggplant-based vegetarian pilaf called 'vangi bhat' [43]..

Brinjal Masala Fry

Brinjal masala fry

Brinjal&Mango Sambar

Brinjal and mango sambar

Middle East and the Mediterranean

Eggplant is often stewed, as in the French ratatouille, or deep-fried as in the Italian parmigiana di melanzane, the Turkish karnıyarık, or Turkish, Greek, and Levantine musakka/moussaka, and Middle Eastern and South Asian dishes. Eggplants can also be battered before deep-frying and served with a sauce made of tahini and tamarind. In Iranian cuisine, it is blended with whey as kashk e bademjan, tomatoes as mirza ghassemi, or made into stew as khoresht-e-bademjan. It can be sliced and deep-fried, then served with plain yogurt (optionally topped with a tomato and garlic sauce), such as in the Turkish dish patlıcan kızartması (meaning fried aubergines), or without yogurt, as in patlıcan şakşuka. Perhaps the best-known Turkish eggplant dishes are imam bayıldı (vegetarian) and karnıyarık (with minced meat). It may also be roasted in its skin until charred, so the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients, such as lemon, tahini, and garlic, as in the Arab baba ghanoush and the similar Greek melitzanosalata. A mix of roasted eggplant, roasted red peppers, chopped onions, tomatoes, mushrooms, carrots, celery, and spices is called zacuscă in Romania, and ajvar or pinjur in the Balkans.

A Spanish dish called escalivada in Catalonia calls for strips of roasted aubergine, sweet pepper, onion, and tomato. In Andalusia, eggplant is mostly cooked thinly sliced, deep-fried in olive oil and served hot with honey (berenjenas a la Cordobesa). In the La Mancha region of central Spain, a small eggplant is pickled in vinegar, paprika, olive oil, and red peppers. The result is berenjena of Almagro, Ciudad Real. A Levantine specialty is makdous, another pickling of eggplants, stuffed with red peppers and walnuts in olive oil. Eggplant can be hollowed out and stuffed with meat, rice, or other fillings, and then baked. In Georgia, for example, it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani.

Penne with eggplant and basil in yogurt-tomato sauce

Penne with eggplant and basil in yogurt-tomato sauce.

Cultivation and pests

In tropical and subtropical climates, eggplant can be sown in the garden. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost has passed. Eggplant prefers hot weather, and when grown in cold climates or in areas with low humidity, the plants languish or fail to set and produce mature fruit.[44][45] Seeds are typically started eight to 10 weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. S. melongena is included on a list of low flammability plants, indicating that it is suitable for growing within a building protection zone.[46]

Spacing should be 45 to 60 cm (18 to 24 in) between plants, depending on cultivar, and 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in) between rows, depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Mulching helps conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases and the plants benefit from some shade during the hottest part of the day. Hand pollination by shaking the flowers improves the set of the first blossoms. Growers typically cut fruits from the vine just above the calyx owing to the somewhat woody stems. Flowers are complete, containing both female and male structures, and may be self- or cross-pollinated.[47]

Many of the pests and diseases that afflict other solanaceous plants, such as tomato, capsicum, and potato, are also troublesome to eggplants. For this reason, it should generally not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. However, since eggplants can be particularly susceptible to pests such as whiteflies, they are sometimes grown with slightly less susceptible plants, such as chili pepper, as a sacrificial trap crop. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants to reduce pest pressure.

Common North American pests include the potato beetles, flea beetles, aphids, whiteflies, and spider mites. Good sanitation and crop rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease, the most serious of which is Verticillium.

