Educational film

An educational film is a film or movie whose primary purpose is to educate. Educational films have been used in classrooms as an alternative to other teaching methods.

History

The first official educational films are controversial. Some researchers suggested that the first educational films were shown in St. Petersburg in 1897, while other studies believed that the first educational films were inspired by the newsreel in 1913[1]. Regardless, the increasing number of educational film could prove that the population of educational film was started in the Early 1900s.[2]

Usage of Educational Film during the late 19th and 20th centuries

Educational films are productions aiming to inform target audience about designated issues[3]. It has various usages on different purposes. Educational cinema was normally divided into three main categories, which included instructional, educational, and scholastic.[4]

Educational films can be used to inform the public about social issues and raise public awareness. For example, an educational film, “What About Prejudice?” published in 1959 discussed the prejudice of the white middle class.[5] "Land and Space to Grow", released in October 1960, was a story about a typical young American couple who pursue the great adventure of buying land and building a dream home.[6]

Challenging questions or debate over social issues would also be raised in educational films, such as labor reform, communism, civil rights, and nuclear proliferation. One of these was: "Why is it such a heavy burden every step taken to provide adequate housing on land where everyone agrees that adequate housing is needed?“ The film was shaped into a compelling soft-sell story that allows more people to mean and reflect on social issues[6].

Besides, educational film can be a powerful aid to teaching, bringing things that students may not be able to experience first hand into the classroom and thus improving teaching efficiency. For example, teaching film can be used in the teaching of architectural subjects. If some form of film-loop is used, the action can be repeated until a difficult principle is fully understood. With the close-up technique, fine detail is enlarged for all to see clearly[7].

Documentary as a educational resources had played a big part in the history of educational film. They were mostly shown in schools for educational purpose and used to introduce various topics to children. However, documentaries were also capable of teacher training. By 1950, prominent educational film institutions like New York University's Educational Film Library, Columbia Teachers College, and the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) believed that documentaries that shorted on children, such as A Better Tomorrow (1945),Tomorrow's a Wonderful Day (1948), and The Children's Republic (1947), were suitable for audiences interested in teacher training, child care and development, and even the rehabilitation of so-called delinquents.[8]

Educational film was also used as a promotional tool. For example, after World War II, teenagers started to question the single-sex educational environments, the profession has realized the problem and promote its image by producing the educational film “Why Study Home Economic?“ in 1955.[9]

In China, educational film was rose and became one of the most important education tool in the 1930s. During the Period of Republic of China, many citizens were illiterate, the national government had discovered a suitable measure to raise the level of knowledge of the whole society relatively in a more efficient way -- the development of educational film. The government held various kinds of activities, like establishing official film studios to promote and implement educational film.[10]

In addition, the potential of educational film had been explored to the education of the deaf. Captioned Films for the Deaf, also known as The Described and Captioned Media Program, was established in 1950, and also started to create 15 volumes of Lesson Guide for Captioned Film since 1965.[11]

Military Use or Propaganda

During World War I, both army and navy had introduced training film and had begun to establish instructional procedures for such media as slides, filmstrips, and models. The War and Navy Departments had organized film divisions for the twofold purpose of supplying informational films to the public and of instructing officers and mend in the science of war.[12]

Likewise, there were a large-scale introduction of audio visual media in schools and an expansion of the non theatrical film circuit during the Second World War. For instance, instructional films were made for military personnel or industrial labourer[13]. The use of educational film was a part of the official policy of War Department in American.[12]

Even after World War II, some of the educational films remained to be subjective and persuasive. Low budgets and a narrow margin of profit handicapped the production of sufficient number of good educational films.[12]

Commercial Educational Film Production in 1900-1950 (American)

Before World War ll, ERPI Classroom Films, Eastman Classroom Films, and Film Incorporated were the leading producers of educational film. ERPI had entered educational film production because it wanted to sell its equipment; the Eastman Kodak Company had envisioned a profitable commercial venture. Neither company, however, enjoyed overwhelming success. Eastman Kodak silent films just before the advent of sound and ERPI encountered the depression and the lethargy of educators. During World War ll and in the postwar years, many old and new companies increased the production of educational films, including Coronet, Vocational Guidance Films, Young America, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, United World Films, Films Incorporated, Simmel-Misery and others.[12]

Notable educational film producers in 20th century

There are several notable educational film producers during that time. Producers like Encyclopædia Britannica Films, Coronet Films, and Centron Corporation were the leaders of the educational film industry.

