Eduardo Hughes Galeano (Spanish pronunciation: [eˈðwaɾðo ɣaleˈano]; 3 September 1940 – 13 April 2015) was an Uruguayan journalist, writer and novelist considered, among other things, "global soccer's pre-eminent man of letters" and "a literary giant of the Latin American left".
Galeano's best-known works are Las venas abiertas de América Latina (Open Veins of Latin America, 1971) and Memoria del fuego (Memory of Fire Trilogy, 1982–6). "I'm a writer," the author once said of himself, "obsessed with remembering, with remembering the past of America and above all that of Latin America, intimate land condemned to amnesia."
Author Isabel Allende, who said her copy of Galeano's book was one of the few items with which she fled Chile in 1973 after the military coup of Augusto Pinochet, called Open Veins of Latin America, "a mixture of meticulous detail, political conviction, poetic flair, and good storytelling."
Eduardo Galeano in 2012
|Born||Eduardo Germán María Hughes Galeano|
3 September 1940
|Died||13 April 2015 (aged 74)|
Eduardo Germán María Hughes Galeano was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, on Sept. 3, 1940. His two family names were inherited from Welsh and Italian (from Genoa) great-grandfathers; the other two were from Germany and Spain. Galeano wrote under his maternal family name; as young man, he briefly wrote for an Uruguayan socialist publication, El Sol, signing articles as "Gius," "a pseudonym approximating the pronunciation in Spanish of his paternal surname Hughes." Galeano's family belonged to the fallen Uruguayan aristocracy; Galeano himself went to work at fourteen, having completed just two years of secondary school.
He started his career as a journalist in the early 1960s as editor of Marcha, an influential weekly journal which had such contributors as Mario Vargas Llosa, Mario Benedetti, Manuel Maldonado Denis and Roberto Fernández Retamar. For two years he edited the daily Época and worked as editor-in-chief of the University Press. In 1959 he married his first wife, Silvia Brando, and in 1962, having divorced, he remarried to Graciela Berro.
In 1973, a military coup took power in Uruguay; Galeano was imprisoned and later was forced to flee, going into exile in Argentina where he founded the magazine Crisis. His book Open Veins of Latin America was banned by the right-wing military government, not only in Uruguay, but also in Chile and Argentina. In 1976 he married for the third time to Helena Villagra; however, in the same year, the Videla regime took power in Argentina in a bloody military coup and his name was added to the list of those condemned by the death squads. He fled again, this time to Spain, where he wrote his famous trilogy, Memoria del fuego (Memory of Fire), described as "the most powerful literary indictment of colonialism in the Americas."
At the beginning of 1985 Galeano returned to Montevideo when democratization occurred. Following the victory of Tabaré Vázquez and the Broad Front alliance in the 2004 Uruguayan elections marking the first left-wing government in Uruguayan history Galeano wrote a piece for The Progressive titled "Where the People Voted Against Fear" in which Galeano showed support for the new government and concluded that the Uruguayan populace used "common sense" and were "tired of being cheated" by the traditional Colorado and Blanco parties. Following the creation of TeleSUR, a pan-Latin American television station based in Caracas, Venezuela, in 2005 Galeano along with other left-wing intellectuals such as Tariq Ali and Adolfo Pérez Esquivel joined the network's 36 member advisory committee.
On 10 February 2007, Galeano underwent a successful operation to treat lung cancer. During an interview with journalist Amy Goodman following Barack Obama's election as President of the United States in November 2008, Galeano said, "The White House will be Barack Obama's house in the time coming, but this White House was built by black slaves. And I’d like, I hope, that he never, never forgets this". At the 17 April 2009 opening session of the 5th Summit of the Americas held in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez gave a Spanish-language copy of Galeano's Open Veins of Latin America to U.S. President Barack Obama, who was making his first diplomatic visit to the region.
In a May 2009 interview he spoke about his past and recent works, some of which deal with the relationships between freedom and slavery, and democracies and dictatorships: "not only the United States, also some European countries, have spread military dictatorships all over the world. And they feel as if they are able to teach democracy". He also talked about how and why he has changed his writing style, and his recent rise in popularity.
