Edward Schreyer

Edward Richard Schreyer PC CC CMM OM CD (born December 21, 1935) is a Canadian politician, diplomat, and statesman who served as Governor General of Canada, the 22nd since Canadian Confederation.

Schreyer was born and educated in Manitoba, and was first elected to the province's legislative assembly in 1958. He later moved into federal politics, winning a seat in the House of Commons, but returned to Manitoba in 1969 become leader of the provincial New Democratic Party (NDP). The party then won that year's provincial election and Schreyer became the 16th Premier of Manitoba. In 1978 he was appointed Governor General by Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, to replace Jules Léger, and he occupied the post until succeeded by Jeanne Sauvé in 1984. As the Queen's representative, he was praised for raising the stature of Ukrainian Canadians, though disparaged for the lacklustre performance of his duties. Later, he served as Canada's High Commissioner to Australia, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. He then attempted, without success, to get elected to the House of Commons; he was the first person to run for election in Canada after serving as Governor General.

During his time as Manitoba's premier, Schreyer was entitled to the accordant style of The Honourable, the same style he received again upon his appointment on June 3, 1984, into the Queen's Privy Council for Canada.[1] However, as a former Governor General of Canada, Schreyer is entitled to be styled for life with the superior form of The Right Honourable.

The Right Honourable

Edward Schreyer

Ed Schreyer (3)
22nd Governor General of Canada
In office
January 22, 1979 – May 14, 1984
MonarchElizabeth II
Prime MinisterPierre Trudeau
Joe Clark
Preceded byJules Léger
Succeeded byJeanne Sauvé
16th Premier of Manitoba
In office
July 15, 1969 – November 24, 1977
MonarchElizabeth II
Lieutenant GovernorRichard S. Bowles
William J. McKeag
Francis L. Jobin
Preceded byWalter Weir
Succeeded bySterling Lyon
Personal details
Edward Richard Schreyer

December 21, 1935 (age 83)
Beausejour, Manitoba, Canada
Political partyNew Democratic Party
Spouse(s)Lily Schreyer
ProfessionPolitician, Professor

Early life and youth

Schreyer was born in Beausejour, Manitoba, to German-Austrian Catholic parents John Schreyer and Elizabeth Gottfried;[2] his maternal grandparents were Austrians who emigrated from western Ukraine. Schreyer attended Cromwell Elementary School and Beausejour Collegiate Secondary School, then United College and St. John's College at the University of Manitoba. There, he received a Bachelor of Pedagogy in 1959, a Bachelor of Education in 1962, a Master of Arts in International Relations, and a second Master of Arts in Economics in 1963. From 1962 to 1965, Schreyer served as a professor of International Relations at St. Paul's College.[3][4]

St. John's College, University of Manitoba, where Schreyer obtained four degrees

While pursuing his post-graduate degrees, Schreyer married Lilly Schultz, with whom he had two daughters, Lisa and Karmel, and two sons, Jason and Toban.[3]

Political career

In the Manitoba election of 1958, Schreyer was elected to the legislative assembly as a member of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), in the rural constituency of Brokenhead; at twenty-two years of age, Schreyer was the youngest person ever elected to the assembly.[5] He held the riding until resigning in 1965 to run successfully for the House of Commons in Ottawa. He returned to provincial politics in 1969, and was on June 8 elected leader of the New Democratic Party of Manitoba (NDP),[4] the successor to the Manitoba CCF. He differed in some ways from the previous leaders of Manitoba's NDP: he came from a rural background and was not committed to socialism as an ideology; he won the support of many centrist voters who had not previously identified with the party. Also, he was the first leader of the Manitoba CCF/NDP who was not of Anglo-Saxon and Protestant descent.

Schreyer led his party to a watershed showing in the 1969 provincial election. The NDP picked up 17 seats, vaulting them from third place in the legislature to first place. Schreyer himself returned to the legislature from the newly created north Winnipeg seat of Rossmere.

However, with 28 seats, the NDP was one seat short of a majority. Initially, the Liberals and Progressive Conservatives considered forming a coalition to lock the NDP out of power. Finally, Liberal Laurent Desjardins threw his support to Schreyer (and later joined the NDP after a period as an independent), making Schreyer the first social democratic premier in Manitoba's history.

Schreyer's premiership oversaw the amalgamation of the city of Winnipeg with its suburbs, introduced public automobile insurance, and significantly reduced medicare premiums. Re-elected in 1977, Schreyer maintained his position as premier, though the council was this time less innovative, the only policy of note being the mining tax legislation implemented in 1974. Schreyer also served as his own minister of finance between 1972 and 1975, and as the minister responsible for Manitoba Hydro from 1971 to 1977. It was from those positions that Schreyer advised the Lieutenant Governor to authorise construction of hydroelectric works instead of coal and gas burning electricity generators, and also put forward legislation that simultaneously eliminated provincial health care premiums and implemented home care and pharmacare.[4] Schreyer sometimes favoured policies different from those of the federal NDP; in 1970, he supported Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's invocation of the War Measures Act in response to the October Crisis, despite the opposition of federal NDP leader Tommy Douglas.

