Edward Carson

Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC, PC (Ire) (9 February 1854 – 22 October 1935), from 1900 to 1921 known as Sir Edward Carson, was an Irish unionist politician, barrister and judge. From Dublin, he became the leader of the Irish Unionist Alliance and Ulster Unionist Party between 1910 and 1921, held numerous positions in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom and served as a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. He was one of the few people not a monarch to receive a British state funeral. Historian John Brown says that "His larger than life-size statue, erected in his own lifetime in front of the Northern Ireland parliament at Stormont, symbolizes the widely held perception that Northern Ireland is Carson's creation."[1]

Teach Edward Carson
Lord Edward Carson was born in this house, 4 Harcourt Street, Dublin

The Lord Carson

Sir Edward Carson, bw photo portrait seated
Leader of the Opposition
In office
19 October 1915 – 6 December 1916
MonarchGeorge V
Prime MinisterH. H. Asquith
Preceded byVacant
last held by Bonar Law on 25 May 1915
Succeeded byH. H. Asquith
Attorney General for England and Wales
In office
25 May 1915 – 19 October 1915
MonarchGeorge V
Prime MinisterH. H. Asquith
Preceded bySir John Simon
Succeeded bySir F. E. Smith
Solicitor General for England and Wales
In office
11 May 1900 – 4 December 1905
MonarchVictoria
Edward VII
Prime MinisterThe Marquess of Salisbury
Arthur Balfour
Preceded bySir Robert Finlay
Succeeded bySir William Robson
Solicitor General for Ireland
In office
20 June 1892 – 11 August 1892
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterThe Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded byJohn Atkinson
Succeeded byCharles Hemphill
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
10 December 1916 – 17 July 1917
MonarchGeorge V
Prime MinisterDavid Lloyd George
Preceded byArthur Balfour
Succeeded bySir Eric Geddes
Minister without Portfolio and member of the War Cabinet
In office
17 July 1917 – 20 January 1918
MonarchGeorge V
Prime MinisterDavid Lloyd George
Preceded byNone
Succeeded byNone
Leader of the Irish Unionist Parliamentary Party
In office
1910–1921
Preceded byWalter Long
Succeeded byThe Earl of Midleton
Leader of the Ulster Unionist Party
In office
1910–1921
Preceded byWalter Long
Succeeded byThe Viscount Craigavon
Personal details
Born9 February 1854
Dublin, Ireland
Died22 October 1935 (aged 81)
Minster-in-Thanet, Kent, England
Political partyIrish Unionist (UUP)
Spouse(s)(1) Annette Kirwan
(d. 1913)
(2) Ruby Frewen
(d. 1966)
Children5
Alma materTrinity College, Dublin
ProfessionBarrister

Early life

Edward Carson, the 2nd son of Edward Henry Carson, architect, was born at 4 Harcourt Street, in Dublin, into a wealthy Anglican family;[2] The Carsons were of Scottish origin, Edward's grandfather having originally moved to Dublin from Dumfries in 1815. Carson's mother was Isabella Lambert, the daughter of Captain Peter Lambert, part of an old Anglo-Irish family, the Lamberts of Castle Ellen, County Galway. Carson spent holidays at Castle Ellen, which was owned by his uncle.[3] He was one of six children (four boys and two girls). Edward was educated at Portarlington School, Wesley College, Dublin[4] and Trinity College, Dublin, where he read law and was an active member of the College Historical Society. He also played with the college hurling team. Carson graduated BA and MA.

He later received an honorary doctorate (LL.D.) from the University of Dublin in June 1901.[5]

As a barrister

Solicitor General Ceremonial Dress Uniform
Carson's ceremonial dress uniform, worn on his appointment as Solicitor General for England in 1900.

In 1877 Carson was called to the Irish Bar at King's Inns. He gained a reputation for fearsome advocacy and supreme legal ability and became regarded as a brilliant barrister, among the most prominent in Ireland at the time.[6] He was also an acknowledged master of the appeal to the jury by his legal wit and oratory.[7] He was appointed Queen's Counsel (Ireland) in 1889 and was Called to the English Bar at Middle Temple on 26 April 1893. He was twice admitted to the Inn, once on 1 November 1875 and then again on 21 April 1893, and was made a Bencher on 15 June 1900.[8]

Oscar Wilde

Edward Carson Vanity Fair 9 November 1893
Mr. Edward H. Carson (as he then was) addresses Parliament. From Vanity Fair, 1893.

