Edom

Edom (/ˈiːdəm/;[1][2] Edomite: 𐤀𐤃𐤌 ’Edām; Hebrew: אֱדוֹם ʼÉḏōm, lit.: "red"; Akkadian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ‎) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.[3] Most of its former territory is now divided between Israel and Jordan. Edom appears in written sources relating to the late Bronze Age and to the Iron Age in the Levant, such as the Hebrew Bible and Egyptian and Mesopotamian records. In classical antiquity, the cognate name Idumea was used for a smaller area in the same general region.

Edom and Idumea are two related but distinct terms which are both related to a historically-contiguous population but two separate, if adjacent, territories which were occupied by the Edomites/Idumeans in different periods of their history. The Edomites first established a kingdom ("Edom") in the southern area of modern-day Jordan and later migrated into the southern parts of the Kingdom of Judah ("Idumea", or modern-day southern Israel/Negev) when Judah was first weakened and then destroyed by the Babylonians, in the 6th century BCE.

Edom is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and it is also mentioned in a list of the Egyptian pharaoh Seti I from c. 1215 BC as well as in the chronicle of a campaign by Ramesses III (r. 1186–1155 BC).[3] The Edomites, who have been archaeologically identified, were a Semitic people who probably arrived in the region around the 14th century BC.[3] Archaeological investigation showed that the country flourished between the 13th and the 8th century BC and was destroyed after a period of decline in the 6th century BC by the Babylonians.[3] After the loss of the kingdom, the Edomites were pushed westward towards southern Judah by nomadic tribes coming from the east; among them were the Nabataeans, who first appeared in the historical annals of the 4th century BC and already established their own kingdom in what used to be Edom, by the first half of the 2nd century BC.[3] More recent excavations show that the process of Edomite settlement in the southern parts of the Kingdom of Judah and parts of the Negev down to Timna had started already before the destruction of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar II in 587/86 BCE, both by peaceful penetration and by military means and taking advantage of the already-weakened state of Judah.[4][5]

Once pushed out of their territory, the Edomites settled during the Persian period in an area comprising the southern hills of Judea down to the area north of Be'er Sheva.[6] The people appear under a Greek form of their old name, as Idumeans or Idumaeans, and their new territory was called Idumea or Idumaea (Greek: Ἰδουμαία, Idoumaía; Latin: Idūmaea), a term that was used in New Testament times.[7][8]

Kingdom of Edom

𐤀𐤃𐤌
c. 13th century BCE–c. 125 BCE
The region around 830 BCE, with Edom in yellow.
The region around 830 BCE, with Edom in yellow.
StatusMonarchy
CapitalBozrah
History 
• Established
c. 13th century BCE
• Conquered by the Hasmonean dynasty
c. 125 BCE
Today part of
Edom
Map showing kingdom of Edom (in red) at its largest extent, c. 600 BCE. Areas in dark red show the approximate boundary of classical-age Idumaea.

Name of Edom in the Hebrew Bible

The Hebrew word Edom means "red", and is derived from the name of its founder, Esau, the elder son of the Hebrew patriarch Isaac, because he was born "red all over".[9] As a young adult, he sold his birthright to his brother Jacob for "red pottage".[10] The Tanakh describes the Edomites as descendants of Esau.[11]

Archaeology

M17A2D46Z7G17
D36
T14N25
The name 'Iduma' which was translated into "Edom"
in hieroglyphs

The Edomites may have been connected with the Shasu and Shutu, nomadic raiders mentioned in Egyptian sources. Indeed, a letter from an Egyptian scribe at a border fortress in the Wadi Tumilat during the reign of Merneptah reports movement of nomadic "shasu-tribes of Edom" to watering holes in Egyptian territory.[12] The earliest Iron Age settlements—possibly copper mining camps—date to the 9th century BC. Settlement intensified by the late 8th century BC and the main sites so far excavated have been dated between the 8th and 6th centuries BC. The last unambiguous reference to Edom is an Assyrian inscription of 667 BC; it has thus been unclear when, how and why Edom ceased to exist as a state, although many scholars point to scriptural references in the Bible, specifically the historical Book of Obadiah, to explain this fact.[13]