In 1977, Schreyer's New Democrats were defeated by the Progressive Conservative Party under Sterling Lyon. He remained leader of the NDP in opposition until 1979, when Trudeau offered him the office of Governor General.

Governor General of Canada

On December 28, 1978, Queen Elizabeth II, by commission under the royal sign-manual and Great Seal of Canada, appointed Pierre Trudeau's choice of Schreyer to succeed Jules Léger as the Queen's representative. He was sworn in during a ceremony in the Senate chamber on January 22, 1980, making him the first Governor General from Manitoba, and, at the age of forty-three, the third youngest ever appointed, after the Marquess of Lorne in 1878 (33 years old), and the Marquess of Lansdowne in 1883 (38 years old).[3]

As Governor General, Schreyer championed women's issues, the environment, and official bilingualism. During his first year in office, he established the Governor General's Award in Commemoration of the Persons Case, to recognize the efforts of Emily Murphy and others to ensure that Canadian women would be constitutionally recognized as persons. In 1981 he instituted the Governor General's Conservation Awards and in 1983 he created the Edward Schreyer Fellowship in Ukrainian Studies at the University of Toronto. Also in 1983, he presided over the first Governor General's Canadian Study Conference ,which has since been held every four years.[3] Schreyer invested Terry Fox as a companion of the Order of Canada, travelling to Port Coquitlam, British Columbia, to present Fox with the order's insignia.[6][7] In 1980, he caused controversy when he hesitated to call an election after Prime Minister Joe Clark advised him to do so. Schreyer also later suggested that he might have dissolved parliament at any point through 1981 and 1982, had the Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau tried to impose his constitutional proposals unilaterally.[5][8]

Schreyer's "stiff, earnest public manner" worked against his wish to connect with people in a friendly way, and he was thus a target of the media.[5] When Jeanne Sauvé succeeded him, Maclean's writer Carol Goar compared Sauvé to Schreyer's performance, stating that "she is expected to restore grace and refinement to Government House after five years of Edward Schreyer's earnest Prairie populism and lacklustre reign."

Post viceregal career

High Commission of Canada
The High Commission of Canada in Canberra, where Schreyer served as High Commissioner to Australia between 1984 and 1988

Upon retirement from the post of Governor General in 1984, Schreyer announced that he would donate his pension to the environmental Canadian Shield Foundation;[5] unlike other former viceroys, he intended to remain in political and diplomatic life, On the same day he ceased to be Governor General, he was appointed by his successor to the office of High Commissioner to Australia, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu for Her Majesty's Government in Canada.[9] He held those positions until 1988, when he returned to Winnipeg.

On returning to Canada, Schreyer was employed as a national representative of Habitat for Humanity, an honorary director of the Sierra Legal Defence Fund, and an honorary advisor to the Canadian Foundation for the Preservation of Chinese Cultural and Historical Treasures. He was also a founding member of the Winnipeg Library Foundation. Starting in 1989, he acted as a guest professor at universities around North America and Europe, lecturing on matters relating to resource geography, energy economics, and environmental impact.[4] On November 1, 2002,[4] Schreyer was appointed the Chancellor of Brandon University[10] and was re-elected to the position in early 2005 for a term that ended on October 31, 2008.

Political return

In the 1999 election in Manitoba, Schreyer offered his support to the NDP, then led by Gary Doer. Schreyer delivered strong criticisms of the Progressive Conservative government of Gary Filmon and made headlines by accusing the PCs of spreading false information about the criminal record of Tom Nevakshonoff, the NDP's candidate in Interlake. These comments had not been approved in advance by the NDP, but Schreyer's position was vindicated in 2001, when local PC organizer Heather Campbell-Dewar pleaded guilty to defamation of Nevakshonoff's character and making a false or misleading statement to the police. Schreyer then offered his support to Bill Blaikie's campaign for the leadership of the federal New Democratic Party in 2002 and 2003.

Schreyer, then seventy years old, ran in the 2006 federal election as the NDP candidate in the riding of Selkirk—Interlake.[11] It was the first time a former Governor General sought election to the Canadian House of Commons; previously, former Lieutenant Governors had been called to the Senate to sit as party members, and some former Governors General who hailed from the United Kingdom returned there to sit with party affiliations in the House of Lords, sometimes even serving in cabinet.[n 1] Schreyer lost to Conservative incumbent James Bezan, receiving 37% of the vote to Bezan's 49%.[12] Earlier comments Schreyer had made describing homosexuality as an "affliction" were raised by his opponents in the campaign, as the NDP supported same-sex marriage.[13] Without apologising for his remarks, Schreyer said he supported same-sex marriage as the existing legislation did not force religious institutions to marry same-sex couples, and added: "It was 19 years ago, and I didn't—even for a split second—suggest that there was no need to ensure that there was equal protection of the law with respect to the people who are homosexual. In fact, I defy anyone to suggest otherwise." Federal NDP leader Jack Layton defended Schreyer, observing that many people's views on the subject have changed in the last twenty years.