In April 2014 Galeano gave an interview at the II Bienal Brasil do Livro e da Leitura in which he regretted some aspects of writing Las Venas Abiertas de América Latina, saying
"Time has passed, I've begun to try other things, to bring myself closer to human reality in general and to political economy specifically. 'The Open Veins' tried to be a political economy book, but I simply didn't have the necessary education. I do not regret writing it, but it is a stage that I have since passed."
This interview was picked up by many critics of Galeano's work in which they used the statement to reinforce their own criticisms. However, in an interview with Jorge Majfud he said,
"The book, written ages ago, is still alive and kicking. I am simply honest enough to admit that at this point in my life the old writing style seems rather stodgy, and that it's hard for me to recognize myself in it since I now prefer to be increasingly brief and untrammeled. [The] voices that have been raised against me and against The Open Veins of Latin America are seriously ill with bad faith." 
"Fleas dream of buying themselves a dog, and nobodies dream of escaping poverty: that, one magical day, good luck will suddenly rain down on them – will rain down in buckets. But good luck doesn’t rain down, yesterday, today, tomorrow or ever. Good luck doesn’t even fall in a fine drizzle, no matter how hard the nobodies summon it, even if their left hand is tickling, or if they begin the new day on their right foot, or start the new year with a change of brooms. The nobodies: nobody’s children, owners of nothing. The nobodies: the no-ones, the nobodied, running like rabbits, dying through life, screwed every which way. Who are not, but could be. Who don’t speak languages, but dialects. Who don’t have religions, but superstitions. Who don’t create art, but handicrafts. Who don’t have culture, but folklore. Who are not human beings, but human resources. Who do not have faces, but arms. Who do not have names, but numbers. Who do not appear in the history of the world, but in the crime reports of the local paper. The nobodies, who are not worth the bullet that kills them."— Eduardo Galeano, "The Nobodies"
|Year||Spanish title||Spanish ISBN||Spanish Publisher||English translation|
|1963||Los días siguientes||Alfa||The following days|
|1967||Guatemala, país ocupado||Guatemala: Occupied country (1969)|
|1967||Los fantasmas del día del león y otros relatos|
|1968||Su majestad el fútbol|
|1971||Las venas abiertas de América Latina||ISBN 950-895-094-3||Siglo XXI||Open Veins of Latin America (1973) ISBN 0-85345-279-2 |
|1971||Siete imágenes de Bolivia|
|1971||Violencia y enajenación|
|1980||La canción de nosotros||ISBN 84-350-0124-5|
|1977||Conversaciones con Raimón||ISBN 84-7432-034-8|
|1978||Días y noches de amor y de guerra||ISBN 84-7222-891-6||Del Chanchito||Days and Nights of Love and War ISBN 0-85345-620-8|
|1980||La piedra arde|
|1981||Voces de nuestro tiempo||ISBN 84-8360-237-7|
|1982–1986||Memoria del fuego||ISBN 9974620058||Del Chanchito||Volume I: Eduardo Galeano (29 April 2014). Genesis. Open Road Media. ISBN 978-1-4804-8138-1.Volume II: Faces and Masks. ISBN 978-0393318067.
Volume III: Century of the Wind. ISBN 0393318079.
