Eesti Energia

Eesti Energia AS is a private limited energy company in Estonia with its headquarters in Tallinn. It is the world's biggest oil shale to energy company. The company was founded in 1939. As of 2014, it operates in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Jordan and Utah, United States. In Estonia the company operates under the name Eesti Energia, while using the brand name Enefit for international operations. The main raw material for energy production – oil shale – is extracted from mines located in Eastern-Estonia and owned by the company. The group of Eesti Energia has three main operation areas: electricity generation, shale oil production, and sale and distribution electricity. Its shares are owned by the Government of Estonia.

Eesti Energia
Enefit
limited company
IndustryElectricity
Oil and gas
Mining
Founded1939
Headquarters,
Estonia
Area served
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Jordan, Utah
Key people
Hando Sutter (CEO)
ProductsElectric power and heat
Oil shale
Shale oil
ServicesElectricity and heat distribution
Sale of electricity
Revenue€880 million (2014)
OwnerGovernment of Estonia
Number of employees
~ 7400 (2010)
Websitewww.energia.ee

History

Eesti Energia
Elektrilevi service office in Kadaka, Tallinn.

Eesti Energia was founded in 1939. In 1998, it was reorganized from the state enterprise to private limited company. In 1998–1999, two distribution companies (Läänemaa Eletrivõrk and Narva Elektrivõrk) were separated from Eesti Energia and privatized.[1]

In 1995, the Government of Estonia started negotiations with NRG Energy, a subsidiary of Northern States Power Company, to create a joint venture on the basis of Narva Power Plants, a subsidiary of Eesti Energia. According to the basic terms of sale, agreed in 2000, NRG Energy was to acquire 49% stake in Narva Power Plants. In addition, at that time Narva Power Plants owned also 51% stake in the oil-shale mining company Eesti Põlevkivi.[2][3][4] The proposed deal got a strong public and political opposition.[5][6] The deal was cancelled by the Government on 8 January 2002 after NRG Energy failed to secure financing for the deal by the agreed-upon deadline.[7] On 21 August 2002 NRG Energy filed to the London court claiming £100 million compensation for damages from the cancelled deal; however this claim was rejected.[8]

In 1999, Government handed 51% of shares of Eesti Põlevkivi to Narva Elektrijaamad.[9] In 2003, Government transferred remained 49% stake in Eesti Põlevkivi to Eesti Energia. Also Narva Elektrijaamad-owned 51% stake was transferred to Eesti Energia and Eesti Põlevkivi became a fully owned subsidiary of Eesti Energia.[10]

In 2000, Eesti Energia and Latvenergo announced a plan to merge companies to create a new Baltic Power Group.[11] However, this deal was halted due to Latvian legislation forbidding privatization of Latvenergo and uncertainties around the NRG deal.[12][13]

In 2003, Eesti Energia tried to privatize Lithuanian distribution company RST. Although Eesti Energia fulfilled the privatization criteria and was the only bidder at the final stage of privatization, the privatization was halted by the Lithuanian Government.[14][15]

On 1 December 2005, during his visit to Estonia, Lithuanian Prime Minister Algirdas Brazauskas met with the CEO of Eesti Energia Sandor Liive to discuss Eesti Energia's participation in the proposed Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant project.[16] On 8 March 2006, the heads of Lietuvos Energija, Eesti Energia and Latvenergo during their meeting in Ignalina signed a memorandum of understanding on the preparation for construction of a new nuclear reactor in Lithuania.[17] Eesti Energia negotiated for six years; however, the project was put on hold after government change in Lithuania at the end of 2012.[18][19]

In 2006, Eesti Energia started to trade at Nord Pool Spot power exchange by acquiring Finnish trading company Solidus Oy.[20] At the same year it started to sell electricity in Latvia and one year later in Lithuania. The company started its international oil shale activities in 2006. That year its subsidiary Oil Shale Energy of Jordan was created for the shale oil development project in Jordan. The memorandum of understanding between Eesti Energia and Government of Jordan was signed on 5 November 2006.[21] The concession agreement was signed on 11 May 2010 in the presence of Jordanian and Estonian prime ministers Samir Zaid al-Rifai and Andrus Ansip.[22] In March 2011, it acquired 100% shares of the Utah-based Oil Shale Exploration Company.[23][24][25]

To implement the EU 3rd energy package, on 28 August 2009 Government decided to separate and buy-out the transmission system operator Elering from Eesti Energia.[26] The transaction was concluded on 28 January 2010.[27]

