Edward Bellamy

Edward Bellamy (March 26, 1850 – May 22, 1898) was an American author and socialist, most famous for his utopian novel, Looking Backward, a tale set in the distant future of the year 2000. Bellamy's vision of a harmonious future world inspired the formation of at least 165 "Nationalist Clubs" dedicated to the propagation of Bellamy's political ideas and working to make them a practical reality.[1]

Edward Bellamy
Edward Bellamy, circa 1889
Edward Bellamy, circa 1889
BornMarch 26, 1850
Chicopee, Massachusetts
DiedMay 22, 1898 (aged 48)
Chicopee, Massachusetts
OccupationAuthor
NationalityAmerican
SpouseEmma Augusta Sanderson
(m. 1882–1898; his death)
ChildrenPaul (b. 1884)
Marion (b. 1886)

Signature
Appletons' Bellamy Edward signature

Biography

Early years

Edward Bellamy was born in Chicopee, Massachusetts. His father was Rufus King Bellamy (1816–1886), a Baptist minister and a descendant of Joseph Bellamy.[2] His mother, Maria Louisa Putnam Bellamy, was a Calvinist.[3] She was the daughter of a Baptist minister named Benjamin Putnam, who was forced to withdraw from the ministry in Salem, Massachusetts, following objections to his becoming a Freemason.[4]

Bellamy attended public school at Chicopee Falls before leaving for Union College of Schenectady, New York, where he studied for just two semesters.[2] Upon leaving school, Bellamy made his way to Europe for a year, spending extensive time in Germany.[2] Bellamy briefly studied law but abandoned that field without ever having practiced as a lawyer, instead entering the world of journalism. In this capacity Bellamy briefly served on the staff of the New York Post before returning to his native Massachusetts to take a position at the Springfield Union.[2]

At the age of 25, Bellamy developed tuberculosis, the disease that would ultimately kill him.[2] He suffered with its effects throughout his adult life. In an effort to regain his health, Bellamy spent a year in the Hawaiian Islands (1877 to 1878).[2] Returning to the United States, Bellamy decided to abandon the daily grind of journalism in favor of literary work, which put fewer demands upon his time and his health.[2]

Bellamy married Emma Augusta Sanderson in 1882. The couple had two children.

Literary career

Bellamy's early novels, including Six to One (1878), Dr. Heidenhoff's Process (1880), and Miss Ludington's Sister (1885) were unremarkable works, making use of standard psychological plots.[5]

A turn to utopian science fiction with Looking Backward, 2000–1887, published in January 1888, captured the public imagination and catapulted Bellamy to literary fame.[2] The publisher of the book could scarcely keep up with demand. Within a year the book had sold some 200,000 copies and by the end of the 19th century it had sold more copies than any other book published in America up to that time except for Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe and Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ by Lew Wallace.[6] He also collected several short stories in 1898 and published The Duke of Stockbridge; a Romance of Shays' Rebellion in 1900.

The Bellamyite movement

Although Bellamy retrospectively claimed he did not write Looking Backward as a blueprint for political action, but rather sought to write "a literary fantasy, a fairy tale of social felicity",[7] the book inspired legions of inspired readers to establish so-called Nationalist Clubs, beginning in Boston late in 1888.[8] Bellamy's vision of a country relieved of its social ills through abandonment of the principle of competition and establishment of state ownership of industry proved an appealing panacea to a generation of intellectuals alienated from the dark side of Gilded Age America. By 1891 it was reported that no fewer than 162 Nationalist Clubs were in existence.[9]

Bellamy's use of the term "Nationalism" rather than "socialism" as a descriptor of his governmental vision was calculated, as he did not want to limit either sales of his novel or the potential influence of its political ideas.[10] In an 1888 letter to literary critic William Dean Howells, Bellamy wrote:

Every sensible man will admit there is a big deal in a name, especially in making first impressions. In the radicalness of the opinions I have expressed, I may seem to out-socialize the socialists, yet the word socialist is one I never could well stomach. In the first place it is a foreign word in itself, and equally foreign in all its suggestions. It smells to the average American of petroleum, suggests the red flag, and with all manner of sexual novelties, and an abusive tone about God and religion, which in this country we at least treat with respect. ...[W]hatever German and French reformers may choose to call themselves, socialist is not a good name for a party to succeed with in America. No such party can or ought to succeed that is not wholly and enthusiastically American and patriotic in spirit and suggestions".[11]