|1984||Aventuras de los jóvenes dioses||ISBN 9682320941||Siglo XXI|
|1985||Ventana sobre Sandino|
|1986||La encrucijada de la biodiversidad colombiana|
|1986||El descubrimiento de América que todavía no fue y otros escritos||ISBN 8476681054||Editorial Laia|
|1988–2002||El tigre azul y otros artículos||ISBN 9590602118||Ciencias Sociales (Cuba)|
|1962–1987||Entrevistas y artículos||Ediciones Del Chanchito|
|1989||El libro de los abrazos||ISBN 9788432306907||Siglo XXI||The Book of Embraces ISBN 0-393-02960-3|
|1989||Nosotros decimos no||ISBN 84-323-0675-4||Siglo XXI|
|1990||América Latina para entenderte mejor|
|1990||Palabras: antología personal|
|1992||Ser como ellos y otros artículos||ISBN 9788432307614||Siglo XXI|
|1993||Amares||ISBN 84-206-3419-0||Alianza, España|
|1993||Las palabras andantes||ISBN 9974620082||Del Chanchito|
|1994||Úselo y tírelo||ISBN 9507428518||Editorial Planeta|
|1995||El fútbol a sol y sombra||ISBN 9788432311345||Siglo XXI||Football (soccer) in Sun and Shadow ISBN 1-85984-848-6|
|1998||Patas arriba: Escuela del mundo al revés||ISBN 9974620147||Macchi||Upside Down: A Primer for the Looking-Glass World 2000, ISBN 0-8050-6375-7|
|1999||Carta al ciudadano 6.000 millones||ISBN 84-406-9472-5||Ediciones B|
|2001||Tejidos. Antología||ISBN 84-8063-500-2||Ediciones Octaedro|
|2004||Bocas del tiempo||ISBN 978-950-895-160-1||Catálogos Editora||Voices of time: a life in stories ISBN 978-0-8050-7767-4|
|2006||El viaje||ISBN 84-96592-55-3|
|2007||Carta al señor futuro|
|2008||Patas arriba/ la escuela del mundo al revés||ISBN 950-895-050-1||Catálogos Editora|
|2008||Espejos||ISBN 978-987-1492-00-8||Siglo XXI||Mirrors: Stories of Almost Everyone 2009, ISBN 1-56858-423-7|
|2008||La resurrección del Papagayo||ISBN 978-84-92412-22-8||Libros del Zorro Rojo|
|2011||Los hijos de los días||ISBN 978-987-629-200-9||Siglo XXI||Children of the Days: A Calendar of Human History ISBN 978-1568587479|
|2015||Mujeres - antología||ISBN 978-84-323-1768-2||Siglo XXI|||
|2016||El cazador de historias||ISBN 978-987-629-628-1||Siglo XXI||Hunter of Stories 2017, ISBN 978-1568589909|
|2017||Cerrado por fútbol||Siglo XXI|
Las venas abiertas de América Latina (Open Veins of Latin America), a history of the region from the time of Columbus from the perspective of the subjugated people, is considered one of Galeano's best-known works. An English-language translation by Cedric Belfrage gained some popularity in the English-speaking world after Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez gave it as a gift to U.S. President Barack Obama in 2009.
Galeano was also an avid fan of football, writing most notably about it in Football in Sun and Shadow (El fútbol a sol y sombra). In a retrospective for SB Nation after Galeano's death, football writer Andi Thomas described the work—a history of the sport, as well as an outlet for the author's own experiences with the sport and his political polemics—as "one of the greatest books about football ever written".
|"'Voices of Time': Legendary Uruguayan Writer Eduardo Galeano on Immigration, Latin America, Iraq, Writing – and Soccer," Democracy Now! 19 May 2006.|
|Uruguayan Author Eduardo Galeano Returns with Mirrors: Stories of Almost Everyone – video report by Democracy Now!|
|Eduardo Galeano, Chronicler of Latin America’s "Open Veins," on His New Book "Children of the Days", Democracy Now, 8 May 2013.|
|"Reflections from Eduardo Galeano," The Leonard Lopate Show, 19 May 2006.|
Bebel García García (1914 - 29 July 1936) was a Spanish football player and politician from Galicia.He was executed on 29 July 1936, minutes after the Spanish coup of July 1936. He was honoured by Eduardo Galeano in his poem Espejos, una historia casi universal. His last request was to urinate on his executioners.He played as defender for Deportivo de La Coruña from 1933 to 1936 on Segunda División and he scored 11 goals in 28 matches.His brother France was also executed and his other brother Jaurés was incarcerated because he was underage.Cerro Rico
Cerro Rico (Spanish for "rich mountain"), Cerro Potosí ("Potosí mountain") or Sumaq Urqu (Quechua sumaq "beautiful, good, pleasant", urqu "mountain", "beautiful (good or pleasant) mountain") is a mountain in the Andes near the Bolivian city of Potosí. Cerro Rico, which is popularly conceived of as being "made of" silver ore, was famous for providing vast quantities of silver for Spain during the period of the New World Spanish Empire. It is estimated that eighty-five percent of the silver produced in the central Andes during this time came from Cerro Rico. As a result of mining operations in the mountain, the city of Potosí became one of the largest cities in the New World.After 1800, the silver mines were depleted, leaving far less valuable tin as the mine's main product. This eventually led to a slow economic decline. At the start of the 20th century, liberal reforms and an increase in government policies favoring foreign investment led to a decrease in nationalization of natural resources and an increase in ownership by private companies. Almost immediately following the change in Peruvian mining code in 1901 that allowed for the privatization of mines, a New York–based company purchased "80 per cent of the mines in the Cerro de Pasco region of the central Andes".The newly formed Cerro de Pasco Corporation pursued immediate large-scale extractive mining, which contributed to a long-term change in the local eco-system. The need for large quantities of timber to build the mining infrastructure necessary to extract minerals, also caused high amounts of erosion and deforestation. Dams needed to produce electricity for this massive private project caused floods, which altered the land and damaged the natural environment. After centuries of extractive mining methods that severely damaged the local ecology the mountain continues to be mined for silver to this day. Due to poor worker conditions, such as a lack of protective equipment against the constant inhalation of dust, many of the miners contract silicosis and have a life expectancy of around 40 years. The mountain is still a significant contributor to the city's economy, employing some 15,000 miners.