In 2010, the government considered the initial public offering of shares at the London Stock Exchange; however, this plan was postponed.[28][29]

On 29 May 2018 it was announced that Enefit Green, a renewable energy subsidiary of Eesti Energia, will acquire 100% of shares in the renewable energy company Nelja Energia for €289 million. In addition, it will take over €204 million of Nelja Energia loans.[30][31] The deal was approved and completed in November 2018.[32]

Operations

Eesti Energia produces and sells electricity, heat and fuel (oil shale and shale oil) and provides customer and consulting services. The company is engaged in the oil shale mining through its subsidiary Enefit Kaevandused, which extracts oil shale by opencast mining in the Narva quarry and by underground mining in the Estonia mine.

Eesti Energia produces electrical power and heat in Narva Power Plants, which provides around 95% of the electrical energy consumed in Estonia and supplies the whole town of Narva with heat.

For shale oil production, Eesti Energia operates the Narva Oil Plant, which uses a Galoter-type solid heat carrier technology process. The plant operates two Enefit-140 shale oil units. The plant produces about 1.4 million tonnes of shale oil per year. As of 2013, the new-generation Enefit280 plant is in hot-commissioning process.

International activities

In Jordan, its subsidiary Jordan Oil Shale Energy Company is preparing construction of a shale oil plant with capacity of 36,000 barrels per day (5,700 m3/d).[33] The shale oil plant will use the Enefit processing technology; construction is slated to begin by 2015.[21] Its another subsidiary in Jordan, Attarat Power Company, is planning to build a 460 MW oil-shale-fired power plant at Attarat Umm Ghudran. The power station is expected to be operational by 2016.[34][35][36]

In Utah, United States, its subsidiary Enefit American Oil owns or leases more than 30,000 acres (120 km2) of oil shale property in the Green River Basin. Enefit American Oil plans to build a 57,000 barrels per day (9,100 m3/d) shale oil plant.[37]

Subsidiaries

Eesti Energia has following subsidiaries:

  • Elektrilevi OÜ (100%) – a distribution network operator.
  • Enefit Kaevandused AS (100%) – a oil-shale mining company engaged in the extraction and sale of oil shale. The company supplies Eesti Energia's Narva Power Plants and other customers with fuel (oil shale). Enefit Kaevandused consists of two mines, two quarries and a railway transport unit.
  • Enefit Energiatootmine AS. Consists of the Narva Power Plants and the Narva Oil Plant The company generates 95% of electricity produced in Estonia, and furnishes the city of Narva with heat. The company is also engaged in sales of fly ash, which can be used in agriculture and production of construction materials.
  • Enefit US LLC (100%)
  • Enefit American Oil (former name: Oil Shale Exploration Company, 100%, United States), developer of the Utah oil shale project.[24][25]
  • Attarat Holding OÜ (100%)
  • Attarat Power Company (10%, Jordan)
  • Enefit SIA (100%, Latvia) – a subsidiary supplying energy in Latvia.
  • Enefit UAB (100%, Lithuania) – a subsidiary supplying energy in Lithuania.
  • Enefit Sp. z o.o. (100%, Poland) – a subsidiary supplying energy in Poland.
  • Enefit AB (100%, Sweden) – a subsidiary supplying energy in Sweden.
  • Enefit Oy (100%, Finland) – a subsidiary supplying energy in Finland.
  • Enefit Green AS (100%) – renewable energy subsidiary
  • Enefit Solutions AS (100%) – manufacturer of energy and industrial equipment, maintenance and supply services.
  • Enefit Outotec Technology (60%) – a joint venture with Outotec for developing shale oil extraction technology[38]
  • Enefit Jordan BV (76%, Jordan)
  • Jordan Oil Shale Energy Company