Production

Eggplant production map FAOSTAT 2014
Production of eggplant in 2013 by country[48]

In 2016, global production of eggplants was 51.3 million tonnes.[48] That year, almost 1.8 million hectares (4.4 million acres) were devoted to the cultivation of eggplants in the world. Over 62% of that output came from China alone. India (24.5% of world total), Egypt, Turkey, and Iran were also major producers.[48]

Top countries in eggplant production (2016)[48]
Rank Country Production
(million tonnes)
Harvested Area
(1,000 hectares)
1  China 32.0 781.9
2  India 12.6 664.0
3  Egypt 1.19 48.6
4  Turkey 0.85 24.8
5  Iran 0.68 22.0
World
51.3 1794.0

Nutrition

Eggplant, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy104 kJ (25 kcal)
5.88 g
Sugars3.53 g
Dietary fiber3 g
0.18 g
0.98 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Thiamine (B1)
3%
0.039 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
3%
0.037 mg
Niacin (B3)
4%
0.649 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
6%
0.281 mg
Vitamin B6
6%
0.084 mg
Folate (B9)
6%
22 μg
Vitamin C
3%
2.2 mg
Vitamin E
2%
0.3 mg
Vitamin K
3%
3.5 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
1%
9 mg
Iron
2%
0.23 mg
Magnesium
4%
14 mg
Manganese
11%
0.232 mg
Phosphorus
3%
24 mg
Potassium
5%
229 mg
Zinc
2%
0.16 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water92 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Raw eggplant is composed of 92% water, 6% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and negligible fat (table). It provides low amounts of essential nutrients, with only manganese having a moderate percentage (11%) of the Daily Value. Minor changes in nutrient composition occur with season, environment of cultivation (open field or greenhouse), and genotype.[49]

Host plant

The potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae such as eggplants. Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf.[50]

Chemistry

The color of purple skin cultivars is due to the anthocyanin nasunin.[51]

The browning of eggplant flesh results from the oxidation of polyphenols, such as the most abundant phenolic compound in the fruit, chlorogenic acid.[52]

Allergies

Case reports of itchy skin or mouth, mild headache, and stomach upset after handling or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).

A 2008 study of a sample of 741 people in India, where eggplant is commonly consumed, found nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant, with 1.4% showing symptoms within two hours.[53] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[54] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[55] have also been reported.

Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant, which may be because eggplant is high in histamines. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens.[56] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals, but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.

Taxonomy

Segmented aubergine Thailand
Segmented purple eggplant

The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. ovigerum and S. trongum. Several other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[57]

  • Melongena ovata Mill.
  • Solanum album Noronha
  • Solanum insanum L.
  • Solanum longum Roxb.
  • Solanum melanocarpum Dunal
  • Solanum melongenum St.-Lag.
  • Solanum oviferum Salisb.
  • Prachi Salisb.

A number of subspecies and varieties have been named, mainly by Dikii, Dunal, and (invalidly) by Sweet. Names for various eggplant types, such as agreste, album, divaricatum, esculentum, giganteum, globosi, inerme, insanum, leucoum, luteum, multifidum, oblongo-cylindricum, ovigera, racemiflorum, racemosum, ruber, rumphii, sinuatorepandum, stenoleucum, subrepandum, tongdongense, variegatum, violaceum, and viride, are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. However, Solanum incanum and cockroach berry (S. capsicoides), other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni, respectively, were occasionally considered eggplant varieties, but this is not correct.[57]

The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants (Solanum aethiopicum), known as gilo and nakati, respectively, and described by Linnaeus as S. aethiopicum. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. S. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. aethiopicum. An actual S. violaceum, an unrelated plant described by Ortega, included Dunal's S. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. brownii.[57]

Like the potato and S. lichtensteinii, but unlike the tomato, which then was generally put in a different genus, the eggplant was also described as S. esculentum, in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. He also recognized the varieties aculeatum, inerme, and subinerme at that time. Similarly, H.C.F. Schuhmacher and Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. edule, which is also a junior synonym of sticky nightshade (S. sisymbriifolium). Scopoli's S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant, and that of Blanco to S. lasiocarpum.[57]