Edom is mentioned in Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions in the form "Udumi" (𒌑𒁺𒈪) or "Udumu" (𒌑𒁺𒈬); three of its kings are known from the same source: Ḳaus-malaka at the time of Tiglath-pileser III (c. 745 BC), Malik-rammu at the time of Sennacherib (c. 705 BC), and Ḳaus-gabri at the time of Esarhaddon (c. 680 BC). According to the Egyptian inscriptions, the "Aduma" at times extended their possessions to the borders of Egypt.[14] After the conquest of Judah by the Babylonians, Edomites settled in the region of Hebron. They prospered in this new country, called by the Greeks and Romans "Idumaea" or "Idumea", for more than four centuries.[15] Strabo, writing around the time of Jesus, held that the Idumaeans, whom he identified as of Nabataean origin, constituted the majority of the population of Western Judea, where they commingled with the Judaeans and adopted their customs.[16] A view shared also by some modern scholarly works which consider Idumaeans as of Arab or Nabataean origins.[17][18][19][20]

Edom in the Hebrew Bible

The Edomites' original country, according to the Hebrew Bible, stretched from the Sinai peninsula as far as Kadesh Barnea. Southward it reached as far as Eilat, which was the seaport of Edom.[21] On the north of Edom was the territory of Moab.[22] The boundary between Moab and Edom was the Wadi Zered.[23] The ancient capital of Edom was Bozrah.[24] According to Genesis, Esau's descendants settled in this land after displacing the Horites. It was also called the land of Seir; Mount Seir appears to have been strongly identified with them and may have been a cultic site. In the time of Amaziah (838 BC), Selah (Petra) was its principal stronghold,[25] Eilat and Ezion-geber its seaports.[26]

Genesis 36 lists the kings of Edom:

These are the kings who ruled in the land of Edom before a king ruled the children of Israel. And Bela ben Beor ruled in Edom, and the name of his city was Dinhabah. And Bela died, and Jobab ben Zerah from Bozrah ruled in his place. And Jobab died, and Husham of the land of Temani ruled in his place. And Husham died, and Hadad ben Bedad, who struck Midian in the field of Moab, ruled in his place, and the name of his city was Avith. And Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah ruled in his place. And Samlah died, and Saul of Rehoboth on the river ruled in his place. And Saul died, and Baal-hanan ben Achbor ruled in his place. And Baal-hanan ben Achbor died, and Hadar ruled in his place, and the name of his city was Pau, and his wife's name was Mehetabel bat Matred bat Mezahab. And these are the names of the clans of Esau by their families, by their places, by their names: clan Timnah, clan Alvah, clan Jetheth, clan Aholibamah, clan Elah, clan Pinon, clan Kenaz, clan Teman, clan Mibzar, clan Magdiel, clan Iram.[27]

The Hebrew word translated as leader of a clan is aluf, used solely to describe the Dukes of Edom and Moab, in the first five books of Moses. However beginning in the books of the later prophets the word is used to describe Judean generals, for example, in the prophecies of Zachariah twice (9:7, 12:5–6) it had evolved to describe Jewish captains, the word also is used multiple times as a general term for teacher or guide for example in Psalm 55:13.[28] Aluph as it is used to denote teach or guide from the Edomite word for Duke is used 69 times in the Tanakh.

If the account may be taken at face value, the kingship of Edom was, at least in early times, not hereditary,[29] perhaps elective.[30] The first book of Chronicles mentions both a king and chieftains.[31] Moses and the Israelite people twice appealed to their common ancestry and asked the king of Edom for passage through his land, along the "King's Highway", on their way to Canaan, but the king refused permission.[32] Accordingly, they detoured around the country because of his show of force[33] or because God ordered them to do so rather than wage war.[34] The King of Edom did not attack the Israelites, though he prepared to resist aggression.