Types of Educational Film[14]

Social Science & Geography Films

Film Company have produced about geography and world culture. They concentrated on three treatment forms through the 1960s: the geographical-Industrial film, the travelogue, and the ethnological film. [15]

The geographical-Industrial film was talked about the industry and customs of foreign land. Filmmakers included an insight into the political makeup of the country beyond the basics, describing conflict politically, socially, or economically.

For the travelogue, rather than professional cinematographers, many travelers, explorers, scientists, and missionaries produced the travelogue. They travelled over the world and made the film lead to increasing numbers of amateurs.

The ethnological film described different ethnicities, cultures, and social practices related to world cultures and people. It helped students and professors who studied in the anthropological.

Historical Film

Educational films on historical subjects were inculcated attitudes, opinions, and actions.Some of historical films reflected the culture message as an inherent propagandistic element. The historical films reflect to a white, conservative, Christian orientation in pre-1960, such as Ray Garner’s Ancient World: Egypt(1954),Greece: The Golden Age (1963),etc.[16] Filmmakers largely left out the roles African-Americans, Latinos, Asians, and women in pre-1960 educational films.

Arts and Craft Films

It included painting, sculpture, architecture, and other “high” arts is of special interest to the historiography of the educational film in the United States. In the 1920s and 1930s, filmmakers record the visual arts from the initial specialized function. Then, it became a legitimate genre that aimed to advance aesthetic education from the late 1940s onward. After World War II, filmmakers propagated the film as the deal medium to carry the visual arts out of the museum, the artist’s studio, and the gallery to new locations, such as educational institutions (mainly art schools), non theatrical venues, and, momentarily, even commercial cinemas.[17]

Literature and Language Arts Films

This type of films include non-narrated short subjects, poetry, and journalistic themes.Educational film companies in the United States began acquiring dramatic content from sources overseas in the 1950s.They were commonly from France, which included several well-known non-narrated short dramas, director Albert Lamorisse’s The Red Balloon (1956) among them.[18]

Sociodrama Films

Sociodrama Films based on racial issues. Because of the advent of the Civil Rights Act (1964), and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965), the guidance films and discriminate films were reduced a lot. [19]Young filmmakers produce the films which encompass racial, age-related, and inter- or intra-cultural thematic material. They emphasized in history, literature, and social science.Most of the films were 30 minutes, or even less.

Cultural significance

Many educational films shown in schools are part of long series - for example, films demonstrating scientific principles and experiments tend to be episodic, with each episode devoted to a specific experiment or principle.

Many schoolchildren in Britain in the late 1980s and early 1990s watched hundreds of episodes of British-made educational films (all very similar in style and production) over the course of their primary school careers. As a result, the delivery-style and distinctive colour-palette ("scientific" looking neutral-blue backgrounds etc.) of these films is instantly recognizable to any child of the appropriate generation. This was used to great effect by the British television series Look Around You which parodies these films.

Research into educational benefits

Many early psychological studies of learning from film and particularly TV found this medium to be inferior to text. Studies included comparisons between reading newspaper reports and watching TV news. In these early studies the memory retention was always stronger in those who read the reports. This was shown to be linked mainly to the ability of the individual to control the speed of the delivery of information. When you read you can pause at any time, which was not possible with classroom-based TV and film. This has changed with the advent of online video, which can be paused and rewound easily. More recent studies now see no difference in memory retention between the two media, video and text.[20][21]

Research also examines the idea that cognitive overload may occur because the viewer has to process audio and visuals at the same time. Careful design of the film can alleviate this. For instance, signaling clearly where the focus of the audio is in terms of the video image will help the viewer merge the two. However, too much information, or information that is superfluous, can reduce learning.[22]