Thai eggplant flowers-KayEss-2.jpeg

Thai eggplant flowers

Terung Tua

A fully ripe, mature eggplant turns yellow

See also

References

  1. ^ "egg-plant". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. ^ "Aubergine", Oxford English Dictionary, undated. Retrieved: 7 August 2015.
  3. ^ "Oxford Dictionary, s.v. brinjal". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  4. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Handbook of Food Science, Technology, and Engineering by Yiu H. Hui (2006). CRC Press. ISBN 1-57444-551-0.
  5. ^ Doijode, S. D. (2001). Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). Haworth Press: ISBN 1-56022-901-2
  6. ^ Doganlar, Sami; Frary, Anne; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Lester, Richard N.; Tanksley, Steven D. (1 August 2002). "A Comparative Genetic Linkage Map of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Its Implications for Genome Evolution in the Solanaceae". Genetics. 161 (4): 1697–1711. PMC 1462225. PMID 12196412 – via www.genetics.org.
  7. ^ "Solanum melongena". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  8. ^ Trujilo, Linda (25 January 2003), "The Elegant Eggplant", Master Gardener Journal
  9. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006), Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province, Ebury Press, p. 202
  10. ^ The Book of Agriculture by Ibn Al-Awwam, translated from Arabic to French by J.-J. Clément-Mullet, year 1866, volume 2 page 236.
  11. ^ The first record of Catalan albergínia = "aubergine" is in 1328 according to the Catalan dictionary Diccionari.cat. An earlier record in Catalan is known, from the 13th century, according to the French Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales. A number of old variant spellings for the aubergine word in Romance dialects in Iberia indicate the word was borrowed from Arabic; Dictionary of Arabic and Allied Loanwords: Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Galician and Kindred Dialects, by Federico Corriente, year 2008 page 60.
  12. ^ The Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes, by John Gerarde, year 1597 page 274.
  13. ^ Kitchen Daily (30 August 2012). "Is Raw Eggplant Poisonous?". Kitchen Daily.
  14. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd edition, 2000, s.v. 'mad-apple'
  15. ^ Edward William Lane, An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, v. 1, p. 378, footnote 1.
  16. ^ "Eggplant". Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper. 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  17. ^ "Eggplant". World Wide Worlds. 20 October 2002. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  18. ^ "'egg-plant, n." OED Online, Oxford University Press, July 2018, https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/59900. Accessed 23 September 2018.
  19. ^ 'Eggplant (Garden Egg)', in National Research Council of the National Academies, Lost Crops of Africa, Volume II: Vegetables (Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 2006), pp. 136-53. ISBN 978-0-309-66582-7, doi:10.17226/11763.
  20. ^ 'Garden egg', in "garden, n." OED, 3rd edn (2017).
  21. ^ 'Vegetable egg, n.', OED, 3rd edn (2012).
  22. ^ Unless otherwise stated, material in this section derives from Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd edition, 2001, s.v. 'melongena, n.'; 2000, s.v. 'melongene, n."; and 2000, s.v. 'mad-apple, n.'. These partly supersede the etymology in Oxford English Dictionary, 1st edition, 1888, s.v. 'brinjal'. This in turn supersedes the 1885 OED etymology s.v. 'aubergine'.
  23. ^ Henry Yule, A.C. Burnell, Hobson-Jobson: The Anglo-Indian Dictionary, 1886, reprint ISBN 185326363X, p. 115, s.v. 'brinjaul'
  24. ^ "Brinjal". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  25. ^ a b "Guinea squash". Carolina Gold Rice Foundation. 4 April 2011.
  26. ^ "brown-jolly", in "brown, adj.", "Jews' apple" in "Jew, n." OED Online, Oxford University Press, July 2018. Accessed 23 September 2018.
  27. ^ Stephens, James M. "Eggplant, White — Solanum ovigerum Dun. and Solanum melongena var. esculentum (L.) Nees" (PDF). University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
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  31. ^ IANS (2016-09-07). "Bt Brinjal in Bangladesh: Too early to draw conclusions on contamination, says expert". Business Standard India. Retrieved 2016-12-01.