Nothing further is recorded of the Edomites in the Tanakh until their defeat by King Saul[35] of Israel in the late 11th century BC. Forty years later King David and his general Joab defeated the Edomites in the "Valley of Salt" (probably near the Dead Sea).[36] An Edomite prince named Hadad escaped and fled to Egypt, and after David's death returned and tried to start a rebellion, but failed and went to Syria (Aramea).[37] From that time Edom remained a vassal of Israel. David placed over the Edomites Israelite governors or prefects,[38] and this form of government seems to have continued under Solomon. When Israel divided into two kingdoms Edom became a dependency of the Kingdom of Judah. In the time of Jehoshaphat (c. 914 BC) the Tanakh mentions a king of Edom,[39] who was probably an Israelite appointed by the King of Judah. It also states[40] that the inhabitants of Mount Seir invaded Judea in conjunction with Ammon and Moab, and that the invaders turned against one another and were all destroyed. Edom revolted against Jehoram and elected a king of its own.[41] Amaziah attacked and defeated the Edomites, seizing Selah, but the Israelites never subdued Edom completely.[42]

In the time of Nebuchadnezzar II the Edomites helped plunder Jerusalem and slaughter the Judaeans.[43] For this reason the prophets denounced Edom violently.[44]

Although the Idumaeans controlled the lands to the east and south of the Dead Sea, their peoples were held in contempt by the Israelites. Hence the Book of Psalms says "Moab is my washpot: over Edom will I cast out my shoe."[45] According to the Torah,[46] the congregation could not receive descendants of a marriage between an Israelite and an Edomite until the fourth generation. This law was a subject of controversy between Shimon ben Yohai, who said it applied only to male descendants, and other Tannaim, who said female descendants were also excluded[47] for four generations. From these, some early conversion laws in halacha were derived.

Classical Idumaea

During the revolt of the Maccabees against the Seleucid kingdom (early 2nd century BE), II Maccabees refers to a Seleucid general named Gorgias as "Governor of Idumaea"; whether he was a Greek or a Hellenized Edomite is unknown. Some scholars maintain that the reference to Idumaea in that passage is an error altogether. Judas Maccabeus conquered their territory for a time around 163 BC.[48] They were again subdued by John Hyrcanus (c. 125 BC), who forcibly converted them, among others, to Judaism,[49] and incorporated them into the Jewish nation.[30] Antipater the Idumaean, the progenitor of the Herodian Dynasty along with Judean progenitors, that ruled Judea after the Roman conquest, was of mixed Edomite/Judean origin. Under Herod the Great, the Idumaea province was ruled for him by a series of governors, among whom were his brother Joseph ben Antipater, and his brother-in-law Costobarus. Josephus, when referring to Upper Idumaea, speaks of towns and villages immediately to the south and south-west of Jerusalem, such as Hebron (Antiq. 12.8.6,Wars 4.9.7), Halhul, in Greek called Alurus (Wars 4.9.6), Bethsura (Antiq. 12.9.4), Marissa (Antiq. 13.9.1, Wars 1.2.5), Dura (Adorayim) (Antiq. 13.9.1, Wars 1.2.5), Caphethra (Wars 4.9.9), Bethletephon (Wars 4.8.1), and Tekoa (Wars 4.9.5). The Mishnah refers to Rabbi Ishmael's dwelling place in Kfar Aziz as being "near to Edom."[50] It is presumed that the Idumaean nation, by the 1st-century CE, had migrated northwards from places formerly held by them in the south during the time of Joshua.[51] By 66 CE, a civil war in Judea during the First Jewish–Roman War, when Simon bar Giora attacked the Jewish converts of Upper Idumea, brought near complete destruction to the surrounding villages and countryside in that region.[52]

The Gospel of Mark[53] includes Idumea, along with Judea, Jerusalem, Tyre, Sidon and lands east of the Jordan as the communities from which the disciples of Jesus were drawn.