List of notable educational film producers

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Ferster, Bill. Sage on the screen : education, media, and how we learn. ISBN 9781421421261. OCLC 965172146.
  2. ^ Wehberg, Hilla. "Some Recent Developments in the Educational Film Field." The Journal of Educational Sociology 12.3 (1938): 163-66. Web.
  3. ^ McClusky, F. Dean. "The nature of the educational film." Hollywood Quarterly 2.4 (1947): 371-380.
  4. ^ Bloom, Peter J. (2008). French colonial documentary mythologies of humanitarianism. University of Minnesota Press. OCLC 748876217.
  5. ^ Centron Corporation (1959), What About Prejudice?, retrieved 2019-03-03
  6. ^ a b Peterson, V. G. "An Educational Film on Land Reform." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 20.4 (1961): 410. Web.
  7. ^ Hancock, C.V, and G.E Bone. "Producing 8mm Teaching Films." Education Training 6.11 (1964): 555. Web.
  8. ^ Lisa M. Rabin (2017). "A Social History of US Educational Documentary: The Travels of Three Shorts, 1945–1958". Film History. 29 (3): 1. doi:10.2979/filmhistory.29.3.01. ISSN 0892-2160.
  9. ^ Sarah Stage; Virginia B. Vincenti (eds.). Rethinking Home Economics : Women and the History of a Profession. ISBN 9781501729942. OCLC 1083585819.
  10. ^ 李栋宁. "民国教育电影的成因, 手段及意义." 艺术百家 30.4 (2014): 128-131.
  11. ^ Graham, Lester; Loysen, Garry J. (1980). "Chapter 32: Reelizing the Full Potential of Captioning Educational Films for the Deaf through Lesson Guide Utilization". American Annals of the Deaf. 125 (6): 817–821. doi:10.1353/aad.2012.1360. ISSN 1543-0375.
  12. ^ a b c d Saettler, L. Paul. The evolution of American educational technology. ISBN 9781607529781. OCLC 827238032.
  13. ^ Masson, Eef. "Celluloid Teaching Tools: Classroom Films in the Netherlands (1941–1953)." Film History: An International Journal 19.4 (2007): 392-400. Web.
  14. ^ Alexander, Geoff (2014). Films You Saw in School: 1,153 Classroom Educational Films, 1958-1985. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 978-0786472635.
  15. ^ Alexander, Geoff (2014). Films You Saw in School: 1,153 Classroom Educational Films, 1958-1985. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. pp. 14–19. ISBN 978-0786472635.
  16. ^ Alexander, Geoff (2014). Films You Saw in School: 1,153 Classroom Educational Films,1958-1985. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-0786472635.
  17. ^ Alexander, Geoff (2014). Films You Saw in School: 1,153 Classroom Educational Films, 1958-1985. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. pp. 169–179. ISBN 978-0786472635.
  18. ^ Alexander, Geoff (2014). Films You Saw in School: 1,153 Classroom Educational Films, 1958-1985. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. pp. 195–197. ISBN 978-0786472635.
  19. ^ Alexander, Geoff (2014). Films You Saw in School: 1,153 Classroom Educational Films, 1958-1985. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. pp. 223–224. ISBN 978-0786472635.
  20. ^ TIBUS, M., HEIER, A. & SCHWAN, S. 2012. Do Films Make You Learn? Inference Processes in Expository Film Comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology.
  21. ^ MERKT, M., WEIGAND, S., HEIER, A. & SCHWAN, S. 2011. Learning with videos vs. learning with print: The role of interactive features. Learning and Instruction, 21, 687-704.
  22. ^ IBRAHIM, M., ANTONENKO, P. D., GREENWOOD, C. M. & WHEELER, D. 2012. Effects of segmenting, signalling, and weeding on learning from educational video. Learning, Media & Technology, 37, 220-235.