  32. ^ "Aubergine". BBC GoodFood. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  33. ^ "Vegetarian Meat Substitutes".
  34. ^ JinPittsburgh, Liyun (13 August 2009). "Korean restaurant owner cooks from the heart Andy Starnes/Post-Gazette". Post-Gazette. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  35. ^ Leary, Charles L.; Perret, Vaughn J. (6 July 2017). "All the hallmarks of world-class cuisine". The Chronicle Herald. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  36. ^ Maclang, Jon Khristian (25 March 2016). "North, South, Go Pick! Tasting Korean Fare in Beijing". Yibada. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  37. ^ The Korea Herald (14 August 2017). "Fuss-free stir-fried eggplants, a perfect side dish". The Straits Times. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  38. ^ Norma Olizon-Chikiamco (2003). Filipino Favorites. Periplus Mini Cookbooks. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 9781462911028.
  39. ^ Nicole Ponseca & Miguel Trinidad (2018). I Am a Filipino: And This Is How We Cook. Artisan Books. ISBN 9781579658823.
  40. ^ "The Happy Home Cook: Rellenong Talong (Stuffed Eggplant)". Positively Filipino. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  41. ^ "Ensaladang talong". Eat Your World. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  42. ^ "Adobong Talong". Kawaling Pinoy. 2014-01-19. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  43. ^ Maharashtrian Vangi Bhat recipe. Veg recipes of India. https://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/vangi-bhaat-recipe/ Accessed Jan 2 2019
  44. ^ "How to Grow Eggplant in Cooler Climates".
  45. ^ "Growing Eggplant Successfully in Cooler Climates – Garden Mentors". 16 August 2012.
  46. ^ Mark Chladil and Jennifer Sheridan. "Fire retardant garden plants for the urban fringe and rural areas" (PDF). www.fire.tas.gov.au. Tasmanian Fire Research Fund.
  47. ^ Westerfield, Robert (2008-11-14). "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-13. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
  48. ^ a b c d "FAOSTAT". FAO. Retrieved 2018-01-26.
  49. ^ San José R, Sánchez-Mata MC, Cámara M, Prohens J (2014). "Eggplant fruit composition as affected by the cultivation environment and genetic constitution" (PDF). J Sci Food Agric. 94 (13): 2774–84. doi:10.1002/jsfa.6623. hdl:10251/63156. PMID 25328929.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  50. ^ Varela, L. G.; Bernays, E. A. (1988-07-01). "Behavior of newly hatched potato tuber moth larvae, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in relation to their host plants". Journal of Insect Behavior. 1 (3): 261–275. doi:10.1007/BF01054525. ISSN 0892-7553.
  51. ^ Noda, Yasuko; Kneyuki, Takao; Igarashi, Kiharu; Mori, Akitane; Packer, Lester (2000). "Antioxidant activity of nasunin, an anthocyanin in eggplant peels". Toxicology. 148 (2–3): 119–23. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(00)00202-X. PMID 10962130.
  52. ^ Jaime Prohens, Adrián Rodríguez-Burruezo, María Dolores Raigón and Fernando Nuez (2007). "Total Phenolic Concentration and Browning Susceptibility in a Collection of Different Varietal Types and Hybrids of Eggplant: Implications for Breeding for Higher Nutritional Quality and Reduced Browning". J Amer Soc Hort Sci. 132 (5): 638–646.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link))
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  54. ^ Kabashima, K.; Miyachi, Y. (2004). "Contact dermatitis due to eggplant". Contact Dermatitis. 50 (2): 101–102. doi:10.1111/j.0105-1873.2004.0295c.x.
  55. ^ Gerth van Wijk, R.; Toorenenbergen, A. W.; Dieges, P. H. (1989). "Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners". Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd (in Dutch). 133 (42): 2081–3. PMID 2812095.
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  57. ^ a b c d Solanum melongena L. on Solanaceae Source Archived March 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine: Images, specimens and a full list of scientific synonyms previously used to refer to the eggplant.
Alinazik kebab

Alinazik kebab, or simply alinazik, is a home-style Turkish dish which is a specialty of the Gaziantep province of Turkey. It is made from smoked and spiced eggplant, grilled and then pureed, topped with cubes of sauteed lamb, previously seasoned and marinated. It is usually served with rice pilaf or yogurt with garlic, grilled vegetables, and melted butter.