In 1895, he was engaged by the Marquess of Queensberry to lead his defence against Oscar Wilde's action for criminal libel. The Marquess, angry at Wilde's ongoing homosexual relationship with his son, Lord Alfred Douglas, had left his calling card at Wilde's club with an inscription accusing Wilde of being a "posing somdomite" [sic]. Wilde retaliated with a libel action, as homosexuality was, at the time, illegal.

Kevin Myers states that Carson's initial response was to refuse to take the case. Later, he discovered that Queensberry had been telling the truth about Wilde's activity and was therefore not guilty of the libel of which Wilde accused him.[9]

Carson and Wilde had known each other when they were students at Trinity College, Dublin, and, when he heard that Carson was to lead the defence, Wilde is quoted as saying that "No doubt he will pursue his case with all the added bitterness of an old friend."[10] Carson portrayed the playwright as a morally depraved hedonist who seduced naïve young men into a life of homosexuality with lavish gifts and promises of a glamorous artistic lifestyle. He impugned Wilde's works as morally repugnant and designed to corrupt the upbringing of the youth. Queensberry spent a large amount of money on private detectives who investigated Wilde's activity in the London underworld of homosexual clubs and procurers.

Wilde abandoned the case when Carson announced in his opening speech for the defence that he planned to call several male prostitutes who would testify that they had had sex with Wilde, which would have rendered the libel charge unsupportable as the accusation would have been proven true. Wilde was bankrupted when he was then ordered to pay the considerable legal and detective bills Queensberry had incurred in his defence.

Based on the evidence of Queensberry's detectives and Carson's cross-examinations of Wilde at the trial, Wilde was subsequently prosecuted for gross indecency in a second trial. He was eventually found guilty and sentenced to two years' hard labour, after which he moved to France, where he died penniless.

Cadbury Bros.

In 1908 Carson appeared for the London Evening Standard in a libel action brought by George Cadbury. The Standard was controlled by Unionist interests which supported Joseph Chamberlain's Imperial Preference views. The Cadbury family were Liberal supporters of free trade and had, in 1901, purchased The Daily News. The Standard articles alleged that Cadbury Bros Ltd., which claimed to be model employers having created the village of Bournville outside Birmingham, knew of the slave labour conditions on São Tomé, the Portuguese island colony from which Cadbury purchased most of the cocoa used in the production of their chocolate.[11]

The articles alleged that George's son William had gone to São Tomé in 1901 and observed for himself the slave conditions, and that the Cadbury family had decided to continue purchasing the cocoa grown there because it was cheaper than that grown in the British colony of the Gold Coast, where labour conditions were much better, being regulated by the Colonial Office. The Standard alleged that the Cadbury family knew that the reason cocoa from São Tomé was cheaper was because it was grown by slave labour. This case was regarded at the time as an important political case as Carson and the Unionists maintained that it showed the fundamental immorality of free trade. George Cadbury recovered the derisory sum of one farthing in damages in a case described as one of Carson's triumphs.[12]

Archer-Shee case

Carson was also the victorious counsel in the 1910 Archer-Shee Case, exonerating a Royal Naval College, Osborne cadet of the charge of theft. The cadet was from a quite prominent Roman Catholic banking family, and educated at Stonyhurst. On this case, Terence Rattigan based his play The Winslow Boy. The fictional barrister, Morton, is a somewhat different character from Carson. There is, however, one interesting detail. At the end of the play Morton indicates he may take a continued interest in the boy’s sister, who had played a key role in the fictional case. In his account of the case, which was the last chapter of his book before his suicide, Edward Marjoribanks said that Carson’s first marriage was strained and his wife died around this time. He then married a much younger woman, Lucy Frewen, and Marjoribanks, who had help from the Carson family, says her interest in him was aroused by the Archer-Shee case. They had a son (also Edward) born when Carson was over 60, who in 1945 became the youngest Member of Parliament but resigned after eight years for health reasons.