See also

References

  1. ^ Promoting Trade in Services Experience of the Baltic States: Experience of the Baltic States. OECD. 2004. p. 99. ISBN 9789264106161.
  2. ^ OECD Reviews of Foreign Direct Investment: Estonia. OECD Reviews of Foreign Direct Investment. 8. OECD. 2001. p. 60. ISBN 9789264195219.
  3. ^ Kurm, Kairi (2000-07-06). "American NRG gets clear shot at power investments". The Baltic Times. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  4. ^ McGee, Joshua (2000-06-28). "NRG Energy gets go ahead on Estonia purchase". Oil & Gas Journal. Pennwell Corporation. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  5. ^ Kurm, Kairi (2001-08-23). "President criticizes power plant privatization". The Baltic Times. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  6. ^ Kurm, Kairi (2001-07-12). "Anger at power plants deal set to explode". The Baltic Times. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  7. ^ Kurm, Kairi (2002-01-17). "U.S.-Estonian energy deal falls through". The Baltic Times. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  8. ^ Gunter, Aleksei (2002-08-29). "NRG files lawsuit over sell-off". The Baltic Times. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  9. ^ "Estonian government allocates energy shares ahead of privatization". ETA. 1999-06-02. (subscription required). Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  10. ^ "Estonia industry: Government to give Eesti Energia stake in Eesti Polevkivi". Economist Intelligence Unit. 2003-01-17. (subscription required). Archived from the original on 2014-12-09. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  11. ^ Donald, Brooke; Medenis, Valters (2000-05-25). "Power companies hint at possible merger". The Baltic Times. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  12. ^ Kudayarova, Diana (2000-07-20). "Latvenergo likes its winters cold". The Baltic Times. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  13. ^ Sindrich, Jaclyn M. (2000-07-13). "Berzins: Estonian-Latvian power merger threatened". The Baltic Times. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  14. ^ "Lithuania shortlists Eesti Energia for privatisation of its power grid". Baltic Business News. 2003-09-24. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  15. ^ "The Lithuanian way". The Economist. 2004-01-15. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  16. ^ Hõbemägi, Toomas (2 December 2005). "Lithuanian PM – Eesti Energia discuss plan to build new nuclear power station". Baltic Business News. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  17. ^ "Three Baltic states say "yes" to nuclear energy". ENS News. European Nuclear Society (12). April 2006. Retrieved 2008-07-31.
  18. ^ Nerijus Adomaitis (2007-07-06). "Baltic, Polish firms to negotiate nuclear plant". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
  19. ^ "Estonians frustrated about Lithuania's indecision regarding Visaginas NPP". BNS. 2012-11-28. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  20. ^ "Eesti Energia acquires Solidus for Nord Pool trading". ICIS. 2006-08-30. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  21. ^ a b Liive, Sandor (2007). "Oil Shale Energetics in Estonia" (PDF). Oil Shale. A Scientific-Technical Journal. Estonian Academy Publishers. 24 (1): 1–4. ISSN 0208-189X. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
  22. ^ Tere, Juhan (2010-05-12). "Eesti Energia signs oil shale concession agreement with Jordan". The Baltic Course. Retrieved 2013-01-05.
  23. ^ "Eesti Energia will start developing US oil shale industry" (Press release). Eesti Energia. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2016-12-22. Retrieved 2011-03-09.
  24. ^ a b Hõbemägi, Toomas (2011-03-16). "U.S. authorities approve Eesti Energia's plan to buy OSEC". Baltic Business News. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  25. ^ a b Tammik, Ott (2011-03-16). "US Government Clears Eesti Energia for Acquisition". ERR. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
  26. ^ Tubalkain-Trell, Marge (2009-08-28). "Estonia to acquire power-grid operator from Eesti Energia". Baltic Business News. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
  27. ^ Tere, Juhan (2010-02-02). "Estonian Elering officially have changed owners". The Baltic Course. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
  28. ^ Copley, Caroline (2010-05-12). "Estonia appoints advisers for Eesti Energia IPO". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  29. ^ Hõbemägi, Toomas (2010-05-14). "Eesti Energia IPO plans shelved". Baltic Business News. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  30. ^ Whyte, Andrew (2018-05-29). "Eesti Energia acquires bio energy firm in third biggest Estonian deal ever". ERR. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  31. ^ "Enefit Green acquires Nelja Energia for €289m". Power Technology. 2018-05-31. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  32. ^ "Competition Authority approves Eesti Energia acquisition of Nelja Energia". ERR. 2018-11-07. Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  33. ^ Luck, Taylor (2008-08-07). "Jordan set to tap oil shale potential". The Jordan Times. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
  34. ^ "Jordan has 80-million-ton stockpile of oil shale". Jordan News Agency. 2012-12-17. Retrieved 2012-12-31.
  35. ^ "Enefit consortium starts tendering process for Jordan oil shale fired power plant". Jordan News Agency. 2012-06-30. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
  36. ^ Derhally, Massoud A. (2012-12-23). "Bids for Jordan's first oil shale power plant expected in February". Arabian Business. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  37. ^ Diel, Scott (2011-05-09). "A Company Bigger than the Nation Itself". ERR. Retrieved 2013-01-05.
  38. ^ "Outotec and Eesti Energia to establish a Joint Venture for development of oil shale processing" (Press release). Outotec. 2008-11-03. Retrieved 2010-03-09.

