Edward III, Duke of Bar

Edward III of Bar (late June 1377 - 25 October 1415) was made Marquis of Pont-à-Mousson by his father Robert I, Duke of Bar in 1399 (his mother was Mary of France, daughter of John II of France) and held it until his death. He then became heir to the Duchy of Bar following the death of his elder brothers Henry and Philippe at or soon after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396.

In 1405, Charles VI of France charged him with defending the Boulonnais, then threatened by the English. At the end of 1406 he participated in the Guyenne campaign under the orders of Louis of Orleans, but dysentery decimated the French forces. After Louis's assassination in 1407, Edward joined John the Fearless and rallied the Burgundians. Succeeding his father on 12 April 1411, Edward was killed at the battle of Agincourt[1] and succeeded by his brother (he never married, though he left several illegitimate children).

References

  1. ^ The Battle of Agincourt: Sources and Interpretations, ed. Anne Curry, (The Boydell Press, 2000), 259.

Sources

  • (in French) Georges Poull, La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar, 1994
  • Barbara Tuchman, A Distant Mirror, 1978, Alfred A. Knopf, New York
German nobility
Preceded by
Robert
Duke of Bar
1411 – 1415
Succeeded by
Louis I
Battle of Agincourt

The Battle of Agincourt ( French: Azincourt [azɛ̃kuʁ]) was one of the greatest English victories in the Hundred Years' War. It took place on 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day) near Azincourt in the County of Saint-Pol, in northern France. England's unexpected victory against a numerically superior French army boosted English morale and prestige, crippled France, and started a new period in the war during which the English began enjoying great military successes.

After several decades of relative peace, the English had renewed their war effort in 1415 amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers died due to disease and the English numbers dwindled; they tried to withdraw to English-held Calais but found their path blocked by a considerably larger French army. Despite the disadvantage, the following battle ended in an overwhelming tactical victory for the English.

King Henry V of England led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. King Charles VI of France did not command the French army himself, as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation. Instead, the French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party.

This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with the English and Welsh archers making up nearly 80 percent of Henry's army.

Agincourt is one of England's most celebrated victories and was one of the most important English triumphs in the Hundred Years' War, along with the Battle of Crécy (1346) and Battle of Poitiers (1356). It forms the centrepiece of the play Henry V by William Shakespeare.

Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon

The Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon (French: Transi de René de Chalon, also known as the Memorial to the Heart of René de Chalon or The Skeleton) is a late Gothic period funerary monument, known as a transi, in the church of Saint-Étienne at Bar-le-Duc, in northeastern France. It consists of an altarpiece and a limestone statue of a putrefied and skinless corpse which stands upright and extends his left hand outwards. Completed sometime between 1544 and 1557, the majority of its construction is attributed to the French sculptor Ligier Richier. Other elements, including the coat of arms and funeral drapery, were added in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively.

The tomb dates from a period of societal anxiety over death, as plague, war and religious conflicts ravaged Europe. It was commissioned as the resting place of René of Chalon, Prince of Orange, son-in-law of Duke Antoine of Lorraine. René was killed aged 25 at the siege of St. Dizier on 15 July 1544, from a wound sustained the previous day. Richier presents him as an écorché, with his skin and muscles decayed, leaving him reduced to a skeleton. This apparently fulfilled his deathbed wish that his tomb depict his body as it would be three years after his death. His left arm is raised as if gesturing towards heaven. Supposedly, at one time his heart was held in a reliquary placed in the hand of the figure's raised arm. Unusually for contemporaneous objects of this type, his skeleton is standing, making it a "living corpse", an innovation that was to become highly influential. The tomb effigy is positioned above the carved marble and limestone altarpiece.

Designated a Monument historique on 18 June 1898, the tomb was moved for safekeeping to the Panthéon in Paris during the First World War, before being returned to Bar-le-Duc in 1920. Both the statue and altarpiece underwent extensive restoration between 1998 and 2003. Replicas of the statue are in the Musée Barrois in Bar-le-Duc and the Palais de Chaillot, Paris.

Edward III (disambiguation)

Edward III of England (1312–1377) was King of England from 1327 until his death.

Edward III may also refer to:

Edward III, Duke of Bar (1377–1415), who fought and died at the Battle of Agincourt during the Hundred Years' War

Edward III (play), a play thought to be by William Shakespeare

Louis I, Duke of Bar

Louis I of Bar (between 1370 and 1375 – 26 June 1430) was a French bishop of the 15th century and the de jure Duke of Bar from 1415 to 1430, ruling from the 1420s alongside his grand-nephew René of Anjou.

Marie of France, Duchess of Bar

Marie of France (18 September 1344 – 15 October 1404) was the sixth child and second daughter of John II of France and Bonne of Bohemia.

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