According to Josephus, during the siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE by Titus, 20,000 Idumaeans, under the leadership of John, Simeon, Phinehas, and Jacob, helped the Zealots fight for independence from Rome, who were besieged in the Temple.[54] After the Jewish Wars, the Idumaean people are no longer mentioned in history, though the geographical region of "Idumea" is still referred to at the time of Jerome.[30]

Religion

The nature of Edomite religion is largely unknown before their conversion to Judaism by the Hasmoneans. Epigraphical evidence suggests that the national god of Edom was Qaus (קוס) (also known as 'Qaush', 'Kaush', 'Kaus', 'Kos' or 'Qaws'), since Qaus is invoked in the blessing formula in letters and appear in personal names found in ancient Edom.[55] As close relatives of other Levantine Semites, they may have worshiped such gods as El, Baal, Qaus and Asherah. The oldest biblical traditions place Yahweh as the deity of southern Edom, and may have originated in "Edom/Seir/Teman/Sinai" before being adopted in Israel and Judah.[56] There is a Jewish tradition stemming from the Talmud, that the descendants of Esau would eventually become the Romans, and to a larger extent, all Europeans.[57][58]

Josephus states that Costobarus, appointed by Herod to be governor of Idumea and Gaza, was descended from the priests of "the Koze, whom the Idumeans had formerly served as a god".[59]

For an archaeological text that may well be Edomite, reflecting on the language, literature, and religion of Edom, see Victor Sasson, "An Edomite Joban Text, with a Biblical Joban Parallel", Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 117 (Berlin 2006), 601–615.

Economy

The Kingdom of Edom drew much of its livelihood from the caravan trade between Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and southern Arabia, along the Incense Route. Astride the King's Highway, the Edomites were one of several states in the region for whom trade was vital due to the scarcity of arable land. It is also said that sea routes traded as far away as India, with ships leaving from the port of Ezion-Geber. Edom's location on the southern highlands left it with only a small strip of land that received sufficient rain for farming. Edom probably exported salt and balsam (used for perfume and temple incense in the ancient world) from the Dead Sea region.