Further reading

  • Devin Orgeron, Marsha Orgeron, and Dan Streible (eds.), Learning with the Lights Off: Educational Film in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

External links

10th National Film Awards

The 10th National Film Awards, then known as State Awards for Films, presented by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in 1962. Ceremony took place at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi on 21 April 1963 and awards were given by then President of India, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

11th National Film Awards

The 11th National Film Awards, then known as State Awards for Films, presented by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in 1963. Ceremony took place at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi on 25 April 1964 and awards were given by then President of India, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

Starting with 11th National Film Awards, new category of awards for Filmstrips, in the non-feature films section, was introduced. This category includes Prime Minister's Gold Medal and Certificate of Merit for second and third best educational film. Though gold medal for this category was not given. This award is discontinued over the years.

8th National Film Awards

The 8th National Film Awards, then known as State Awards for Films, presented by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in 1960. Ceremony took place at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi on 31 March 1961 and awards were given by then Vice-President of India, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

Starting with 8th National Film Awards, new category of awards for Educational Films was introduced. This category includes Prime Minister's Gold Medal and Certificate of Merit for second and third best educational film.

9th National Film Awards

The 9th National Film Awards, then known as State Awards for Films, presented by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in 1961. The awards were announced on 5 April 1962 and were presented on 21 April at the Vigyan Bhavan in New Delhi, by then Vice-President of India, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

Dahlonega Gold Museum Historic Site

The Dahlonega Gold Museum Historic Site is a Georgia state historic site located in Dahlonega that commemorates America's first gold rush and the mining history of Lumpkin County. The museum is housed in the historic Old Lumpkin County Courthouse built in 1836 and located in the center of the town square. It is the oldest surviving county courthouse in the state. The museum houses many artifacts from the gold rush of 1836, including gold nuggets, gold coins, and gold panning equipment, as well as an educational film and gift shop.

Educational Pictures

Educational Pictures (or Educational Film Exchanges, Inc. or Educational Films Corporation of America) was an American film distribution company founded in 1916 by Earle (E. W.) Hammons (1882–1962). Educational primarily distributed short subjects, and today is probably best known for its series of 1930s comedies starring Buster Keaton, as well as for a series of one-reel comedies featuring the earliest screen appearances of Shirley Temple. The studio also distributed short comedies starring Lloyd Hamilton, who employed the blacklisted "Fatty" Arbuckle as a writer-director under the pseudonym William Goodrich.

Indian animation industry

The Indian animation industry encompasses traditional 2D animation, 3D animation and visual effects for feature films.

In 1956, Disney Studios animator Clair Weeks, who had worked on Bambi, was invited to Films Division of India in Mumbai to establish and train the country's first animation studio as part of the American technical co-operation mission. He trained a core group of Indian animators, whose first production was a film called The Banyan Deer (1957). Veteran animator Ram Mohan started his career at Films Division's Cartoon Unit.

Another landmark animated film from Films Division is Ek Anek Aur Ekta, a short traditionally animated educational film released in 1974. The film is presented as a fable meant to teach children the value of unity, and was frequently broadcast on India's state-run television station, Doordarshan. The first Indian animated television series was Ghayab Aaya, which aired in 1986 and was directed by Suddhasattwa Basu. The first Indian 3D and VFX were done for the television series Captain Vyom by animation.

The first Indian 3D animated film was Roadside Romeo, a joint venture between Yash Raj Films and the Indian division of the Walt Disney Company. It was written and directed by Jugal Hansraj.

Istituto Luce

The Istituto Luce (translation: "Light Institute", with Luce being the acronym for "L’Unione Cinematografica Educativa", i.e. "The Educational Film Union") was an Italian corporation, created in 1924 during the Fascist era.

The Institute, based in Rome, was involved in the production and distribution of films and documentaries intended for being screened in cinemas. Famous for having been a powerful propaganda tool of the fascist regime, it is considered as the oldest public institution devoted to production and distribution of cinematographic materials for didactic and informative purposes in the world.

Józef Arkusz

Józef Arkusz (March 18, 1921 – June 19, 1995) was a Polish film director and producer of over 70 educational films.