Politics

Carson's political career began on 20 June 1892, when he was appointed Solicitor-General for Ireland, although he was not then a member of the House of Commons. He was elected as Member of Parliament for the University of Dublin in the 1892 general election[13] as a Liberal Unionist, although as a whole the party lost the election to the Liberals.

Carson maintained his career as a barrister and was admitted to the English Bar by The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple in 1893 and from then on mainly practised in London. In 1896 he was sworn of the Irish Privy Council.[14] He was appointed Solicitor-General for England on 7 May 1900,[15] receiving the usual ex officio knighthood. He served in this position until the Conservative government resigned in December 1905, when he was rewarded with membership of the Privy Council.[16]

Unionism

In September 1911 a huge crowd of over 50,000 people gathered to rally near Belfast to hear Carson speaking to urge his party take on the governance of Ulster. With the passage of the Parliament Act 1911, the Unionists faced the loss of the House of Lords' ability to thwart the passage of the new Home Rule Bill. Carson disliked many of Ulster's local characteristics and, in particular, the culture of Orangeism, although he had become an Orangeman at nineteen.[17] He stated that their speeches reminded him of "the unrolling of a mummy. All old bones and rotten rags."[18]

Carson signing Solemn League and Covenant
Sir Edward Carson signing the Ulster Covenant.

Carson campaigned against Home Rule. He spoke against the Bill in the House of Commons and organised rallies in Ireland promoting a provisional government for "the Protestant province of Ulster" to be ready, should a third Home Rule Bill come into law [19]

On Sunday 28 September 1912 'Ulster Day', he was the first signatory on the Ulster Covenant, which bound 447,197 signatories[20] to resist Home Rule with the threat that they would use "all means necessary" after Carson had established the Ulster Volunteers, the first loyalist paramilitary group. From it the Ulster Volunteer Force was formed in January 1913 to undergo military training and purchase arms.[21] In Parliament Carson rejected any olive branch for compromise demanding Ulster 'be given a resolution rather than a stay of execution.'[22] The UVF received a large arms cache from Germany on the night of 24 April 1914.[23] Historian Felician Prill says Germany was not trying to start a civil war, for the Ulster cause was not popular in Berlin.[24] Later that year, a further shipment of arms from Germany was delivered to the pro-Home Rule and IRB-influenced Irish Volunteers at Howth near Dublin.[25]

The Home Rule Bill was passed by the Commons on 25 May 1914 by a majority of 77 and due to the Parliament Act 1911, it did not need the Lords' consent, so the bill was awaiting royal assent. To enforce the legislation, given the activities of the Unionists, H. H. Asquith's Liberal government had prepared to send troops to Ulster. This sparked the Curragh Incident on 20 March. Together with the arming of the Irish Volunteers, Ireland was on the brink of civil war when the outbreak of the First World War led to the suspension of the Home Rule Act's operation until the end of the war.[26] By this time Carson had announced in Belfast that an Ulster Division would be formed from the U.V.F., and the 36th (Ulster) Division was swiftly organised.[26]

Brown examines why Carson's role in 1914 made him a highly controversial figure:

But his commitment was unqualified, both to Ulster unionism and to its increasing extremism. Under Carson's leadership, with Craig as his lieutenant, discipline and organization were imposed on their supporters; proposed compromises were rejected; and plans were drawn up for a provisional government in the north, if the bill was passed, with its implementation to be resisted by the paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force, which had been armed by illegal gun-running. It is this apparent willingness to carry resistance to virtually any length, even to risk civil war, that makes Carson so controversial.[27]

In a 1921 speech opposing the pending Anglo-Irish Treaty, Carson attacked the 'Tory intrigues' that had led him on the course that would partition Ireland, an outcome he opposed almost as strongly as Home Rule itself. In the course of the speech Carson said:

What a fool I was! I was only a puppet, and so was Ulster, and so was Ireland, in the political game that was to get the Conservative Party into Power.[28][29]

Later in the speech, Carson said:

But I say to my Ulster friends, and I say it with all sincerity and solemnity: Do not be led into any such false line. Stick to your old ideals of closer and closer connection with this country. The Coalition Government, after all, is not the British nation, and the British nation will certainly see you righted. Your interests lie with Great Britain. You have helped her, and you have helped her Empire, and her Empire belongs just as much to you as it does to England. Stick to it, and trust the British people.[30]