Bellamy himself came to actively participate in the political movement which emerged around his book, particularly after 1891 when he founded his own magazine, The New Nation, and began to promote united action between the various Nationalist Clubs and the emerging People's Party.[12] For the next three and a half years, Bellamy gave his all to politics, publishing his magazine, working to influence the platform of the People's Party, and publicizing the Nationalist movement in the popular press. This phase of Bellamy's life came to an end in 1894, when The New Nation was forced to suspend publication owing to financial difficulties.[13]

With the key activists of the Nationalist Clubs largely absorbed into the apparatus of the People's Party (although a Nationalist Party did run candidates for office in Wisconsin as late as 1896[14]), Bellamy abandoned politics for a return to literature. He set to work on a sequel to Looking Backward titled Equality, attempting to deal with the ideal society of the post-revolutionary future in greater detail. The book saw print in 1897 and would prove to be Bellamy's final creation.

Death and legacy

Edward Bellamy died of tuberculosis in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts. He was 48 years old at the time of his death.

His lifelong home in Chicopee Falls, built by his father,[15] was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1971.[16]

Bellamy was the cousin of Francis Bellamy, famous for creation of the Pledge of Allegiance.

Bellamy Road, a residential road in Toronto, is named for the author.

Bibliography

Novels

Short stories

  • "At Pinney's Ranch"
  • "The Blindman's World"
  • "Deserted"
  • "An Echo Of Antietam"
  • "Hooking Watermelons"
  • "Lost"
  • "A Love Story Reversed"
  • "The Old Folks' Party"
  • "A Positive Romance"
  • "Potts's Painless Cure"
  • "A Summer Evening's Dream"
  • "To Whom This May Come"
  • "Two Days' Solitary Imprisonment"
  • "With The Eyes Shut"

See also

References

  1. ^ Franklln Rosemont, "Bellamy's Radicalism Reclaimed", in Daphne Patai (ed.), Looking Backward, 1988-1888. Amherst MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988; pg. 201.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Howard Quint, The Forging of American Socialism: Origins of the Modern Movement: The Impact of Socialism on American Thought and Action, 1886–1901. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1953; pg. 74.
  3. ^ "Edward Bellamy". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 2016-12-15.
  4. ^ Joseph Schiffman, "Edward Bellamy's Religious Thought", Transactions and Proceedings of the Modern Language Association of America, vol. 68, no. 4 (Sep. 1953), pg. 716.
  5. ^ Quint, The Forging of American Socialism, pp. 74–75.
  6. ^ Arthur E. Morgan, Edward Bellamy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1944; pp. 148, 252.
  7. ^ Edward Bellamy, "Why I Wrote Looking Backward," The Nationalist, vol. 2 (1890), pg. 199.
  8. ^ William D.P. Bliss and Rudolph M. Binder (eds.), The New Encyclopedia of Social Reform. New Edition. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1908; pp. 810–812.
  9. ^ Morris Hillquit, History of Socialism in the United States. Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1910; pg. 289.
  10. ^ Sylvia E. Bowman, The Year 2000: A Critical Biography of Edward Bellamy. New York: Bookman Associates, 1958; pg. 114.
  11. ^ Bellamy to Howells, June 17, 1888, quoted in Bowman, The Year 2000, pg. 114.
  12. ^ Arthur Lipow, Authoritarian Socialism in America: Edward Bellamy and the Nationalist Movement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982; pg. 30.
  13. ^ Lipow, Authoritarian Socialism in America, pg. 31.
  14. ^ Casson, Henry, ed. The blue book of the state of Wisconsin 1897 Madison, 1897; pp. 656, 657, 663
  15. ^ "A Noted Writer's Abode: The Home of Edward Bellamy at Chicopee Falls, Mass.", Harrisburg [PA] Telegraph, July 19, 1890, pg. 4.
  16. ^ "Edward Bellamy House: National Historic Landmark summary listing", National Park Service, tps.cr.nps.gov/ Archived October 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Sylvia E. Bowman, Edward Bellamy Abroad: An American Prophet's Influence. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1962.
  • Sylvia E. Bowman, The Year 2000: A Critical Biography Of Edward Bellamy. New York: Bookman Associates, 1958.
  • John Dewey, "A Great American Prophet", Common Sense, April 1934, pp. 1–4.
  • Louis Filler, "Edward Bellamy and the Spiritual Unrest," American Journal of Economics and Sociology, vol. 8, no. 3 (April 1949), pp. 239–249. In JSTOR
  • Arthur Lipow, Authoritarian Socialism in America: Edward Bellamy and the Nationalist Movement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982
  • Everett W. MacNair, Edward Bellamy and the Nationalist Movement, 1889 to 1894: A Research Study of Edward Bellamy's Work as a Social Reformer. Milwaukee, WI: Fitzgerald Co., 1957.
  • Arthur E. Morgan, Edward Bellamy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1944.
  • Arthur E. Morgan, The Philosophy of Edward Bellamy. King's Crown Press, 1945.
  • Daphne Patai (ed.), Looking Backward, 1988–1888: Essays on Edward Bellamy. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988.
  • Jean Pfaelzer, The Utopian Novel in America, 1886–1896: The Politics of Form. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1985.
  • Elizabeth Sadler, "One Book's Influence: Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward" New England Quarterly, vol. 17 (Dec. 1944), pp. 530–555.
  • Robert L. Shurter, "The Literary Work of Edward Bellamy", American Literature, vol. 5, no. 3 (Nov. 1933), pp. 229–234.
  • Ida M. Tarbell, "New Dealers of the 'Seventies: Henry George and Edward Bellamy", The Forum, vol. 92, no. 3 (Sept. 1934), pg. 157.
  • John Thomas, Alternative America: Henry George, Edward Bellamy, Henry Demarest Lloyd and the Adversary Tradition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.
  • Richard Toby Widdicombe, Edward Bellamy: An Annotated Bibliography of Secondary Criticism. New York: Garland Publishing, 1988.
  • Frances E. Willard, "An Interview with Edward Bellamy", Our Day, vol. 4, no. 24 (Dec. 1889), pp. 539–542.