Schreyer also waded into the federal parliamentary dispute of 2008-09, in which the opposition parties threatened to revoke their confidence in the sitting prime minister, Stephen Harper. Schreyer said: "Any group that presumes to govern must be willing to face and seek the confidence of Parliament, and it mustn't be evaded and it mustn't be long avoided. I can't put it any more succinctly than that... I must come back to your use of the words, 'to duck a confidence vote'... that must simply not be allowed to happen."[14]

Titles, styles, honours, and arms

Viceregal styles of
Edward Schreyer
Reference styleHis Excellency the Right Honourable
Son Excellence le très honorable
Spoken styleYour Excellency
Votre Excellence


  • July 15, 1969 – November 24, 1977: The Honourable Edward Schreyer, Premier of Manitoba
  • January 22, 1979 – May 14, 1984: His Excellency the Right Honourable Edward Schreyer, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada
  • May 14, 1984 – February 18, 1988: His Excellency the Right Honourable Edward Schreyer, High Commissioner to Australia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu for Her Majesty's Government in Canada
  • February 18, 1988 – : The Right Honourable Edward Schreyer


Ribbon bars of Edward Schreyer
Order of Canada (CC) ribbon bar
Order of Military Merit (Canada) ribbon (CMM)
VOStJ ribbon
Order of Manitoba ribbon
Canada100 ribbon
QEII Silver Jubilee Medal ribbon
Canada125 ribbon
QEII Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon
QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon

Honorary military appointments

Honorific eponyms


Coat of arms of Edward Schreyer
As Schreyer served as governor general prior to the establishment of the Canadian Heraldic Authority, he was not granted a coat of arms until 1988, though this was based on a 1980 design by Bruce W. Beatty.[21] Unlike the arms for subsequent governors general, Schreyer's does not include the ribbon and insignia of the Order of Canada.
June 4, 1988
Upon a helmet mantled Vert doubled Or on a wreath Or and Vert a mound of ice proper thereon a polar bear charged with a maple leaf Gules[22]
Per pale Or and Vert a pale wavy of four Azure and Argent in chief a plate displaying a cross Gules charged with the Royal Crown proper; in dexter base a pomeis charged with a garb Or and in sinister base a bezant charged with a fir tree Vert[22]
Dexter a Bison proper charged on the shoulder with a lozenge Or bearing a prairie crocus flower slipped and leaved proper sinister a moose proper charged on the shoulder with a hurt displaying a fleur de lys Or the whole set upon a compartment party per pale a wheatfield Or and a forest Vert[22]
A mound set dexter with conifers Vert, sinister with base tapissé of wheat Or
(Freedom Equality Justice • Work Knowledge Dignity)
The bison is derived from the shield of the coat of arms of Manitoba, where Schreyer was born and raised, while the moose is inspired by the Coat of arms of Ontario, and the fir tree represents that province's northern forests; Schreyer lived in this province when serving in Ottawa as a member of parliament, and later, as viceroy. The prairie crocus flower on the bison's collar is also found on Manitoba's coat of arms and represents the prairies, as does the wheat sheaf. The polar bear is symbolic of Canada's north, where Schreyer often travelled while he was governor general, and is a place suceptable to environmental changes, which Schreyer sought to minimise.

The wavy lines symbolise the Brokenhead River, which flows near Schreyer's home town of Beausejour, as well as the Assiniboine River, which runs through Winnipeg, where Schreyer was located during his premiership of Manitoba; to the left of this division are the symbols of Manitoba (which lies to the west), and to the right are the symbols of Ontario (which lies to the east). The disc bearing a red cross is the emblem of the Anglican Church of Canada, upon which is the royal crown, representing Schreyer's service as the sovereign's representative.

See also


  1. ^ In 1952, the Earl Alexander of Tunis resigned as Governor General of Canada to accept an appointment as Minister of Defence in the British Cabinet chaired by Winston Churchill. The Marquess of Lansdowne and The Duke of Devonshire both served in British Cabinets following their viceregal careers; Lansdowne also went on to serve for over a decade as leader of the Conservative Party in the House of Lords.