Cabinet member

Northern Ireland Parliament Buildings - Edward Carson statue
Edward Carson's statue at Stormont

On 25 May 1915, Asquith appointed Carson Attorney-General[31] when the Coalition Government was formed after the Liberal government was brought down by the Shell Crisis. He resigned on 19 October, however, citing his opposition to Government policy on war in the Balkans. During Asquith's coalition government of 1915–1916, there was no formal opposition in either the Commons or the Lords. The only party not in Asquith's Liberal, Conservative, Labour Coalition was the Irish Nationalist Party led by John Redmond. However, this party supported the government and did not function as an Opposition. After Carson, the leading figure among the Irish Unionist allies of the Conservative Party, resigned from the coalition ministry on 19 October 1915, he then became the de facto leader of those Unionists who were not members of the government, effectively Leader of the Opposition in the Commons.

He played a major role in forcing the resignation of Asquith as Prime Minister, returning to office on 10 December 1916 as First Lord of the Admiralty,[32] becoming a Minister without Portfolio on 17 July 1917.[33]

Carson was hostile to the foundation of the League of Nations as he believed that this institution would be ineffectual against war. In a speech on 7 December 1917 he said:

Talk to me of treaties! Talk to me of the League of Nations! Every Great Power in Europe was pledged by treaty to preserve Belgium. That was a League of Nations, but it failed.[34]

Early in 1918, the government decided to extend conscription to Ireland, and that Ireland would have to be given home rule in order to make it acceptable. Carson disagreed in principle and again resigned on 21 January. He gave up his seat at the University of Dublin in the 1918 general election and was instead elected for Belfast Duncairn.[35]

He continued to lead the Unionists, but when the Government of Ireland Act 1920 was introduced, advised his party to work for the exemption of six Ulster counties from Home Rule as the best compromise (a compromise he had previously rejected). This proposal passed and as a result the Parliament of Northern Ireland was established.[36]

In January 1921 he met in London over three days with Father O'Flanagan and Lord Justice Sir James O'Connor to try to find a mutual agreement that would end the Anglo-Irish war, but without result.[37]

After the partition of Ireland, Carson repeatedly warned Ulster Unionist leaders not to alienate northern Catholics, as he foresaw this would make Northern Ireland unstable. In 1921 he stated: "We used to say that we could not trust an Irish parliament in Dublin to do justice to the Protestant minority. Let us take care that that reproach can no longer be made against your parliament, and from the outset let them see that the Catholic minority have nothing to fear from a Protestant majority."[38] In old age, while at London’s Carlton Club, he confided to the Anglo-Irish (and Catholic) historian Sir Charles Petrie his disillusionment with Belfast politics: “I fought to keep Ulster part of the United Kingdom, but Stormont is turning her into a second-class Dominion.”[39]

Judge

Carson statue, Parliament Buildings (3) - geograph.org.uk - 693337
Lord Carson's statue at Stormont

Carson was asked to lead the Unionists during the election to become the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. He declined due to his lack of connections with any Northern Ireland constituency (an opponent once taunted him saying: "He has no country, he has no caste"),[40] and resigned the leadership of the party on 4 February 1921. Carson was appointed one of seven Lords of Appeal in Ordinary on 24 May 1921 and was created a life peer under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 on 1 June 1921 as Baron Carson, of Duncairn in the County of Antrim.[41]

Private life

Carson Mural
Sir Edward Carson mural in Belfast in 2006

Carson married twice. His first wife was Annette Kirwan from County Galway, daughter of Henry Persse Kirwan, a retired County Inspector of the Royal Irish Constabulary.[42] They were married on December 19, 1879. He had two sons and two daughters by his first wife (he described them as a "rum lot"),[43] namely:

  • The Hon. William Henry Lambert Carson, born 2 October 1880 (d. 1930)
  • The Hon. Aileen Seymour Carson, born 13 November 1881
  • The Hon. Gladys Isobel Carson, born 1885
  • The Hon. Walter Seymour Carson, born 1890