It is known as the "mountain that eats men" because of the large number of workers who died in the mines. Some writers such as Eduardo Galeano, in his work Open Veins of Latin America, estimates that up to eight million have died in the Cerro Rico since the 16th century. Though this number has been attributed to the entirety of the Viceroyalty of Peru by Josiah Conder, who added that these numbers also take into account any depopulation of areas around mines. The work of historians such as Peter Bakewell, Noble David Cook, Enrique Tandeter and Raquel Gil Montero portray a more accurate description of the human-labor issue (free and non-free workers) with completely different estimations.
As a result of centuries long mining, in 2011 a sinkhole in the top appeared and had to be filled with ultra-light cement. The summit also continues to sink a few centimetres every year. In 2014, UNESCO added Cerro Rico and Potosí to its list of endangered sites, owing to "uncontrolled mining operations" that risk "degrading the site".Days and Nights of Love and War
Days and Nights of Love and War (Spanish: Días y Noches de Amor y de Guerra) is a 1978 book by Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano. It was published in English translation in 1982 by Monthly Review Press. Structured as a series of fragments, the book varies in tone from straight journalism to expressionism and poetic lyricism and in genre from short story to aphorism to biography. It established the formal and thematic qualities of Galeano's prose, and won the Casa de las Américas Prize in 1978.Dizzy Spells (album)
Dizzy Spells is an album by Dutch anarchist band The Ex. According to Douglas Wolk, the lyrics are "either punning geopolitical rants" or "based on texts by obscure poets"; Wolk praised the album for its grimness and density.EPO (publisher)
EPO (Proletarian Education, French: Education prolétarienne, Dutch: Proletarische Opvoeding) is a Belgian publisher of non-fiction books. It publishes approximately 25 books a year in Dutch and French, mainly centered on politics, history and sociology. These books tend to be of progressive nature. The publisher is closely linked to the Workers Party of Belgium.
Belgian and international authors who were published by EPO include Manuel Abramowicz, Jan Blommaert, André van Bosbeke, Krista Bracke, Lucas Catherine, Noam Chomsky, Hans Depraetere, Jenny Dierickx, Eduardo Galeano, Ivo Hermans, Peter Tom Jones, Els Keytsman, Jaap Kruithof, Ludo Martens, Michael Parenti, Marc Spruyt, Paul Van Nevel, Robert Van Yper, Peter Vermeulen, Jan Willems, and Howard Zinn.Galeano
Galeano may refer to:
David Galeano Olivera (born 1961), Paraguayan linguist, anthropologist, philologist, and educator
Eduardo Galeano (1940–2015), Uruguayan journalist, writer and novelist
Gloria Galeano Garcés (1958–2016), Colombian botanist and agronomist
Leonel Galeano (born 1991), Argentine football player
Maneco Galeano (1945–1980), Paraguayan musician
Marcos Aurélio Galeano (born 1972), Brazilian football player
Subcomandante Insurgente Galeano, previously known as Subcomandante Marcos
Juan Benítez Galeano (born 1953)
Carlos Galeano (born 1950)
Fermin Galeano (born 1975)
José Jaime Galeano (born 1945)
Juan Daniel Galeano (born 1986)
Luis GaleanoJorge Majfud
Jorge Majfud (born 1969) is a Uruguayan American writer.La Jornada
La Jornada (The Working Day) is one of Mexico City's leading daily newspapers. It was established in 1984 by Carlos Payán Velver. The current editor (directora general) is Carmen Lira Saade. La Jornada has presence in eight states of the Mexican Republic with local editions in Aguascalientes, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, San Luis Potosí, Puebla and Veracruz (La Jornada de Oriente). It has approximately 287,000 readers in Mexico City, and, according to them, their website has approximately 180,000 daily page views.The online version was launched in 1995, with no restrictions on access and a Google-based search that includes the historic archives of the newspaper. The website is hosted by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM).