External links

Authoritarian socialism

Authoritarian socialism refers to a collection of political-economic systems describing themselves as socialist and rejecting the liberal democratic concepts of multi-party politics, freedom of assembly, habeas corpus and freedom of expression. Several countries, including the Soviet Union and Maoist China have been described by journalists and scholars as authoritarian socialist states. However, neither state used the term "authoritarian socialist" to describe themselves—these states declared themselves to be proletarian or people's democracies. Authoritarian socialism also encompassed ideologies like Arab and African socialism.

Bellamy (surname)

Bellamy is a surname of Norman origin, from beu/bel (good, fair, handsome) and ami (friend). Notable people with the surname include:

Arthur Bellamy (1942–2014), English footballer

Benjamin Bellamy, English first-class cricketer

Bert Bellamy (1896–1978), English footballer

Bill Bellamy, American actor

Carol Bellamy, American activist

Charles Bellamy, English pirate

Charlotte Bellamy, English actress

Craig Bellamy, Welsh footballer

Craig Bellamy (rugby league), Australian rugby league coach

Daniel Bellamy, the elder (born 1687), English writer

Daniel Bellamy, the younger (died 1788), English writer and divine

David Bellamy, British botanist and writer

Davin Bellamy, American football player

Denise Bellamy, Canadian judge

Dodie Bellamy, writer

Edward Bellamy (1850–98), American journalist, utopian, and writer of speculative fiction

Francis Bellamy, author of the U.S. Pledge of Allegiance; cousin of Edward Bellamy

Francis Rufus Bellamy, American writer and editor

François-Xavier Bellamy (born 1985), French philosopher and politician

Frank Bellamy, British comics artist

George Bellamy (musician), guitarist with 60s band The Tornados

George Anne Bellamy (c. 1731–88), English actress

Gordon Bellamy, American game developer

Hans Schindler Bellamy, Austrian author

Jacobus Bellamy (1757–86), Dutch poet

James Bellamy (disambiguation)