The first Lady Carson died on 6 April 1913.[44] His second wife was Ruby Frewen (1881–1966),[45] a Yorkshirewoman, the daughter of Lt.-Col. Stephen Frewen, later Frewen-Laton MP (1857–1933) and Emily Augusta (Peacocke) Frewen. They were married on 17 September 1914; she was 29 and he was 60. They had one son:

Later years

Cathedral St. Anne Belfast
St Anne's Cathedral; Carson's final resting place

Carson retired in October 1929. In July 1932, he had witnessed the unveiling of a large statue (sculpted by L. S. Merrifield) of himself in front of Parliament Buildings at Stormont. The statue was unveiled by Lord Craigavon in the presence of more than 40,000 people. The statue was cast in bronze and placed upon a plinth. The inscription on the base read "By the loyalists of Ulster as an expression of their love and admiration for its subject". This was the final time he visited Belfast.

State funeral

Lord Carson lived at Cleve Court, a Queen Anne house near Minster in the Isle of Thanet, Kent, bought in 1921. It was here that Carson died peacefully on 22 October 1935. Britain gave him a state funeral, which took place in Belfast at St Anne's Cathedral; he is still the only person to have been buried there. From a silver bowl, soil from each of the six counties of Northern Ireland was scattered on to his coffin, which had earlier been covered by the Union Flag, which however was removed during the service. At his funeral service the choir sang his own favourite hymn, "I Vow to Thee, My Country". A warship had brought his body to Belfast and the funeral took place on Saturday 26 October 1935. Thousands of shipworkers stopped work and bowed their heads as HMS Broke steamed slowly up Belfast Lough, with Carson's flag-draped coffin sat on the quarterdeck.[46]

Memories

Carson Poster
Carson Poster, Belfast, August 2007

Even before his death, there was an organized effort to portray Carson as the heroic embodiment of the militant unionist spirit. In November 1932 the new Stormont Parliament became the greatest Carson monument, giving his admirers the symbolic endorsement of their state. His statue was unveiled as the speakers excited the audience with triumphalist images of Protestant deliverance from Catholic tyranny. Carson's funeral in 1935 was attended with pomp and unionist symbolism, as happened again with the dedication of a plaque in his memory in 1938. Calling for unity with Britain, numerous ceremonial rituals, memorials, and anniversaries affirmed the legitimacy of the state, and the Protestant ascendancy. The media enthusiastically participated, paying much less attention to such mundane issues as massive unemployment, poor housing, and rising religious tensions.[47] James Craig, celebrated as the hero of the 1912-1914 counterrevolution, often joined Carson in Protestant Ireland's memory.[48]

Styles of address

  • 1854–1889: Mr Edward Carson
  • 1889–1892: Mr Edward Carson QC
  • 1892–1896: Mr Edward Carson QC MP
  • 1896–1900: The Rt Hon. Edward Carson QC MP
  • 1900–1901: The Rt Hon. Sir Edward Carson QC MP
  • 1901–1921: The Rt Hon. Sir Edward Carson KC MP
  • 1921–1935: The Rt Hon. The Lord Carson PC PC (Ire) KC