Noam Chomsky has described La Jornada as "maybe the only real independent newspaper in the hemisphere".Lannan Literary Awards
The Lannan Literary Awards are a series of awards and literary fellowships given out in various fields by the Lannan Foundation. Established in 1989, the awards are meant "to honor both established and emerging writers whose work is of exceptional quality", according to the foundation. The foundation's awards are lucrative relative to most awards in literature: the 2006 awards for poetry, fiction and nonfiction each came with $150,000, making them among the richest literary prizes in the world.
The awards reflect the philosophy governing the Lannan Foundation, a family foundation established by J. Patrick Lannan, Sr. in 1960. It describes itself as "dedicated to cultural freedom, diversity and creativity through projects which support exceptional contemporary artists and writers, as well as inspired Native activists in rural indigenous communities."Awards have been made to acclaimed and varied literary figures such as David Foster Wallace, William Gaddis, Lydia Davis, William H. Gass, Steve Erickson and W.S. Merwin. The foundation has also recognized people known as much for their public intellectual activities as for their literary talents, such as Barbara Ehrenreich and Edward Said.
The foundation also gives a "Cultural Freedom Prize" for the stated purpose of recognizing "people whose extraordinary and courageous work celebrates the human right to freedom of imagination, inquiry, and expression." Prize winners include Elouise P. Cobell, Robert Fisk, Eduardo Galeano, Claudia Andujar, Mahmoud Darwish, Arundhati Roy, Helen Caldicott and Cornel West.
The foundation does not accept applications for awards or fellowships. Candidates are suggested anonymously "by a network of writers, literary scholars, publishers, and editors," with the foundation's literary committee making the final determination.The foundation also "provides financial assistance to tribes and nonprofits that serve Native American communities..." For instance, it gave more than $7 million in grants to the Blackfeet Reservation Development Fund from 1998 to 2009, to support litigation on behalf of Native Americans with interests in trust lands. This nonprofit was created by Elouise P. Cobell and her legal team to bring claims against the United States for mismanaging lands held in trust for Native Americans. The Cobell v. Salazar case was filed in 1996 and settled in 2009.Luis Augusto Turcios Lima
Luis Augusto Turcios Lima (23 November 1941 – 2 October 1966) was a Guatemalan army officer and leader of the Rebel Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Rebeldes, or FAR).
Turcios Lima entered military service at age 15, graduating as second lieutenant. He then received commando training at Fort Benning, Georgia USA. On his return to Guatemala he underook military service in Petén, and later participated in the 13 November 1960 military uprising against President Miguel Ydígoras.He died in 1966 when a bomb exploded inside his car.
Eduardo Galeano writes about the mythic aspect attributed to Turcios Lima in his 1967 Guatemala: Occupied Country: "The previous leader of the Rebel Armed Forces, Luis Augusto Turcios, was also a legendary figure for the peasants, who attributed supernatural virtues to him. He was a hot-blooded young officer who learned the technique of the guerrilla from the Yanquis themselves--in a course at Fort Benning, Columbus, Ga. [i.e. School of the Americas], on how to combat it. Dictator Peralta Azurdia put a price on his head and he put one on dictator Peralta Azurdia's. After he took to the hills in 1960, he mocked death a thousand times. Absurdly, death won because his car caught fire on the highway."Open Veins of Latin America
Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent (in Spanish: Las Venas Abiertas de América Latina) is a book written by Uruguayan journalist, writer and poet Eduardo Galeano, published in 1971. It has sold over a million copies and been translated into over a dozen languages, and has been included in university courses "ranging from history and anthropology to economics and geography."In the book, Galeano analyzes the history of the Americas as a whole, from the time period of the European settlement of the New World to contemporary Latin America, describing the effects of European and later United States economic exploitation and political dominance over the region.