Khirbat en-Nahas is a large-scale copper-mining site excavated by archaeologist Thomas Levy in what is now southern Jordan. The scale of tenth-century mining on the site is regarded as evidence of a strong, centralized 10th century BC Edomite kingdom.[60]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Edom". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ churchofjesuschrist.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «ē´dum»
  3. ^ a b c d e Avraham Negev; Shimon Gibson (2001). Edom; Edomites. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London: Continuum. pp. 149–150. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1.
  4. ^ Prof. Itzhaq Beit-Arieh (December 1996). "Edomites Advance into Judah". Biblical Archaeology Review. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  5. ^ Jan Gunneweg; Th. Beier; U. Diehl; D. Lambrecht; H. Mommsen (August 1991). "'Edomite', 'Negbite'and 'Midianite' pottery from the Negev desert and Jordan: instrumental neutron activation analysis results". Archaeometry. Oxford, UK: Oxford University. 33 (2): 239–253. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4754.1991.tb00701.x. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  6. ^ Avraham Negev; Shimon Gibson (2001). Idumea. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London: Continuum. pp. 239–240. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1.
  7. ^ Charles Léon Souvay, ed. (1910). "Idumea". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  8. ^ "Edom". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  9. ^ Genesis 25:25
  10. ^ Genesis 25:29-34
  11. ^ Genesis 36:9: This is the genealogy of Esau the father of the Edomites
  12. ^ Redford, Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton Univ. Press, 1992. p.228, 318.
  13. ^ Smith, M.S. (2001). The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 145. ISBN 9780195134803. Retrieved 2015-09-10.
  14. ^ Müller, Asien und Europa, p. 135.
  15. ^ Ptolemy, "Geography," v. 16
  16. ^ Strabo, Geography Bk.16.2.34
  17. ^ "Herod | Biography & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  18. ^ Retso, Jan (2013-07-04). The Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads. Routledge. ISBN 9781136872891.
  19. ^ Chancey, Mark A. (2002-05-23). The Myth of a Gentile Galilee. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139434652.
  20. ^ Shahid, Irfan; Shahîd, Irfan (1984). Rome and the Arabs: A Prolegomenon to the Study of Byzantium and the Arabs. Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 9780884021155.
  21. ^ Deuteronomy 1:2; Deuteronomy 2:1–8
  22. ^ Judges 11:17–18; 2 Kings 3:8–9
  23. ^ Deuteronomy 2:13–18
  24. ^ Genesis 36:33; Isaiah 34:6, Isaiah 63:1, et al.
  25. ^ 2 Kings 14:7
  26. ^ 1 Kings 9:26
  27. ^ Genesis 36:31–43
  28. ^ Hebrew word #441 in Strong's Concordance
  29. ^ Gordon, Bruce R. "Edom (Idumaea)". Regnal Chronologies. Archived from the original on 2006-04-29. Retrieved 2006-08-04. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  30. ^ a b c Richard Gottheil, Max Seligsohn (1901-06-19). "Edom, Idumaea". The Jewish Encyclopedia. 3. Funk and Wagnalls. pp. 40–41. LCCN 16014703. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2005-07-25. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  31. ^ 1 Chronicles 1:43–54
  32. ^ Numbers 20:14-20, King James Version 1611
  33. ^ Numbers 20:21
  34. ^ Deuteronomy 2:4–6
  35. ^ 1 Samuel 14:47
  36. ^ 2 Samuel 8:13–14; 1 Kings 9:15–16
  37. ^ 2 Samuel 9:14–22; Josephus, Jewish Antiquities viii. 7, S 6
  38. ^ 2 Samuel 8:14
  39. ^ I1 Kings 3:9–26
  40. ^ 2 Chronicles 20:10–23
  41. ^ 2 Kings 8:20–22; 2 Chronicles 21:8
  42. ^ 2 Kings 14:7; 2 Chronicles 25:11–12
  43. ^ Psalms 137:7; Obadiah 1:11–14
  44. ^ Isaiah 34:5–8; Jeremiah 49:7–22; Obadiah passim; for a possible treaty violation, see Jason C. Dykehouse, "An Historical Reconstruction of Edomite Treaty Betrayal in the Sixth Century BC. Based on Biblical, Epigraphic, and Archaeological Data" (Ph.D. diss., Baylor University, 2008).
  45. ^ Psalms 60:8 and Psalms 108:9
  46. ^ Deuteronomy 23:8–9
  47. ^ Yevamot 76b
  48. ^ Josephus, "Ant." xii. 8, §§ 1, 6
  49. ^ ib. xiii. 9, § 1; xiv. 4, § 4
  50. ^ Mishna Kilaim 6:4; Ketuvot 5:8
  51. ^ Joshua 15:21
  52. ^ Josephus, De Bello Judaico (Wars of the Jews) IV, 514 (Wars of the Jews 4.9.3) and De Bello Judaico (Wars of the Jews) IV, 529 (Wars of the Jews 4.9.7)
  53. ^ Mark 3:8
  54. ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars iv. 4, § 5
  55. ^ Ahituv, Shmuel. Echoes from the Past: Hebrew and Cognate Inscriptions from the Biblical Period. Jerusalem, Israel: Carta, 2008, pp. 351, 354
  56. ^ M. Leuenberger (2017). "YHWH's Provenance from the South". In J. van Oorschot; M. Witte (eds.). The Origins of Yahwism. Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter.
  57. ^ "Did the Edomite tribe Magdiel found Rome?".
  58. ^ "Edomites". in rabbinical sources, the word "Edom" was a code name for Rome
  59. ^ Antiquities of the Jews, Book 15, chapter 7, section 9
  60. ^ Kings of Controversy Robert Draper National Geographic, December 2010.