References

  1. ^ John Brown, "Carson, Sir Edward, Baron Carson 1854-1935" in David Loades, ed., Reader's Guide to British History (2003) 1:227
  2. ^ Marjoribanks, Volume One: The Life of Lord Carson, London, 1932, p. 5
  3. ^ Marjoribanks, Volume One: The Life of Lord Carson, London, 1932, p. 6
  4. ^ Dickson, Brice Drewry, Gavin The Judicial House of Lords 1876-2009 Oxford University Press page 755
  5. ^ "University intelligence". The Times (36493). London. 28 June 1901. p. 10.
  6. ^ ::History Learning Site:: Archived 8 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Law Library".
  8. ^ Sturgess, H.A.C. (1949). Register of Admissions of the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple. Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd.: Temple Bar. Vol. 2, p. 597
  9. ^ "Edward Carson and Oscar Wilde - mythic rewriting of history drives me wild". Belfast Telegraph.
  10. ^ Oscar Wilde by Richard Ellmann, published in 1987
  11. ^ Kevin Grant (2005). A civilised savagery: Britain and the new slaveries in Africa, 1884–1926. Routledge. p. 110. ISBN 0-415-94901-7.
  12. ^ Chocolate on Trial: Slavery, Politics, and the Ethics of Business, by Lowell J. Satre ISBN 0-8214-1626-X
  13. ^ "No. 26311". The London Gazette. 29 July 1892. p. 4314.
  14. ^ "leighrayment.com Privy Counsellors – Ireland". leighrayment.com.
  15. ^ "No. 27192". The London Gazette. 15 May 1900. p. 3070.
  16. ^ "No. 27862". The London Gazette. 8 December 1905. p. 8891.
  17. ^ Marjoribanks, "The Life of Lord Carson: Vol. 1", The Camelot Press, 1932 p. 68
  18. ^ "CAIN: Issues: Politics: Cochrane, Feargal (1997) 'The Unionists of Ulster: An ideological Analysis'". ulst.ac.uk.
  19. ^ "Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI) - nidirect". 4 March 2016.
  20. ^ The number eventually exceeded 470,000 in England and Scotland.
  21. ^ M McNally, "Easter Rising 1916: Birth of the Irish Republic", Osprey, 2007., p.8-9.
  22. ^ McNally, "Easter Rising 1916", p.11.
  23. ^ known as Operation Lion, Stewart, "The Ulster Crisis", p.88.
  24. ^ Felician Prill (1975). Ireland, Britain and Germany, 1871-1914: Problems of Nationalism and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Europe. p. 133.
  25. ^ Asgard (yacht)#cite note-ring95-99-1
  26. ^ a b * A. T. Q. Stewart The Ulster Crisis, Resistance to Home Rule, 1912–14, p.235, (Faber and Faber, London, 1967, 1979), ISBN 0-571-08066-9
  27. ^ Brown, "Carson," p 227
  28. ^ Stewart, A.T.Q. (1981). Edward Carson. Gill and Macmillan Ltd. p. 125. ISBN 0-7171-1075-3.
  29. ^ Murphy, Brian P (2005). The Catholic Bulletin and Republican Ireland. Athol Books. p. 222. ISBN 0-85034-108-6.
  30. ^ Address in Reply to His Majesty's Most Gracious Speech, HL Deb 14 December 1921 vol 48 cc5-56.
  31. ^ "No. 29197". The London Gazette. 18 June 1915. p. 5871.
  32. ^ "No. 29860". The London Gazette. 12 December 1916. p. 12118.
  33. ^ The New York Times Current History: The European War, Volume 12 July–September 1917 The New York Times Company Times Square New York City 1917 page 224
  34. ^ Henry R. Winkler, 'The Development of the League of Nations Idea in Great Britain, 1914–1919', The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 20, No. 2. (Jun. 1948), p. 105.
  35. ^ "ElectionsIreland.org: Rt Hon Sir Edward Carson". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  36. ^ Frank Costello, "King George V's Speech at Stormont (1921) : Prelude to the Anglo-Irish Truce," Eire-Ireland, (1987), pp. 43-57.
  37. ^ "Memorandum by James O'Connor of an interview with Edward Carson"; RIA, Dublin, 1993 National Archives of Ireland file UCDA P150/1902
  38. ^ Dudley Edwards, Ruth (29 May 2005). "Biography: Carson by Geoffrey Lewis". The Times. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
  39. ^ Sir Charles Petrie, ‘’A Historian Looks At His World’’ (London: Sedgwick & Jackson, 1972), p. 27.
  40. ^ Marjoribanks, Volume One: The Life of Lord Carson, London, 1932, p. 8
  41. ^ "No. 32344". The London Gazette. 3 June 1921. p. 4425.
  42. ^ Lundy, Darryl. "p. 20873 § 208726". The Peerage.
  43. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  44. ^ Lundy, Darryl. "p. 20873 § 208725". The Peerage.
  45. ^ "Ruby Carson (née Frewen), Lady Carson". National Portrait Gallery.
  46. ^ "Lord Carson's Funeral". News. The Times (47206). London. 28 October 1935. col A, p. 11.
  47. ^ Gillian McIntosh, "Symbolic mirrors: commemorations of Edward Carson in the 1930s." Irish Historical Studies 32.125 (2000): 93-112.
  48. ^ Alvin Jackson, "Unionist Myths 1912-1985." Past & Present 136 (1992): 164-185.