The Library Journal review stated, "Well written and passionately stated, this is an intellectually honest and valuable study."Rebelion.org
Rebelión is a nonprofit news site, started in Spain at the end of 1996 by a group of journalists. It contains scientific and opinion articles covering topics such as, current affairs, free knowledge, culture, ecology, economics, and resistance to globalization. Texts by and translations to Spanish of authors like Heinz Dieterich, Noam Chomsky, Marta Harnecker, Eduardo Galeano, José Saramago, Gabriel García Márquez, Julio Anguita, Vicenç Navarro and Ralph Nader have been included in Rebelión.Soriano (film)
Soriano is a biographical documentary by Eduardo Montes-Bradley exploring the life and works of Osvaldo Soriano, author of Funny Dirty Little War through testimonies of friends and family in Argentina, France, Belgium, Germany, and Italy. The documentary includes rare 16mm footage filmed by Soriano and friends during in his hometown of Tandil in the early 1960s. Part of this original footage was used by the director to reconstruct a short film as it was scripted by a young Osvaldo Soriano. The show film is now on the permanent collection of several university libraries.Soriano was filmed in several locations including Milan, Rome, Paris, Linz am Rhein, Brussels, and Buenos Aires, and includes interviews with Osvaldo Bayer, Héctor Olivera, Gianni Minà, Franco Lucentini, Federico Luppi, Eduardo Galeano, Fernando Birri and others.Soriano theatrical release was followed by the publication of a collection of testimonies in the essay “Soriano: Un Retrato” containing the entire original interviews, including the fragments that did not make it to the final cut. Soriano’'’ was later published on DVD by Noticias.Stig Dagerman Prize
The Stig Dagerman Prize (Swedish: Stig Dagermanpriset) is a Swedish award given since 1996 by the Stig Dagerman Society and Älvkarleby municipality. It is named in honor of Swedish author Stig Dagerman. The award is given to a person who, or an organization that, in the spirit of Stig Dagerman, supports the significance and availability of the "free word" (freedom of speech), promoting inter-cultural understanding and empathy. It was inspired by Dagerman's poem En dag om året that sets forth a vision of peace for humanity by imagining one day each year when the world is free from violence.The award ceremony takes place the first weekend in June each year at Laxön in Älvkarleby. The prize is kr 50,000. On two occasions, 2004 and 2008, the prize winner subsequently won the Nobel Prize in Literature in the same year.Storytelling (Fred Frith album)
Storytelling is a 2017 live album by English guitarist Fred Frith. It was performed by Frith in a trio with Danish saxophonist Lotte Anker and Swiss percussionist Samuel Dühsler on 18 March 2017 at the Theater Gütersloh in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The recording was released on 18 August 2017 by Intuition in Germany as Volume 12 of its European Jazz Legends series.Storytelling comprises three pieces of improvised music, plus an interview with Frith conducted by Götz Bühler. The New York City Jazz Record listed the album as one of its "Honorable Mentions New Releases" in 2017.Upside Down (book)
Upside Down: A Primer for the Looking-Glass World (in Spanish Patas Arriba: la Escuela del Mundo al Revés), originally published in Spanish in 1998, was written by Eduardo Galeano, a Uruguayan author who was greatly impacted by the political turmoil during the 20th century military regimes in Latin America. Events such as the Uruguayan military coup forced Galeano into exile in Spain and Argentina; these exiles, in particular, may have been formative in Galeano's life and writing. The ruminations of this book were formed as a result of Galeano's desire to remember the past traumas and as well as to learn from them. Within this piece of nonfiction, he explores themes such as modern education systems, racism, sexism, poverty, economics, work, and societal fear. The pretense of the prose tends to be preoccupied with learning to rethink the contradictions of society; in a moment when outrageous circumstances are normalized, it is time to reconsider the understandings many people hold, which, in turn, informs the way such people view things. Though focusing on Latin America, Galeano uses what he has learned from the political and social environment within Latin America to understand injustices and social dynamics throughout the rest of the world.Uruguayan literature
Uruguayan literature has a long and eventful history.