Józef Arkusz was born on March 18, 1921, in Peratyn, Tarnopol Voivodeship (modern day Radekhiv Raion, Lviv Oblast). His family moved to Lviv in the early 1930s. During World War II he took part in the underground movement Armia Krajowa, for which he was awarded the Officer's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta. Following the war, he moved to the industrial city of Łódź, in central Poland, where he began studying biology.

He attended the University of Poznań, and received a degree in Biology. He furthered his education by attending and graduating from the Łódż Film School (1955), renowned for other famous graduates such as Roman Polanski and Krzysztof Kieślowski.

He worked on minor films and projects until the 1960s when he began to be noticed by the international community. At this point, his career took off and he made some of his most famous educational films. Working at the Educational Film Studio (Wytwórnia Filmów Oświatowych) in Łódż, he created General Topic Films (Filmy Oświatowe), and is credited as being one of the most influential Polish documentary filmmakers. He pioneered new methods of filming and documentary production, which are now used as standard practice around the world. His film topics included technical and biological specialties and focused on new biological advances of the modern age.

He died in Łódź, Poland on Monday, June 19, 1995.

Krakatoa (film)

Krakatoa is a 1933 American Pre-Code short documentary film produced by Joe Rock. It won the Academy Award in 1934 for Best Short Subject (Novelty). Educational Pictures (or Educational Film Exchanges, Inc.) was the film distributor of the film.

This film was notable for overwhelming the sound systems of the cinemas of the time. In Australia, the distributors insisted on a power output of 10 watts RMS as a minimum for cinemas wishing to show the film. This was then considered a large system, and forced many cinemas to upgrade. A revised version was made in 1966 for the Library of Congress.

Mars and Beyond

"Mars and Beyond" is an episode of Disneyland which aired on December 4, 1957. It was directed by Ward Kimball and narrated by Paul Frees. This episode discusses the possibility of life on other planets, especially Mars.

The abridged version was also produced when this was originally released.

This episode was released on DVD in 2004 as part of the Walt Disney Treasures line.

Nandi Awards

The Nandi Awards is the highest award ceremony for excellence in Telugu cinema, Telugu theatre, Telugu television, and Lifetime achievements in Indian cinema, presented annually by the Government of Andhra Pradesh. "Nandi" means "bull", the award being named after the big granite bull at Lepakshi — a cultural and historical symbol of the Telugu people.

Nandi Awards are presented in four categories: Gold, Silver, Bronze, and Copper. A variant, the Nandi Natakotsavam Awards for Theater, is also given every year by the government for social, mythological and poetic dramas.

Annually, a state panel appointed by the government selects the winning entry, and the award ceremony is held in Vijayawada, where the Chief Minister gives away the awards. A list of rules is presented every year in a document of regulations. The criteria for eligibility contains many clauses. Among them, there is a direct requirement that the film, and particularly films entering the competition, should be produced in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, and in case of co-production involving a foreign entity, there are as many conditions which should be fulfilled in order for the film to qualify.According to the criteria, in order to be eligible for consideration of the jury, a film should be certified by the Central Board of Film Certification between January 1 and December 31. The Government do not have influence over which films are selected for consideration and which films ultimately win awards. However, there are strict criteria which are being scrutinized by the government as to whether a film is eligible for consideration by the jury panels.

Obedience

Obedience may refer to:

Obedience (human behavior)

Obedience, an educational film about the Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures

Obedience, a common name for the plant Maranta arundinacea

Obedience, a common name for the plant Physostegia virginiana

Obedience (album), an EP by Swedish black metal band Marduk, released in 2000

Powerhouse (TV series)

Powerhouse is a United States television series produced by the Educational Film Center at Northern Virginia ETV and aired on PBS for 16 episodes in 1982. It billed itself as "a 16-part series for young people and their families," with the target audience being primarily kids, preteens, teenagers,& young adults, and it was widely praised by educational groups. The series was later rerun by Nickelodeon in the mid-1980s.

Red Nightmare

Red Nightmare is the best known title of the 1957 Armed Forces Information Film (AFIF) 120, Freedom and You. It was an anti-communist short presented as an educational film about the nature of Communism. The film's chief use was to mold public opinion against communism. The film was later released to American television and as an educational film to American schools under the Red Nightmare title.