Baba ghanoush

Baba ghanoush (Arabic: بابا غنوج‎ bābā ghannūj, also appears as baba ganoush or baba ghanouj) is a Levantine or Greater Syrian dish of mashed cooked eggplant mixed with tahini (made from sesame seeds), olive oil, and various seasonings.The traditional preparation method is for the eggplant to be baked or broiled over an open flame before peeling, so that the pulp is soft and has a smoky taste. It is a typical meze (starter), often eaten as a dip with khubz or pita bread, and is sometimes added to other dishes.

Baingan bharta

Baingan bharta (mashed eggplant) is a dish from the Indian subcontinent that originated in the Punjab region. 'Baingan ka bharta' is a part of the national cuisines of all nation states of the Indian subcontinent. It is a vegetarian dish that is prepared by mincing eggplant (baingan) that is grilled over charcoal or direct fire. This infuses the dish with a smoky flavour. The smoked and mashed eggplant is then mixed with cooked chopped tomato, browned onion, ginger, garlic, cumin, fresh cilantro (coriander leaves), chili pepper, and mustard oil or a neutral vegetable oil. Traditionally, the dish is often eaten with an Indian flatbread (specifically roti or paratha) and is also served with rice or raita, a yogurt salad. In states such as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, it is served hot with litti.

In Pakistan and Bangladesh, baingan bharta is part of popular cuisine, while in India, it is part of the cuisines of many states, including Karnataka, Bihar, Maharashtra, Punjab, and West Bengal.

Beguni

Beguni (Bengali: বেগুনী) is a Bengali snack originating from the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, made of eggplant (also known as aubergine or brinjal) which is sliced and battered before being either fried or deep fried in oil. A similar European dish is known as aubergine fritters.

The dish may be prepared by coating eggplant with besan paste and then frying the pieces in oil. The eggplant is usually cut longitudinally (Bengali: বেগুন begun) and dipped in a batter of Bengal gram flour with salt and turmeric, and deep-fried in mustard oil. Sometimes a small amount of poppy seeds is added to the batter. Some people prefer adding a small amount of baking powder to the batter to make it more crunchy. It is commonly consumed along with puffed rice and is an extremely popular street food in the country's cities. It is normally an evening snack in Bengali households and is a very common component of Iftar in Bangladesh during the month of Ramadan of the Islamic calendar.

Beguni is also a quintessential component of the Bengali monsoon cuisine, where it is consumed along with rice and lentil preparation called Khichuri. It is also served as a snack and consumed with tea.

Caponata

Caponata (Sicilian: capunata) is a Sicilian eggplant (aubergine) dish consisting of a cooked vegetable salad made from chopped fried eggplant and celery seasoned with sweetened vinegar, with capers in a sweet and sour sauce.Numerous local variations of the ingredients exist with some versions adding olives, carrots and green bell peppers, and others adding potatoes, or pine nuts and raisins.

There is a Palermo version that adds octopus, while an aristocratic Sicilian recipe includes lobster and swordfish garnished with wild asparagus, grated dried tuna roe and shrimp. However, these last examples are exceptions to the general rule of a sweet and sour cooked vegetable stew or salad.

Today, caponata is typically used as a side dish for fish dishes and sometimes as an appetizer, but since the 18th century it has also been used as a main course.

A similar Neapolitan dish is called cianfotta. The dish is also popular in Tunisian cuisine.