  1. ^ Privy Council Office (October 30, 2008). "Information Resources > Current Chronological List of Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada > 1981 – 1990". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved March 7, 2009.
  2. ^ "Ed Schreyer". Archives and Special Collections. University of Manitoba. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d Office of the Governor General of Canada. "History > Former Governors General > Canadian Governors General". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e "The Right Honourable Edward R. Schreyer Re-Elected as Chancellor" (Press release). Brandon University. February 2, 2005. Archived from the original on February 19, 2006. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
  5. ^ a b c d Hillmer, Norman, "Biography > Governors General of Canada > Schreyer, Edward Richard", in Marsh, James H., The Canadian Encyclopedia, Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada, retrieved March 8, 2009
  6. ^ "The Terry Fox Foundation > Terry Fox > Honours For Terry". Terry Fox Foundation. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  7. ^ "CBC Digital Archives > Sports > Exploits > Terry Fox, C.C." CBC. April 10, 2002. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  8. ^ "Nations > Canada > Governors-General > Schreyer, Edward Richard". Archontology.org. Retrieved March 8, 2009.
  9. ^ Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. "About the Department > Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad from 1880 > Australia". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  10. ^ "Brandon University campus courtyard named in honour of Chancellor Emeritus Dr. Kevin Kavanagh and Els Kavanagh" (Press release). Brandon University. October 5, 2006. Archived from the original on July 7, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2009.
  11. ^ "Ed Schreyer will run for the NDP in Manitoba". CTV. December 15, 2005. Archived from the original on November 20, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2009.
  12. ^ "Decision 2006 > Live election results". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on September 24, 2008. Retrieved March 9, 2009.
  13. ^ "Schreyer supports legal rights for gay spouses". CTV. December 18, 2005. Archived from the original on March 13, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2009.
  14. ^ "Don't let Harper 'duck a confidence vote': former GG". CTV. December 4, 2008. Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
  15. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Honours > Order of Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  16. ^ a b Elizabeth II (2013), The Constitution of the Order of Canada, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved May 17, 2013
  17. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Honours > Order of Military Merit". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  18. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Honours > Insignia Worn by the Governor General". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  19. ^ Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba. "Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba The Honourable Philip S. Lee, C.M., O.M. > Awards > Order of Manitoba > Order of Manitoba Official Register". Queen's Printer for Manitoba. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  20. ^ Photograph of Mr. Schreyer wearing his medals http://gg.ca/gallery.aspx?ID=11566#
  21. ^ "Arms of Past and Present Canadian Governors General". Royal Heraldry Society of Canada. Archived from the original on 2009-06-17. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
  22. ^ a b c "Arms of Past and Present Canadian Governors General > SCHREYER, The Rt. Hon. Edward, CC, CMM, CD, PC". Royal Heraldry Society of Canada. Archived from the original on 2011-01-26. Retrieved March 5, 2009.

External links

Government offices
Preceded by
Jules Léger
Governor General of Canada
January 22, 1979 – May 14, 1984
Succeeded by
Jeanne Sauvé
Political offices
Manitoba Provincial Government of Edward Schreyer
Preceded by
Walter Weir
Premier of Manitoba
July 15, 1969 – November 24, 1977
Succeeded by
Sterling Lyon
Parliament of Canada
Preceded by
Eric Stefanson, Sr.
Member of Parliament for Selkirk
June 25, 1968 – June 25, 1969
Succeeded by
Doug Rowland
Preceded by
Joe Slogan
Member of Parliament for Springfield
November 8, 1965 – June 25, 1968
Succeeded by
Electoral district abolished
Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
Preceded by
New electoral district
Member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
for Rossmere

June 25, 1969 – January 22, 1979
Succeeded by
Vic Schroeder
Preceded by
New electoral district
Member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
for Brokenhead

June 16, 1958 – November 8, 1965
Succeeded by
Sam Uskiw
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Raymond Cecil Anderson
Canadian High Commissioner to Australia,
Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu

May 14, 1984 – February 18, 1988
Succeeded by
Robert Kilpatrick
Academic offices
Preceded by
Kevin Kavanagh
Chancellor of Brandon University
November 1, 2002 – October 31, 2008
Succeeded by
Henry Champ
Order of precedence
Preceded by
Richard Wagner
as chief justice of Canada
Canadian order of precedence Succeeded by
Adrienne Clarkson
as former governor general
1969 Manitoba general election

The Manitoba General Election of June 25, 1969 was held to elect Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) of the Canadian province of Manitoba. It was a watershed moment in the province's political history. The social-democratic New Democratic Party emerged for the first time as the largest party in the legislature, winning 28 out of 57 seats. The governing Progressive Conservative Party fell to 22, and the once-dominant Liberal Party fell to an historical low of five. The Social Credit Party won one seat, and there was also one Independent elected.

It was not clear what form the government would take in the days immediately following the election. There were negotiations among the Liberal and Progressive Conservatives to form a minority coalition government, supported by the Social Credit and Independent members; under this scenario, former Liberal leader Gildas Molgat would have become Premier. These plans came to nothing when Liberal MLA Laurent Desjardins announced that he would sit as a "Liberal Democrat" supporting the NDP, allowing the NDP to form government by one seat. Edward Schreyer became the province's first social democratic Premier shortly thereafter.