External links

Attarat Power Plant

Attarat Power Plant is an oil shale-fueled power plant under construction in the Attarat Um Ghudran area, 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of Al Qatranah in Jordan. The project is developed by the Attarat Power Company (APCO), a partnership between YTL Power International (45%), Guangdong Yudean Group (45%) and Eesti Energia (10%). It is the first oil shale power plant in Jordan and the largest private sector project in Jordan to date.

Electricity sector in Estonia

The electricity sector in Estonia is connected to Finland, Russia and the other Baltic countries. It is one of the dirtiest in the EU in terms of CO2 emissions, as oil-based fuels account for about 80% of domestic production. However, renewables have grown to over 13% of production whereas they were less than 1% in 2000. As such Estonia is one of the countries to have reached its EU renewable target for 2020 already.

Elering

Elering (former name: Põhivõrk) is a national transmission system operator for electricity and natural gas with headquarters in Tallinn, Estonia.

Enefit American Oil

Enefit American Oil (former name: Oil Shale Exploration Company - OSEC) is a Utah based oil shale exploration and development company. It has been involved in the development of oil shale since 2005. Since 2011 it is a subsidiary of Eesti Energia, internationally known as Enefit.

Enefit Green

Enefit Green AS (former name: Eesti Energia Taastuvenergia Ettevõte) is a renewable energy company located in Tallinn, Estonia. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of the state owned energy company Eesti Energia. CEO of the company is Aavo Kärmas.Enefit Green was established in 2016 based on the renewable energy assets of Eesti Energia. The name of Enefit Green was adopted at the end of 2017. In 2018, Enefit Green installed at the remote off-the-grid Ruhnu island an hybrid power generation system, which includes a solar farm, a wind turbine, and battery for energy storage, backed-up with a diesel generator running on biodiesel. Also in 2018, Enefit Green acquired renewable energy producer Nelja Energia which became a subsidiary of Enefit Green.Enefit Green owns four wind farms (Paldiski, Narva, Aulepa, Virtsu), Iru waste-to-energy plant, Paide and Valka biomas power plants, Keila-Joa hydroelectric power plant, and Ruhnu hybrid power generation. In addition, its subsidiary Nelja Energia owns eleven wind farms in Estonia and four wind farms in Lithuania, two biogas-fuelled co-generation plants in Estonia, a co-generation plant and pellet factory in Latvia, and it plans a 700–1,100 MW offshore wind farm off Hiiumaa, Estonia. In 2018, Enefit Green concluded an agreement with Finnish Metsähallitus, that grants the right to Enefit Green to develop a 100-MW wind farm in Tolpanvaara, North Ostrobothnia in Finland. Enefit Green also plans several solar plants with a total capacity of 7 MW.Government of Estonia is planning to list minority shares of Enefit Green at Nasdaq Tallinn.

Enefit Kaevandused

Enefit Kaevandused (former names: Eesti Põlevkivi and Eesti Energia Kaevandused) is a mining company located in Jõhvi, Estonia. It is a subsidiary of Eesti Energia, an Estonian state-owned energy company. The core activity of Enefit Kaevandused is oil-shale mining. The produced oil shale is mainly used to fuel oil shale-fired power stations in the north–east of Estonia. The company has 3,150 employees. The chief executive officer is Valeri Abramov.

Enefit Solutions

Enefit Solutions (former names: Eesti Energia Tehnoloogiatööstus AS and Energoremont) is an engineering company in Jõhvi, Estonia. It is a subsidiary of Eesti Energia. The company designs and manufactures equipment in the fields of energy and industry and offers erection and maintenance services as well as comprehensive technological solutions.The company was created in 1959 as Eesti Energoremont, based in Narva. It was the engineering and maintenance unit of the power generation industry in Estonia. Another predecessor of the company was the engineering and maintenance unit of the oil-shale mining industry, based in Jõhvi. This unit was later renamed AS Mäetehnika. In 2007, Eesti Energia merged these two subsidiary companies into Eesti Energia Tehnoloogiatööstus. After the merger, the company continued to operate in two separate facilities in Narva and Jõhvi; however, in 2013 the Narva facility was closed and all production was moved to Jõhvi. In 2016, the company was renamed Enefit Solutions.