Eggplant papucaki

Eggplant Papucaki (Turkish: Patlıcan papucaki) is a typical Aegean dish found on both Turkish and Greek sides of the Aegean Sea. "Papuc" or "papuç" is a Persian word "paposh" (پاپٯش) that is used in Turkish and means shoe or slipper. The ingredients are eggplants, green peppers or bell peppers, green onions, tomatoes, lemon, olive oil, mozzarella or feta cheese, eggs, leaves, salt and pepper.

Eggplant salads and appetizers

Many cuisines feature eggplant salads and appetizers.

Fried eggplant

Patlıcan kızartma or Patlıcan kızartması (Turkish for fried eggplant) is an eggplant dish from the Turkish cuisine. It is such a common dish during summer months that this season used to be called "patlıcan kızartma ayları" (fried eggplant months) in Ottoman Istanbul, where this generalized frying caused huge fires and destroyed entire mahalles due to the abundance of old wooden houses.Turkish style patlıcan kızartması is usually eaten with a garlic yogurt or tomato sauce. In Arabic and Israeli cuisines, fried eggplant is typically served with a tahini sauce. In Israel, it is used to make sabich: a popular sandwich of fried eggplant and hard boiled egg in a pita.

Karnıyarık

Karnıyarık (lit. 'riven belly' in Turkish) is a dish found in Turkish cuisine dish consisting of eggplant stuffed with a mix of sautéed chopped onions, garlic, black pepper, tomatoes, optional green pepper, parsley and ground meat.A similar dish is the İmam bayıldı, which does not include meat and is served at room temperature or warm.

List of eggplant dishes

This is a list of eggplant dishes. This list includes dishes in which the main ingredient or one of the essential ingredients is eggplant.

Eggplant or aubergine is used in the cuisine of many countries. It is often stewed, as in the French ratatouille, or deep fried as in the Italian parmigiana di melanzane, the Turkish karnıyarık or Turkish and Greek musakka/moussaka, and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. Eggplants can also be battered before deep-frying and served with a sauce made of tahini and tamarind. In Iranian cuisine, it is blended with whey as kashk e-bademjan, tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. It can be sliced and deep-fried, then served with plain yogurt, (optionally) topped with a tomato and garlic sauce, such as in the Turkish dish patlıcan kızartması (meaning: fried aubergines) or without yogurt as in patlıcan şakşuka. Perhaps the best-known Turkish eggplant dishes are imam bayıldı (vegetarian) and karnıyarık (with minced meat).

List of vegetable dishes

This is a list of vegetable dishes. This list includes dishes in which the main ingredient or one of the essential ingredients is a vegetable or vegetables.

In culinary terms, a vegetable is an edible plant or its part, intended for cooking or eating raw. Many vegetable-based dishes exist throughout the world.

Moussaka

Moussaka (, or ) is an eggplant- (aubergine) or potato-based dish, often including ground meat, in the Levant, Middle East, and Balkans, with many local and regional variations.

The most famous version of the dish today appeared in the 1920s with the publishing of Nikolaos Tselementes' culinary book in Greece. Many versions have a top layer made of milk-based sauce thickened with egg (custard) or flour (béchamel sauce). In Greece, the dish is layered and typically served hot. In Turkey, thinly sliced eggplant is fried and served in a tomato-based meat sauce. Turkish mussaka may be consumed warm or at room temperature. In the Arab countries it is usually eaten cold or hot depending on the country.

Parmigiana

Parmigiana (, Italian: [parmiˈdʒaːna]; also parmigiana di melanzane [parmiˈdʒaːna di melanˈdzaːne; -ˈtsaːne], melanzane alla parmigiana [melanˈdzaːne alla parmiˈdʒaːna; -ˈtsaːne -]), shortened as parmi or parma in Australian English, or called eggplant parmesan in the United States, is an Italian dish made with a shallow or deep-fried sliced eggplant (also called aubergine) filling, layered with cheese and tomato sauce, then baked. The origin of the dish is claimed by both the Southern regions of Campania and Sicily. Other variations found outside Italy may include chicken, veal, or another type of meat cutlet or vegetable filling.