Further reading

  • Hennessey, Thomas. Dividing Ireland: World War I and Partition (1998),online
  • H. Montgomery Hyde, Carson (Constable, London 1974) ISBN 0-09-459510-0
  • Marjoribanks, Edward and Colvin, Ian, The Life of Lord Carson, (Victor Gollancz, London, 1932-1936, 3 Vols).
  • A.T.Q. Stewart The Ulster Crisis, Resistance to Home Rule, 1912–14, (Faber and Faber, London, 1967, 1979), ISBN 0-571-08066-9
  • A.T.Q. Stewart, Edward Carson (Gill and Macmillan Ltd, Dublin 1981) ISBN 0-7171-1075-3
  • Geoffrey Lewis, Carson, the Man who divided Ireland, (Hambledon and London 2005), ISBN 1-85285-454-5
  • Jackson, Alvin, Judging Redmond and Carson, Royal Irish Academy (2018)

External links

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1887 in Ireland

Events from the year 1887 in Ireland.

1889 in Ireland

Events from the year 1889 in Ireland.

1892 in Ireland

Events from the year 1892 in Ireland.

1893 in Ireland

Events from the year 1893 in Ireland.

1895 in Ireland

Events from the year 1895 in Ireland.

1900 in Ireland

Events from the year 1900 in Ireland.

1913 in Ireland

Events from the year 1913 in Ireland.

1921 Belfast Duncairn by-election

The Belfast Duncairn by-election of 1921 was held on 23 June 1921. The by-election was held due to the incumbent Ulster Unionist MP, Edward Carson, being appointed Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. It was won by the UUP candidate Thomas Edward McConnell, who was unopposed. The seat was abolished in 1922.

1935 in Ireland

Events from the year 1935 in Ireland.

1953 Isle of Thanet by-election

The 1953 Isle of Thanet by-election was held on 12 March 1953. It was held due to the resignation of the incumbent Conservative MP, Hon. Edward Carson. It was retained by the Conservative candidate, William Rees-Davies.

A Survey

A Survey is a book of fifty-two caricatures and humorous illustrations by British essayist, caricaturist and parodist Max Beerbohm. It was published in Britain in 1921 by William Heinemann and in the United States in the same year by Doubleday, Page & Company of New York City.

Beerbohm created the illustrations for A Survey at his home in Rapallo in Italy and in Britain, where he and his wife Florence Kahn returned for the duration of World War I. The book was a satire on that War, and was published in plum cloth covered boards with fifty-two tipped-in pictures, comprising fifty-one monochrome illustrations and one colour frontispiece. Each plate was accompanied by a guard sheet with a descriptive letterpress.

The caricatures included Joseph Conrad, the book included caricatures of David Lloyd George, Lytton Strachey, Philip Guedalla, Woodrow Wilson, Edward Gordon Craig, Edward Carson, Maurice Hewlett, Philip Sassoon, Claude Phillips, Edmund Gosse, Paderewski, Gabriele d'Annunzio, James McNeill Whistler, Stephen Gwynn, Alfonso XIII of Spain, Sir Oliver Lodge, Sir E. Ray Lankester, Lord Charles Spencer, Ralph Nevill, George Bernard Shaw, Georg Brandes, Henry James, George Robey, H. H. Asquith, Leon Trotsky, Bonar Law among other eminent men of the day and a variety of contemporary politicians.

Eddie Sargent

Edward Carson "Eddie" Sargent (April 11, 1915 – January 28, 1998) was a politician in Ontario, Canada. He was a Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1963 to 1987 who represented the central Ontario riding of Grey North and Grey-Bruce.

Edward C. Waller

Edward Carson Waller III (born January 24, 1926) is a retired a vice admiral in the United States Navy. He was Superintendent of the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland from August 22, 1981 to retirement on August 31, 1983. A 1949 graduate of the Naval Academy, he was married to Margaret Clifford Gelly. She died May 15, 2013 at the age of 82. He is a recipient of the Navy Distinguished Service Medal and Legion of Merit.