Jay Bellamy, American football player

Jerome Bellamy, English Catholic

John Dillard Bellamy, U.S. congressman from North Carolina

John Haley Bellamy, American folk artist

Joseph Bellamy (1719–90), American theologian

Layton Bellamy (1997-current) Rugby League Referee

Leslie Ballamy, automobile engineer, designer of split front suspension

Madge Bellamy, American actress

Matthew Bellamy, singer and guitarist with the rock band Muse

Mike Bellamy, American football player

Peter Bellamy, British musician

Ralph Bellamy, American actor

Richard Bellamy (politician), Canadian politician

Richard Bellamy (singer), English bass singer

Ron Bellamy, American professional boxer

Samuel "Black Sam" Bellamy, early 18th-century pirate captain

Steven Bellamy, British martial artist

Thomas Bellamy, Canadian politician

Thomas Bellamy (writer), English writer

Tom Bellamy, singer with The Cooper Temple Clause

Tony Bellamy, lead guitarist, pianist and vocalist of the 1970s band Redbone

Vic Bellamy, American football player

Walt Bellamy (1939–2013)

Chicopee, Massachusetts

Chicopee ( CHIK-ə-pee) is a city located on the Connecticut River in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States of America. It is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 55,298, making it the second largest city in Western Massachusetts after Springfield. The current mayor is Richard Kos.

Chicopee uses the nickname "Crossroads of New England" as part of a business-development marketing campaign, a nickname also shared by West Springfield. The name reflects the city's convenient location amongst a number of metropolitan areas and its transportation network. Four highways run through its boundaries: I-90, I-91, I-291, and I-391. State routes such as Route 33, 116, and 141, are major providers of regional linkage.

The communities of Chicopee Center (Cabotville), Chicopee Falls, Willimansett, Fairview, Smith Highlands, Aldenville, Burnett Road, and Westover are located in the city.

Cumberland (rugby league team)

Cumberland, officially known as Central Cumberland, were a rugby league team in 1908 based in the region of Cumberland Plain in western Sydney. They were one of the nine original teams in the first New South Wales Rugby League (NSWRL) season, albeit admitted after the first round of matches had already been played. They are the shortest lived team in the history of first-grade rugby league in Australia after disbanding late that year. Statistically, they are the club with the poorest all-time record, only lasting eight games in their inaugural and only season.

Cyrus Field Willard

Cyrus Field Willard (August 17, 1858 – January 17, 1942) was an American journalist, political activist, and theosophist. Deeply influenced by the writing of Edward Bellamy, Willard is best remembered as a principal in several utopian socialist enterprises, including the late 1890s colonization efforts of the Brotherhood of the Cooperative Commonwealth (BCC).

Dr. Heidenhoff's Process

Dr. Heidenhoff's Process is an early novel by American author Edward Bellamy. The book was first published by D. Appleton & Company in 1880.

Edward Bellamy (banker)

Sir Edward Bellamy (died 1749) was a London banker who was Lord Mayor of London and Governor of the Bank of England

He was a member of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers and an Alderman of the city from 1723. He was elected Sheriff of London for 1723–24 and Lord Mayor for 1734–35.

He was a Director of the Bank of England from 1723 to 1726 and from 1727 to 1729, serving as Deputy Governor from 1729 to 1731 and as Governor from 1731 to 1733. He replaced Samuel Holden as Governor and was succeeded by Horatio Townshend.He was an unsuccessful candidate for the City of London Parliamentary seat in the General Election of 1741, coming sixth in the poll.

Edward Bellamy (disambiguation)

Edward Bellamy (1850-1898), was an author and socialist.

Edward Bellamy may also refer to:

Edward Bellamy (banker)(died 1749), Governor of the Bank of England and Lord Mayor of London

Edward Bellamy House

The Edward Bellamy House is a National Historic Landmark at 91–93 Church Street in the Chicopee Falls section of the city of Chicopee, Massachusetts. Its landmark designation was in honor of journalist and Utopian writer Edward Bellamy (1850–1898), whose home it was for most of his life.

Built in 1852, Bellamy's father moved the family into the house after its construction. Bellamy grew up in the house, and returned there after completing his studies and a brief stint of work in New York City. He did much of his writing (both journalistic and otherwise) in his father's study until the latter's death in 1886, after which Bellamy's family took over the entire house. It was in these years that Bellamy wrote Looking Backward, the work that brought him fame. His principal absences from Chicopee were made in a quest to improve his tubercular health, which eventually claimed his life.