The Manitoba NDP had a total election budget of $45,000. Although very small by modern standards, this was the most the party had ever spent up to this time.

1973 Manitoba general election

The Manitoba General Election of June 28, 1973 was held to elect Members of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Manitoba, Canada. It was won by the social-democratic New Democratic Party, which took 31 of 57 seats to win government in its own right for the first time. The Progressive Conservative Party finished second with 21, while the Manitoba Liberal Party took the remaining five.

A right-of-centre municipal organization known as the Independent Citizens' Election Committee convinced the Progressive Conservative and Liberal parties to avoid competing against each other in certain Winnipeg-area ridings, such that a single "anti-socialist" alternative to the NDP could be offered. This campaign was generally unsuccessful.

1977 Manitoba general election

The Manitoba general election of October 11, 1977 was held to elect Members of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Manitoba, Canada. It was won by the Progressive Conservative Party, which took 33 seats out of 57. The governing New Democratic Party fell to 23 seats, while the Liberal Party won only one seat.

29th Manitoba Legislature

The members of the 29th Manitoba Legislature were elected in the Manitoba general election held in June 1969. The legislature sat from August 14, 1969, to May 25, 1973.The New Democratic Party led by Edward Schreyer formed the government.Walter Weir of the Progressive Conservative Party was Leader of the Opposition. Sidney Spivak became opposition leader after Weir retired as leader in 1971.Ben Hanuschak served as speaker for the assembly until August 1970. Peter Fox succeeded Hanuschak as speaker in 1971.There were five sessions of the 29th Legislature:

Richard Spink Bowles was Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba until September 2, 1970, when William John McKeag became lieutenant governor.

30th Manitoba Legislature

The members of the 30th Manitoba Legislature were elected in the Manitoba general election held in June 1973. The legislature sat from January 31, 1974, to September 6, 1977.The New Democratic Party led by Edward Schreyer formed the government.Sidney Spivak of the Progressive Conservative Party was Leader of the Opposition. Donald Craik became acting opposition leader in 1976 after Spivak was replaced by Sterling Lyon as party leader; Lyon was elected to the assembly in a by-election held later that year.In 1976, the Workplace Safety and Health Act was passed; it established standards intended to help keep workers safe and healthy.Peter Fox served as speaker for the assembly.There were four sessions of the 30th Legislature:

William John McKeag was Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba until March 15, 1976, when Francis Lawrence Jobin became lieutenant governor.

31st Manitoba Legislature

The members of the 31st Manitoba Legislature were elected in the Manitoba general election held in October 1977. The legislature sat from November 24, 1977, to October 13, 1981.The Progressive Conservative Party led by Sterling Lyon formed the government.Edward Schreyer of the New Democratic Party was Leader of the Opposition. Howard Pawley became opposition leader in 1979 after Schreyer was named Governor General.Harry Graham served as speaker for the assembly.There were five sessions of the 31st Legislature:

Francis Lawrence Jobin was Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba.

Alan Abraham

Alan Rockwell Abraham, (born February 1, 1931) was the 27th Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia.

Abraham, an engineering graduate from Saint Mary's University was involved in federal politics and helped with the organization of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's tours of the Maritimes. In 1983, Governor General Edward Schreyer, on the advice of Prime Minister Trudeau, appointed Abraham Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, the youngest in the province's history.

Ben Hanuschak

Ben Hanuschak (born April 29, 1930) is a Manitoba politician. He was a cabinet minister in the government of New Democratic Premier Edward Schreyer, and was subsequently a founding member of the Progressive Party of Manitoba.

Hanuschak was born in Earl Grey, Saskatchewan. He was educated at the University of Manitoba, and worked as a teacher.

Hanuschak was elected to the Manitoba legislature in 1966, defeating Liberal incumbent Mark Smerchanski in the north Winnipeg riding of Burrows. Along with others in the party, he believed that leader Russell Paulley needed to be replaced before the next election. In 1968, he was the only member of the party's parliamentary caucus to support Sidney Green's leadership bid.

Edward Schreyer became provincial NDP leader in 1969, and won the subsequent election for the party. Hanuschak was chosen Speaker of the House on August 14, 1969, and kept this position until August 20, 1970.

Hanuschak joined Schreyer's cabinet on August 20, 1970. He initially served as Minister of Consumer and Corporate and Internal Services (August 20, 1970 – December 1, 1971), and later became Minister of Education (September 9, 1971 – September 22, 1976), Minister of Colleges and Universities (September 15, 1973 – September 22, 1976), Minister of Urban Affairs (February 15, 1973 – August 29, 1973) and Minister of Continuing Education and Manpower and Minister of Tourism, Recreation and Cultural Affairs from September 22, 1976 to October 24, 1977. He left cabinet when the Schreyer government was defeated in 1977.Like Sidney Green, Hanuschak became disillusioned with the directions taken by the provincial NDP after 1977. On March 3, 1981, he joined with Green and one other MLA to create the Progressive Party of Manitoba. Although initially socialist, this party also incorporated elements of the radical (but not extreme) right. It opposed the NDP's proposed anti-scab legislation, for instance, and was against "distinct status" recognition for minority groups.