Edward Carson (Conservative politician)

Edward Carson (17 February 1920 – 6 March 1987), sometimes known as Ned Carson, was a British Conservative politician.

Françoise Meltzer

Françoise Meltzer (born 1947) is a professor of Philosophy of Religion at the University of Chicago Divinity School. She is also the Edward Carson Waller Distinguished Service Professor of the Humanities and Chair of Comparative Literature at the University of Chicago.

Irish Unionist Alliance

The Irish Unionist Alliance (IUA), also known as the Irish Unionist Party or simply the Unionists, was a unionist political party founded in Ireland in 1891 from the Irish Loyal and Patriotic Union to oppose plans for home rule for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The party was led for much of its existence by Colonel Edward James Saunderson and later by William St John Brodrick, Earl of Midleton. In total, eighty-six members of the House of Lords affiliated themselves with the Irish Unionist Alliance, although its broader membership was relatively small.

The party aligned itself closely with the Conservative Party and Liberal Unionists to campaign to prevent the passage of a new Home Rule Bill. Its MPs took the Conservative whip at Westminster, and its members were often described as 'Conservatives' or 'Conservative Unionists', even though much of its support came from former Liberal voters. Among its most prominent members were the Dublin barrister, Sir Edward Carson, and the founder of Ireland's cooperative movement, Sir Horace Plunkett. Its electoral strength was largely (although not exclusively) concentrated in east Ulster and south Dublin.

The IUA became wracked by internal disagreement during the early twentieth century, with the issue of the partition of Ireland proving to be particularly divisive. Many unionists outside Ulster became resigned to the political necessity of Home Rule, while unionists in Ulster established a separate organisation, the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP). In 1919 the IUA finally split apart with the founding of the break-away Unionist Anti-Partition League, effectively signalling the death of institutional unionism in most of Ireland. The UUP continued to operate in Northern Ireland, and would go on to dominate domestic politics there for much of the twentieth century.

Ulster Covenant

Ulster's Solemn League and Covenant, commonly known as the Ulster Covenant, was signed by nearly 500,000 people on and before 28 September 1912, in protest against the Third Home Rule Bill introduced by the British Government in the same year. Sir Edward Carson was the first person to sign the Covenant at Belfast City Hall with a silver pen, followed by Lord Londonderry (the former viceroy of Ireland), representatives of the Protestant churches, and then by Sir James Craig. The signatories, 471,414 in all, were all against the establishment of a Home Rule parliament in Dublin. The Ulster Covenant is immortalised in Rudyard Kipling's poem "Ulster 1912". On 23 September 1912, the Ulster Unionist Council voted in favour of resolution pledging itself to the Covenant.The Covenant had two basic parts: the Covenant itself, which was signed by men, and the Declaration, which was signed by women. In total, the Covenant was signed by 237,368 men; the Declaration, by 234,046 women. Both the Covenant and Declaration are held by the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI). An online searchable database is available on the PRONI website.

In January 1913, the Ulster Volunteers aimed to recruit 100,000 men aged from 17 to 65 who had signed the Covenant as a unionist militia.A British Covenant, similar to the Ulster Covenant in opposition to the Home Rule Bill, received two million signatures in 1914.

September 28 is today known as 'Ulster day' to unionists.

Ulster Unionist Labour Association

The Ulster Unionist Labour Association was an association of trade unionists founded by Edward Carson in June 1918, aligned with the Ulster Unionists in Northern Ireland. Members were known as Labour Unionists. 1918 and 1919 were the years of intense class conflict throughout Britain. This period also saw a large increase in trade union membership and a series of strikes. These union activities raised fears in a section of the Ulster Unionist leadership, principally Edward Carson and R. Dawson Bates. Carson at this time was president of the British Empire Union, and had been predisposed to amplify the danger of a Bolshevik outbreak in Britain.

University of Dublin (constituency)

University of Dublin is a university constituency in Ireland, which currently elects three senators to Seanad Éireann. Its electorate comprises the undergraduate scholars and graduates of the University of Dublin, whose sole constituent college is Trinity College Dublin, so it is often also referred to as the Trinity College constituency. Between 1613 and 1937 it elected MPs or TDs to a series of representative legislative bodies.

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