The property had only two private owners after the Bellamys before it was acquired in the 1970s by the Edward Bellamy Memorial Association and restored. The association operates part of the property as a historic house museum, and rents out office space in the remainder. The building is not architecturally distinguished, and has undergone a variety of alterations.

Horatio Townshend

Horatio Townshend (c. 1683–1751) was an English banker and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1715 and 1734.Townshend was the son of Horatio Townshend, 1st Viscount Townshend and his second wife Mary Ashe, daughter of Sir Joseph Ashe, 1st Baronet, and was educated at Eton College.

Townshend was Member of Parliament for Great Yarmouth from 1715 to 1722, in which year he became a director of the Bank of England. He was then Member of Parliament for Heytesbury from 1727 to 1734.Townshend was Governor of the Bank of England from 1733 to 1735. He had been Deputy Governor from 1732 to 1733. He replaced Edward Bellamy as Governor and was succeeded by Bryan Benson. He was a Commissioner of the Victualling Board from 1747 to 1765.

List of sequels to Looking Backward

Looking Backward is a utopian novel by Edward Bellamy, a lawyer and writer from western Massachusetts. First published in 1888 (Ticknor and Company Copyrighted the work in 1887), it describes a young man, named Julian West, who falls asleep in 1887 and wakes up in 2000 to find the USA has become a socialist utopia. In the first years of its release, Looking Backward sold more than 1 million copies. More than 160 Nationalist Clubs formed to propagate the book's ideas. Many authors wrote utopian fiction to attack, support, ridicule, or defend Bellamy's ideas. Scholars count over 150 sequels or other fictional responses to Bellamy's book. This list focuses on works that (to various extents) use the same setting or characters as Looking Backward, and was derived from several sources.

Looking Backward

Looking Backward: 2000–1887 is a utopian science fiction novel by Edward Bellamy, a journalist and writer from Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts; it was first published in 1888.It was the third-largest bestseller of its time, after Uncle Tom's Cabin and Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ. It influenced a large number of intellectuals, and appears by title in many socialist writings of the day. "It is one of the few books ever published that created almost immediately on its appearance a political mass movement".In the United States alone, over 162 "Bellamy Clubs" sprang up to discuss and propagate the book's ideas. Owing to its commitment to the nationalization of private property and the desire to avoid use of the term "socialism", this political movement came to be known as Nationalism — not to be confused with the political concept of nationalism. The novel also inspired several utopian communities.

Marie Howland

Marie Stevens Case Howland (1836 – 1921) was an American feminist writer of the nineteenth century, who was closely associated with the utopian social movements of her era.Marie Stevens had to leave school and support her younger sister when their father died in 1847; at the age of twelve she went to work in a cotton mill in Lowell, Massachusetts. In the ensuing decade she moved to New York City, graduated from the New York Normal College and became a teacher, and married a radical lawyer, Lyman Case, whom she later divorced. Late in the 1850s she lived at Stephen Pearl Andrews's co-operative Unity House, where she met her second husband, the social radical Edward Howland.Howland was noteworthy in that she "actually lived in three utopian communities of very different size and denomination...." In 1864 she and her second husband lived for a time at the Fourierist "Familistère" established in Guise by the French industrialist and reformer Jean-Baptiste Godin. Howland later used the experience as the subject of her best-known work, Papa's Own Girl (1874), a novel about an American father and daughter living in a comparable fictional establishment in New England. The heroine, Clara Forest, goes on to live a satisfying life as an independent businesswoman. The book was controversial but also a popular success in its day. Later editions altered the title to The Familistère.

The Howlands returned to the United States after the end of the American Civil War, and in 1868 they settled in Hammonton, New Jersey, where they were part of a circle of radical thinkers and activists in Hammonton and Vineland. (Both towns were another type of planned community, created by a capitalist promoter instead of utopian idealists.) Howland was an active journalist throughout her career; she also translated Godin's Solutions sociales (1871) into English as Social Solutions (1886).

Howland was an admirer and supporter of Edward Bellamy after the publication of his famous Looking Backward in 1888; conversely, Howland's work has been cited as a possible influence on Bellamy.In the late 1880s and the 1890s Howland was associated with Albert Kimsey Owen's planned community Pacific City in Topolobampo, Mexico. Howland edited the community's periodical. She left there when the experiment ended in 1894. (Her husband had died in 1890.)