The film is a Cold War-era drama short subject starring Jack Kelly and Jeanne Cooper. Red Nightmare was directed by George Waggner (The Wolf Man) and narrated by Jack Webb. Though made for the Department of Defense, it was shown on American television on Jack Webb's GE True in 1962.

Return of Hanuman

Return of Hanuman is a 2007 Indian animated film about an adventure of the Hindu god Hanuman. It has been stated that the film is a sequel to Hanuman; .It was produced by the Percept Picture Company and is directed by Anurag Kashyap. The music was composed by Tapas Relia. It is a children's film and has been rated as an Educational Film by the CBFC because it deals with the issue of global warming. It was released in India on 28 December 2007.

Tooth Brushing

Tooth Brushing is a short educational film based upon the comic strip Peanuts, by Charles M. Schulz. It was originally created in 1978 for the American Dental Association. The film was directed by Bill Melendez, in the style of the animated Peanuts TV specials which aired on CBS. It was distributed to schools in 16 mm film format.

WonderWorks

WonderWorks is an anthology series which ran from 1984 to 1992 co-produced by The Walt Disney Company and PBS that made short, made-for-television films out of acclaimed children's books. They included adaptations of Anne of Green Gables, Bridge to Terabithia, All Summer in a Day, Jacob Have I Loved, The Box of Delights, The Chronicles of Narnia series, Miracle at Moreaux, The Hoboken Chicken Emergency (starring Peter Billingsley), Odile & Yvette at the Edge of the World (scored by Blake Leyh), How to Be a Perfect Person in Just Three Days! (by Stephen Manes), Gryphon (produced by Manuel Arce and Carl Haber, starring Amanda Plummer), A Little Princess, A Girl of the Limberlost, Sweet 15, A Waltz Through the Hills, The Canterville Ghost, Frog, The Haunting of Barney Palmer, Lone Star Kid, Caddie Woodlawn, The House of Dies Drear, and The Boy Who Loved Trolls. It also co-produced the Australian Clowning Around series.

WonderWorks also carried Traitor in My House (1990), a 50-minute film that tells the story of Elizabeth Van Lew, a Union sympathizer who lived in Richmond, Virginia during the American Civil War. The story is told through the eyes of Van Lew's 12-year-old niece, Louise Van Lew. Traitor in My House stars Mary Kay Place, Charles S. Dutton, Harris Yulin, and Angela Goethals. The film is directed by Nell Cox and was produced by the Educational Film Center. Cate Adair provided costume design.The WonderWorks series opening intro consisted of a computer animated light bulb shaped hot air balloon with an airplane at the base of it under the name The WonderWorks BalloonPlane as the main focal point of the intro.

Later productions of the show was renamed as The WonderWorks' Family Movie up until the series' end.

The program was co-produced by WQED-Pittsburgh, KCET-Los Angeles, KTCA-St. Paul/Minneapolis, WHRO-Hampton-Norfolk/Virginia, South Carolina Educational Television, WETA-Washington, D.C. and KERA-Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

Your Friend the Rat

Your Friend the Rat is a 2007 animated short film by Pixar, originally released on the home video release of the film Ratatouille. The short takes on the form of an educational film and stars rats Remy and Emile, the main protagonists of Ratatouille, who argue for the reconciliation of humans and rats. They use historical facts presented via various styles of animation.

This is Pixar's second short film to feature traditional animation; at eleven minutes, it is also the longest Pixar short to date. Along with 2D animation, the short also includes stop-motion animation, computer generated imagery (CGI) and live action, much like the children's television show A Little Curious.Like Ratatouille, Your Friend the Rat also features a musical sequence. This is also Pixar's first short film to have a cameo of a protagonist of a film that releases a year later, which was a cameo of WALL-E. Your Friend the Rat won the Best Animated Short Subject category at the 35th annual Annie Awards and was released on DVD and Blu-ray with Disney·Pixar's Ratatouille (November 6, 2007).

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