The Progressive Party did not elect any members in the 1981 election. Hanuschak, who had been re-elected without difficulty in 1969, 1973 and 1977, received only 728 votes, against 4890 for Conrad Santos of the NDP. He ran for the Progressive Party on two further occasions, but fared no better.

Hanuschak returned to political life in 1986 as a school trustee in the Seven Oaks division. As of 2004, serves in this position.

Joseph Slogan

Joseph "Joe" Slogan (born 15 February 1931 at Windsor, Ontario) was a Progressive Conservative party member of the House of Commons of Canada. He was a dentist by career.

He was first elected at Manitoba's Springfield riding in the 1958 general election after an unsuccessful attempt to win the riding in 1953. Slogan was re-elected there in 1962 and 1963, then defeated in the 1965 election by Edward Schreyer of the New Democratic Party.

Lac du Bonnet (electoral district)

Lac du Bonnet is a provincial electoral division in the Canadian province of Manitoba. It was created by redistribution in 1957, and has formally existed since the provincial election of 1958. It is a relatively large constituency, located to the northeast of Winnipeg.

Lac du Bonnet is bordered to the west by Selkirk and Springfield, to the south by La Verendrye, to the north by Rupertsland and to the east by the Ontario border. Communities in the riding include Lac Du Bonnet, Pinawa, Beausejour (known as the birthplace of Edward Schreyer) and Whitemouth.

The riding is currently regarded as a Progressive Conservative/New Democratic Party marginal. The Tories have held the seat since 1988, though they retained it by only a narrow majority in 2003.

Lily Schreyer

Lily Schreyer, CC (born Lily Schulz) (born c. 1938) is a former Viceregal consort of Canada, as the wife of former Manitoba premier and Governor General Edward Schreyer. They married June 30, 1960 and had two daughters, Lisa and Karmel, and two sons, Jason and Toban. She has been involved with Girl Guides of Canada, UNICEF and other charitable organizations. She and her husband were made Companions of the Order of Canada in 1979.

She has shown concern for issues related to the physically disabled. As Chatelaine of Rideau Hall she had an accessible entrance and an elevator installed, and suggested the Fountain of Hope, dedicated to Terry Fox, which stands in front of the main entrance.

Lily Schreyer is the sponsor of the CCGS Amundsen.

Her father, Jacob Schulz, was a Co-operative Commonwealth Federation Member of Parliament.

Minister of Finance (Manitoba)

The Minister of Finance is a cabinet minister in the government of Manitoba. Prior to 1969, the minister was styled as the Provincial Treasurer. Many regard the Finance Minister as the second-most important member of government, after the Premier.

The Finance Minister is responsible for managing the province's fiscal resources, overseeing taxation policies, and allocating funds to other governmental departments. Every year, the minister submits a budget to the legislature outlining anticipated expenditures and revenues for the next twelve months. The minister is also required to submit a completed financial report for the annual cycle just completed.

The Finance portfolio is the oldest cabinet position in the province, predating the office of Premier by four years. The first Provincial Secretary in Manitoba was Marc-Amable Girard, who was appointed to the position on September 16, 1870 by Lieutenant-Governor Adams George Archibald soon after his arrival in the province. Until January 1871, Girard and Provincial Secretary Alfred Boyd were the only members of Archibald's ministry.

Prior to 1977, it was not considered unusual for Manitoba's provincial premiers to reserve the position of Treasurer or Finance Minister for themselves. In the twentieth century, John Bracken, Stuart Garson, Douglas L. Campbell, Dufferin Roblin and Edward Schreyer all assumed this responsibility at one time or another (indeed, Roblin was his own Treasurer for the entire extent of his term in office). No premier has taken this responsibility since 1977, and such a combination of responsibilities would now be considered very unlikely.

Since the introduction of partisan politics in 1888, all Manitoba Finance Ministers have belonged to the governing party of the day. During the coalition ministry which governed Manitoba from 1940 to 1950, the position was reserved for members of the dominant Liberal-Progressive Party.

In early 2005, then Minister of Finance Greg Selinger indicated that his department would soon move to a system known as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, which had already been adopted in most other provinces.

The current Finance Minister of Manitoba is Cameron Friesen of the Progressive Conservatives.