Energy in Estonia

Energy in Estonia describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Estonia.

Electricity production in Estonia is largely dependent on fossil fuels.

In 2007, more than 90% of power was generated from oil shale.

The Estonian energy company Eesti Energia owns the largest oil shale-fuelled power plants in the world, Narva Power Plants.

Galoter process

The Galoter process (also known as TSK, UTT, or SHC; its newest modifications are called Enefit and Petroter) is a shale oil extraction technology for a production of shale oil, a type of synthetic crude oil. In this process, the oil shale is decomposed into shale oil, oil shale gas, and spent residue. A decomposition is caused by mixing raw oil shale with a hot oil shale ash, generated by combustion of carbonaceous residue (semi-coke) in the spent residue. The process was developed in 1950s and it is used commercially for the shale oil production in Estonia. There are projects for further development of this technology and for expansion of its usage, e.g. in Jordan and USA.

Iru Power Plant

Iru Power Plant is a co-generation power plant in Iru village, Maardu, Estonia. It is owned by Enefit Green, a subsidiary of Eesti Energia.

Jüri Käo

Jüri Käo (born 16 November 1965 in Tallinn) is one of the managers and shareholders at NG Investeeringud, which is an industry, retail trade and real estate investment group based on Estonian private capital and employs more than 4300 people.In 2009 the Äripäev business newspaper named Jüri Käo businessman of the year, earlier he has been named the most influential businessman in Estonia (in 2006 and 2007).In 2001 the president of Estonia awarded Jüri Käo the Order of the White Star, 4th class and in 2006 the Order of the White Star, 2nd class for promoting business and contributing to Estonia becoming a member of the EU.From 2016 Jüri Käo is the vice president of the Estonian Employers Confederation council. From 2013 to 2016 Jüri Käo was the president of the Estonian Employers Confederation council, from 2004 to 2013 he was the vice president of the said council. Before that, from 1997 to 2002 he was the chairman of the board and in 2002–2004 vice chairman of the board.In 1997–2002 and 2007–2014 Jüri Käo was the chairman of the Eesti Energia AS council.

Kiruma

Kiruma is a village in Saaremaa Parish in the Saare County in Estonia.In year 1976 the village was left empty, currently the village is inhabited by two families.

On 16. June 2010, after 19 years of active lobbying by village inhabitants, electricity was provided to the village. Before that Estonian energy monopoly Eesti Energia was denying the requests by saying they are not the owners of old powerlines and therefore inhabitants have pay for renovation themselves.Before the administrative reform in 2017, the village was in Mustjala Parish.

Narva Oil Plant

Narva Oil Plant (Estonian: Narva Õlitehas), a subsidiary of Eesti Energia, is a producer of shale oil from oil shale. It operates a commercial scale shale oil retorting plant, located in Auvere near Narva, Estonia.

Narva Power Plants

The Narva Power Plants (Estonian: Narva Elektrijaamad) are a power generation complex in and near Narva in Estonia, near the border with Leningrad Oblast, Russia. The complex consists of the world's two largest oil shale-fired thermal power plants, Eesti Power Plant (Eesti Elektrijaam) and Balti Power Plant (Balti Elektrijaam). In 2007, Narva Power Plants generated about 95% of total power production in Estonia. The complex is owned and operated by AS Narva Elektrijaamad, a subsidiary of Eesti Energia.

Nelja Energia

Nelja Energia AS (also branded as 4Energia) is a renewable energy developer based in Tallinn, Estonia. The main areas of business of the company are the development of the renewable energy industry and the operation of power production. The name of the company, meaning Energy of Four, is referring to the four type of renewable energy: wind, water, biomass and solar. The company is focused on the renewable energy development in the Baltic countries. The CEO of the company is Aavo Kärmas.

Nelja Energia owns and operates eleven wind farms in Estonia with the total capacity of 140.8 MW, and four wind farms in Lithuania with the total capacity of 78.9 MW. In addition, the company operates two biogas-fuelled co-generation plants in Estonia. In Latvia, it owns and operates a cogeneration plant and pellet factory in Brocēni. The company plans a 700–1,100 MW offshore wind farm off Hiiumaa, Estonia.The company operates since 2005. It started as an operator company for the wind farms owned by Vardar Eurus, a company owned by Norwegian Vardar AS (90%) and the Nordic Environment Finance Corporation (10%), and Freenergy, a company owned by Estonian investors and the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development, and it was owned equally by both companies. In 2012, Freenergy merged with Nelja Energia and the current ownership structure was adopted. The main shareholder of Nelja Energia was Vardar Eurus (77%). Estonian private investors owned 23% of the shares.On 29 May 2018 it was announced that Enefit Green, a subsidiary of Eesti Energia, will acquire 100% of Nelja Energia shares for €289 million. In addition, it will take over €204 million of Nelja Energia loans. The deal was approved and completed in November 2018.