Pasta alla Norma

Pasta alla Norma (pronounced [ˈpasta alla ˈnɔrma]) is one of the most well known Italian pasta dishes. It is typical of the Sicilian cuisine created originally in Catania, Sicily, Italy.

The original recipe is made with macaroni (typical italian pasta), tomatoes, fried aubergines (eggplant), grated ricotta salata cheese, and basil.

The name of the dish is said to originate from the apocryphal exclamation by the Italian writer Nino Martoglio who, upon tasting the dish, exclaimed "It's a Norma!", comparing it with the exceptional perfection of the Vincenzo Bellini opera Norma.

Philippine condiments

A number of condiments and sidedishes are used in Filipino cuisine. They include:

Atchara - a sweet pickled papaya relish. Also used as a side dish.

Bagoong - fermented anchovy paste or shrimp paste, particularly popular in the dish kare-kare.

Banana ketchup - a sweet, red condiment made primarily of bananas.

Buro or Balao-Balao - fermented rice which can be colored plain (Capampangan: balao-balao) or dark pink (Tagalog: buro) and sometimes with fish, mainly a condiment for steamed/ boiled vegetables like okra, sweet potato leaves (talbos ng kamote), eggplant, etc.

Calamansi - small Philippine limes

Eggplant sauce - a sour sauce made of grilled eggplant, garlic and vinegar. Used in cocidos and as a side dish.

Latik - (Visayan usage only) a thick syrup made from coconut milk and sugar.

Lechon sauce - also known as liver sauce or breadcrumb sauce made out of ground liver or liver pâté, vinegar, sugar, and spices. A sweet, tangy light-brown sauce used in roasts and the pork dish called lechon.

Patis. Sometimes spiced with labuyo peppers, or kalamansi lime juice, in which case it is called patismansi.

Ensaladang mangga - green mango relish with tomatoes and onions.

Ensaladang talong - skinned grilled eggplant with tomatoes and onions.

Labuyo chili - small native chili cultivar

Sukang may sili - cane or coconut vinegar spiced with labuyo peppers.

Sukang may toyo - cane or coconut vinegar with soy sauce. This may also contain the very hot labuyo peppers or onions. Sukang may toyo is used in the pork dish crispy pata.

Sweet and sour sauce - used on fried meats and spring rolls.

Taba ng talangka - fermented paste derived from the salted roe and aligue (reddish or orange crab "fat") of the river swimming crabs (talangka) sautéed in garlic and preserved in oil.

Toyo't Kalamansi (sometimes referred to simply as toyomansi) - soy sauce with kalamansi lime juice.

Ratatouille

Ratatouille ( RAT-ə-TOO-ee, French: [ʁatatuj]) is a French Provençal stewed vegetable dish, originating in Nice, and sometimes referred to as ratatouille niçoise.

Rollatini

Rollatini (sometimes also spelled rolatini or rolletini) is an Italian-style dish (called rollatini di melanzane in faux Italian) that is usually made with thin slices of eggplant, which are dusted in wheat flour or lightly breaded and covered with ricotta and often other cheeses and seasonings, then rolled up and baked. Alternatively, veal, chicken, or fish may be used in place of the eggplant.Rollatini is not an actual Italian word; in Italy the dish is known as involtini (e.g., involtini di melanzane).

Stuffed eggplant

Stuffed eggplants (Azerbaijani: Badımcan dolması, Iran: Karni Yarikh, Turkish: Patlıcan dolması, Italian: Melanzane ripiene) are a dish typical of many countries.

Tortang talong

Tortang talong, also known as eggplant omelette, is a Filipino omelette made by pan-frying grilled whole eggplants dipped in an egg mixture. It is a popular breakfast and lunch meal in the Philippines. A common variant of tortang talong is rellenong talong, which is stuffed with meat, seafood, and/or vegetables.

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