Peter Burtniak

Peter Burtniak (March 26, 1925 in Fork River, Manitoba – April 8, 2004) was a politician in Manitoba, Canada. He was a New Democratic member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1969 to 1977, and served as a cabinet minister in the government of Edward Schreyer..The son of Fred Burtniak and Pearl Kalinchuk, Burtniak was educated in the Manitoba school system, and worked as a farm implement dealer and farmer. During World War II, he served in the Fort Garry Horse Active Reserve Army Corps. He was President of the Fork River Branch of the Manitoba Pool Elevators for twenty years, and served as Provincial Director of the Manitoba Farmers Union from 1952 to 1956. He was also a board member of the Manitoba Federation of Agriculture from 1954 to 1956.He first ran for the Manitoba legislature in the provincial election of 1958 as a candidate of the CCF in Ethelbert Plains, but lost to Liberal-Progressive incumbent Michael Hryhorczuk by 981 votes. He ran for the same riding in the 1959 election, this time losing to Hryhorczuk by 266 votes.

Burtniak backed Edward Schreyer for the provincial NDP leadership in 1969, and gave the nomination speech for Schreyer at the party's leadership convention. He was elected to the Manitoba legislature in the 1969 election, defeating former Progressive Conservative leadership candidate Stewart McLean by 41 votes in Dauphin. He NDP formed a minority government after this election, and Burtniak was appointed Minister of Tourism and Recreation on July 15, 1969. He was also given responsibility for the Manitoba Telephone System on August 4, 1970, and was given the second portfolio of Minister of Cultural Affairs on November 4, 1970. After a cabinet shuffle on December 1, 1971, he was named Minister of Highways, retaining responsibility for the MTS.Burtniak defeated Tory candidate Art Rampton by 999 votes in the 1973 election, and was retained as Highways Minister in the Schreyer government's second term. He was also given responsibility for the Manitoba Public Insurance Corporation on September 22, 1976.The NDP were defeated in the provincial election of 1977, and Burtniak narrowly lost his seat to Tory candidate James Galbraith. He did not seek a return to politics after this time.He served as Vice-Chairman of the Manitoba Transport Board from 1982 to 1988.Burtniak died in Seven Oaks General Hospital in Winnipeg at the age of 79.

Philip Petursson

Philip Markus Petursson (October 21, 1902 in Pinecreek, Minnesota – May 12, 1988) was a politician in Manitoba, Canada. He was a New Democratic member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1966 to 1977, and briefly served as a cabinet minister in the government of Edward Schreyer.The son of Olafar Petursson, he moved to Foam Lake, Saskatchewan with his family during his first year of life and then moved to Winnipeg nine years later. He was educated at the University of Manitoba, the University of Chicago, the Meadville Theological School. He was an ordained Unitarian minister, and served as an executive member of the Western Canadian Unitarian Council; in the 1930s, he studied at the University of Iceland so as to be able to conduct services in that language. He also served on the Winnipeg School Board from 1942 to 1951, and was a member of the Canadian Mental Health Association, the Winnipeg Municipal Hospital Commission, and the Welfare Council of Winnipeg. He married Thorey Gislason in 1926. In 1953, Petursson gained attention in Winnipeg's religious community for speaking out against the concept of hell.

He ran for the House of Commons of Canada in the federal election of 1949 in the riding of Norquay, but lost to Liberal Robert James Wood by almost 4000 votes. He ran again the federal election of 1965, this time placing third in Winnipeg South Centre against Progressive Conservative Gordon Churchill and Liberal Fred Douglas.Petursson was elected to the Manitoba legislature in the 1966 provincial election, defeating incumbent Progressive Conservative Richard Seaborn in the north-end Winnipeg riding of Wellington. In 1968-69, he supported Edward Schreyer to replace Russell Paulley as leader of the provincial NDP. He was re-elected by an increased margin in the 1969 election, in which the NDP formed a minority government under Schreyer.On July 17, 1969, Petursson was named Minister of Cultural Affairs. It was always intended that he would return to the backbenches after a brief period in office, and he was indeed dropped from cabinet on November 4, 1970. Petursson remained an active parliamentarian, and was re-elected in the election of 1973. He did not seek re-election in 1977.He died in Winnipeg at the age of 85.


Rossmere is a provincial electoral division in the Canadian province of Manitoba. It was created by redistribution in 1968, and has formally existed since the provincial election of 1969. The riding is located in the northeastern section of the City of Winnipeg.

Rossmere is bordered on the east by Radisson, to the south by Elmwood and Concordia, to the north by River East, and to the west by Kildonan. The Red River forms its western boundary.

Rossmere's population in 1996 was 19,959. In 1999, the average family income was $50,087, and the unemployment rate was 6.40%. According to a 1996 census report, 20% of the riding's residents were immigrants; 14% listed German as their ethnic origin, and a further 6% are Ukrainian. The aboriginal population was 4.5%.

Rossmere is relatively affluent, and most of its residents are in the middle-income range. There is still a significant working-class presence in the riding, however: 16% of the riding's industry is in manufacturing, with a further 13% work in the retail trade.