Oil shale in Estonia

Oil shale (Estonian: põlevkivi) is a strategic energy resource that constitutes about 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product. The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. In 2012, the country's oil shale industry employed 6,500 people – about 1% of the national workforce. Of all the oil shale fired power stations in the world, the two largest are in this country. In 2012, 70% of mined oil shale was used for electricity generation, accounting for about 85% of Estonia's total electricity production. A smaller proportion of the mined oil shale is used to produce shale oil, a type of synthetic oil extracted from shale by pyrolysis, which is sufficient to keep Estonia as the second largest shale oil producer in the world after China. In addition, oil shale and its products are used in Estonia for district heating and as a feedstock material for the cement industry.

There are two kinds of oil shale in Estonia, both of which are sedimentary rocks laid down during the Ordovician geologic period. Graptolitic argillite is the larger resource, but, because its organic matter content is relatively low, it is not used industrially. The other one is kukersite, which has been mined for almost a hundred years and is expected to last for another 25–30 years. By the end of 2012, the total kukersite resource was 4.8 billion tonnes, of which up to 650 million tonnes was recoverable. Kukersite deposits in Estonia account for 1.1% of global oil shale deposits.In the 18th and 19th centuries, Estonian oil shale was described by several scientists and used as a low-grade fuel. Its use in industry commenced in 1916. Production of shale oil began in 1921 and oil shale was first used to generate electrical power in 1924. Shortly thereafter, systematic research into oil shale and its products began, and in 1938 a department of mining was established at Tallinn Technical University. After World War II, Estonian oil shale gas was used in Saint Petersburg (then called Leningrad) and in northern cities in Estonia as a substitute for natural gas. Increased need for electricity in the north-west of the Soviet Union led to the construction of large oil shale-fired power stations. Oil shale extraction peaked in 1980. Subsequently, the launch of nuclear reactors in Russia, particularly the Leningrad Nuclear Power Station, reduced demand for electricity produced from oil shale, and, along with a post-Soviet restructuring of the industry in the 1990s, led to a decrease in oil shale mining. After decreasing for two decades, oil shale mining started to increase again at the beginning of the 21st century.

The industry continues to have a serious impact on the environment. In 2012, it produced about 70% of Estonia's ordinary waste, 82% of its hazardous waste, and more than 70% of its greenhouse gas emissions. Its activities lower groundwater levels, alter water circulation, and spoil water quality. Water pumped from the mines and used by oil shale-fired power stations exceeds 90% of all water used in Estonia. Leachates from waste heaps pollute surface and groundwater. Former and current oil shale mines cover about one percent of Estonia's territory.

Oil shale in Jordan

Oil shale in Jordan represents a significant resource. Oil shale deposits in Jordan underlie more than 70% of Jordanian territory. The total resources amounts to 31 billion tonnes of oil shale.The deposits include a high quality marinite oil shale of Late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic age. The most important and investigated deposits are located in west-central Jordan, where they occur at the surface and close to developed infrastructure.Although oil shale was utilized in northern Jordan prior to and during World War I, intensive exploration and studies of Jordan's oil shale resource potential started in the 1970s and 1980s, being motivated by higher oil prices, modern technology and better economic potential. As of 2008, no oil shale industry exists in Jordan, but several companies are considering both shale oil extraction and oil shale combustion for thermal power generation.

Oil shale in Morocco

Oil shale in Morocco represents a significant potential resource. The ten known oil shale deposits in Morocco contain over 53.381 billion barrels (8.4869×10^9 m3) of shale oil. Although Moroccan oil shale has been studied since the 1930s and several pilot plants have extracted shale oil from the local formations, commercial extraction was not underway as of 2011.

VKG Elektrivõrgud

VKG Elektrivõrgud (VKG EV, former name: Narva Elektrivõrgud) is an electricity distribution company in Estonia. It is a subsidiary of Viru Keemia Grupp. VKG Elektrivõrgud is the second largest power distribution company in Estonia, after Eesti Energia Jaotusvõrk.

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