Howland spent her final years in one more planned community, Fairhope, founded on Mobile Bay in Alabama in 1894. She became the town's librarian and wrote for its newspaper.

Matthew Kapell

Matthew Wilhelm Kapell is a historian and anthropologist, with Master's Degrees in each discipline, who has a Ph.D. in American Studies.

Early in his career he co-authored chapters on the genetics of human growth and the effects of poverty on growth. The majority of this work appeared while he taught anthropology at the University of Michigan–Dearborn. Included among these are essays published mainly in edited European and Indian (Asia) works attacking ideas of genetic factors in determining development of height and body shape. Other publications include works on the computer game Civilization, Holocaustal images in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, the American speculative fiction and socialist writer Mack Reynolds re-working of the Utopian fiction of Edward Bellamy, and Christian Romance fiction.

Kapell has also published a number of essays in the journal Extrapolation, and elsewhere, on speculative fiction in the United States as intellectual history. His work in history is mainly focused American frontier ideology in the contemporary period, though he has also published on the representation of race in the Detroit media during World War II and the legal history of British colonial marriage law in Africa.

Kapell was educated at Schoolcraft College, The University of Michigan–Dearborn, Wayne State University, all in Michigan, United States, and at Swansea University, Wales, UK.

He is best known for his work in media studies and frontier ideology in American history.

Nationalist Clubs

Nationalist Clubs were an organized network of socialist political groups which emerged at the end of the 1880s in the United States of America in an effort to make real the ideas advanced by Edward Bellamy in his utopian novel Looking Backward. At least 165 Nationalist Clubs were formed by so-called "Bellamyites," who sought to remake the economy and society through the nationalization of industry. One of the last issues of The Nationalist noted that "over 500" had been formed. Owing to the growth of the Populist movement and the financial and physical difficulties suffered by Bellamy, the Bellamyite Nationalist Clubs began to dissipate in 1892, lost their national magazine in 1894, and vanished from the scene entirely circa 1896.

New Nation (United States)

The New Nation was a weekly newspaper launched in Boston, Massachusetts in January 1891 by the American socialist writer Edward Bellamy. The paper served as a de facto national organ of the nationwide network of Nationalist Clubs and expounded upon their activities and political ideas, which derived from the best-selling 1888 novel Looking Backward.

The paper soon became an advocate of the policies of the fledgling People's Party before ceasing publication due to diminishing subscriptions in the aftermath of the Depression of 1893.

Pre-Marx socialists

While Marxism had a significant impact on socialist thought, pre-Marxist thinkers (before Marx]] wrote on the subject) have advocated socialism in forms both similar and in stark contrast to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' conception of socialism, advocating some form of collective ownership over large-scale production, worker-management within the workplace, or in some cases a form of planned economy.

Early socialist philosophers and political theorists:

Gerrard Winstanley, who founded the Diggers movement in the United Kingdom

Charles Fourier, French philosopher who propounded principles very similar to that of Marx

Louis Blanqui, French socialist and writer

Marcus Thrane, Norwegian socialist

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Genevan philosopher, writer and composer whose works influenced the French Revolution

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, French politician writerRicardian socialist economists:

Thomas Hodgskin, English Ricardian socialist and free-market anarchist

Charles Hall

John Francis Bray

John Gray

William Thompson

Percy Ravenstone

Werner Sombart, German economist and sociologist of the Historical school of economics

James Mill

John Stuart Mill, classical political economist who came to advocate worker-cooperative socialismUtopian socialist thinkers:

Claude Henri de Saint-Simon

Wilhelm Weitling

Robert Owen

Edward Bellamy

Charles Fourier

Étienne Cabet

The Nationalist (United States)

The Nationalist was an American socialist magazine established in Boston, Massachusetts in May 1889 by adherents of the utopian ideas of writer Edward Bellamy in his 1888 book, Looking Backward. Published by a "Nationalist Educational Association" closely associated with Nationalist Club No. 1 of Boston, the magazine served as the national organ of the Bellamyite movement in the United States until being supplanted by the weekly newspaper The New Nation in 1891.

To Whom This May Come

To Whom This May Come is a short story by an American author called Edward Bellamy. The story was first published in February 1889 in Harper's New Monthly Magazine.

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