Although Rossmere's first MLA was New Democratic Party premier Edward Schreyer, it was historically a swing seat between the NDP and the Progressive Conservatives. After Schreyer's resignation in 1979, he was succeeded by the NDP's Vic Schroeder, who was re-elected in the elections of 1981 and 1986 over his Conservative opposition. Schroeder was a senior cabinet minister in the government of Howard Pawley, but was defeated in the 1988 election that swept the NDP from office. Progressive Conservative Harold Neufeld held the seat from 1988 to 1993, while future MP and federal cabinet minister Vic Toews was the MLA from 1995 to 1999. Both served in the cabinets of Gary Filmon.

For much of the early part of the new millennium, however, the Conservatives were not competitive in the seat. New Democrat Harry Schellenberg, who first won the seat in a 1993 by-election before narrowly losing to Toews in the 1995 provincial election, regained the seat in the 1999 election by narrowly defeating Toews in a rematch. Schellenberg went on to win re-election in the 2003 provincial election with nearly two-thirds of the vote. Schellenberg was succeeded by fellow NDP member Erna Braun, who won the seat in 2007 provincial election with 60% of the vote. Notably, the Conservatives did not nominate a candidate until after the election was called. The Tories took back the seat amid the massive Tory wave that swept through the province in 2016, with Andrew Micklefield defeating Braun by a nearly 2-to-1 margin.

Rossmere has voted for the party that has won every general election since 1981.

Saul Cherniack

Saul Mark Cherniack, (January 10, 1917 – March 30, 2018) was a Canadian lawyer and politician. He was a member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1962 to 1981, and served as a cabinet minister in the government of Edward Schreyer. He was also a member of the Privy Council, the Order of Canada and the Order of Manitoba.

Sidney Green (politician)

Sidney Green (born August 1, 1929) is a politician in Manitoba, Canada. He twice ran for the leadership of the New Democratic Party of Manitoba, served in the cabinet of Premier Edward Schreyer, and later formed the Progressive Party of Manitoba.

Stanley Copp

Stanley Copp (1915 – May 1, 1987) was a politician in Manitoba, Canada. He served in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba as a Liberal-Progressive from 1953 to 1958.Copp was born in Winnipeg and educated in North Kildonan, now part of the City of Winnipeg. He first worked as a market gardener and later opened a restaurant in 1959. He was a councillor on the Rural Municipality of North Kildonan from 1945–1954 and later served as Mayor of North Kildonan from 1964-1965.Copp won the Liberal-Progressive nomination for St. Clements in the spring of 1953, defeating Fred Klym by six votes. He was then elected to the legislature in the 1953 provincial election, defeating an opponent from the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). He served as a backbench supporter of Douglas Campbell's government.

Copp appears to have left the Liberal-Progressives before the 1958 provincial election, and campaigned for re-election as an independent candidate in Brokenhead. He lost, finishing fourth against CCF candidate Edward Schreyer.

After this defeat, Copp became a perennial candidate seeking a return to the assembly. He ran for the assembly again in the 1959 election, but received only 346 votes as an independent candidate in Lac du Bonnet, for a fourth-place finish. The winner was Progressive Conservative Oscar Bjornson.

In the 1966 election, he ran as an Independent Liberal in Brokenhead and received 669 votes, finishing third behind NDP candidate Sam Uskiw. Finally, he campaigned against NDP leader Edward Schreyer in the 1969 election as an independent, and finished a distant fourth with 238 votes.

He died in Winnipeg in 1987.

William John McKeag

William John McKeag, (17 March 1928 – 23 August 2007) was a Manitoba politician and office-holder. He served as the province's 17th Lieutenant Governor between 1970 and 1976.

McKeag was born in Winnipeg, and was educated at the University of Manitoba. He served as general manager of Security Storage Limited (a family business) from 1952 until his appointment in 1970. He also established the McKeag-Harris Reality and Development company in 1960.

In 1958, McKeag ran for the Manitoba legislature as a Liberal-Progressive candidate in the upscale Winnipeg riding of River Heights. This was the year in which Dufferin Roblin's Progressive Conservatives ended forty-three years of Liberal and Progressive rule, and McKeag was defeated by Progressive Conservative candidate W.B. Scarth.

From 1966 to 1969, McKeag was a councilor in the town of Tuxedo, prior to its merger with Winnipeg. He was also chairman of the Greater Winnipeg Election Committee from 1968 to 1970.

McKeag, at the age of 42, was the youngest Lieutenant Governor in Manitoba's history when he was appointed by Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau in 1970. However, the office of Lieutenant Governor is a ceremonial post, and he had almost no practical influence over the government of Edward Schreyer.

McKeag was appointed Honorary Colonel of The Fort Garry Horse on 26 June 1973 and held the appointment until 22 January 2000.

McKeag was appointed to the Order of Canada in 1996, and the Order of Manitoba in 2000.

McKeag died on 23 August 2007 at the age of 79. He was survived by his wife, Dawn, who is the daughter of former Premier Douglas Campbell as well as three daughters and one son.

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