References

External links

80th Division (Israel)

The Israel Defense Forces 80th "Edom" Division (Territorial), is subordinate to the Southern Regional Command.

Amalek

Amalek (Hebrew: עֲמָלֵק, Amaleq, Arabic: عماليق‎ ‘Amālīq) is a nation described in the Hebrew Bible as enemies of the Israelites. The name "Amalek" can refer to the nation's founder, a grandson of Esau; his descendants, the Amalekites; or the territories of Amalek which they inhabited.

Book of Obadiah

The Book of Obadiah is an oracle concerning the divine judgment of Edom and the restoration of Israel. The text consists of a single chapter, divided into 21 verses, making it the shortest book in the Hebrew Bible.In Judaism and Christianity, its authorship is attributed to a prophet who lived in the Assyrian Period and named himself in the first verse, Obadiah. His name means "servant of Yahweh".

In Judaism, Obadiah is considered a "later prophet", one of the "Twelve Prophets" in the final section of Nevi'im, the second main division of the Tanakh.

In Christianity, the Book of Obadiah is classified as a minor prophet of the Old Testament, due to its short length.

Bozrah

Bozrah, Botsra or Botzrah (Arabic: بُصَيْرا‎, romanized: buṣayrā; Hebrew: בָּצְרָה boṣrah) is a historical site and modern village in Tafilah Governorate, Jordan located between the towns of Tafilah (Tophel) and Shoubak and closer to the latter. It is identified by some researchers as the location mentioned several times in the Hebrew Bible. The site is adjacent to the modern town of Bouseira (Arabic: بصيرا‎), (alternatively Buseirah or Busairah).

Edom, Texas

Edom is a city in Van Zandt County, Texas, United States. The population was 375 at the 2010 census.

Edom, Virginia

Edom is an unincorporated community located in Rockingham County, in the U.S. state of Virginia. It is located along State Route 42 at the crossroads with State Route 721, north of Harrisonburg and southeast of Singers Glen. Linville Creek flows through the village.

Near Edom on January 14, 1794, Dr. Jesse Bennett performed the first Caesarian section and oophorectomy in the United States, operating on his wife to give birth to their daughter. A historical marker was erected by the state of Virginia in 1983 commemorating the event.Baxter House, John K. Beery Farm, and Edom Store and Post Office are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Edom o Gordon

Edom o Gordon or Captain Car (Child #178, Roud #80) is a traditional Scottish ballad that exists in several versions. The ballad recounts the gruesome events of Gordon's (or, in some versions, Car's) burning down of his enemy's castle that killed the lady of the house, her children and most of the servants.

Edomite language

Edomite was a Canaanite language, very similar to Hebrew, spoken by the Edomites in southwestern Jordan and parts of Israel in the 1st millennium BC. It is known only from a very small corpus. In early times, it seems to have been written with a Phoenician alphabet. Like Moabite, it retained feminine -t. However, in the 6th century BC, it adopted the Aramaic alphabet. Meanwhile, Aramaic or Arabic features such as whb ("gave") and tgr ("merchant") entered the language, with whb becoming especially common in proper names.

According to Glottolog, referencing Huehnergard & Rubin (2011), Edomite was not a distinct language from Hebrew but a Hebraic dialect.

Errno.h

errno.h is a header file in the standard library of the C programming language. It defines macros for reporting and retrieving error conditions using the symbol errno (short for "error number").errno acts like an integer variable. A value (the error number) is stored in errno by certain library functions when they detect errors. At program startup, the value stored is zero. Library functions store only values greater than zero. Any library function can alter the value stored before return, whether or not they detect errors. Most functions indicate that they detected an error by returning a special value, typically NULL for functions that return pointers, and −1 for functions that return integers. A few functions require the caller to preset errno to zero and test it afterwards to see if an error was detected.

The errno macro expands to an lvalue with type int, sometimes with the extern and/or volatile type specifiers depending upon the platform. Originally this was a static memory location, but macros are almost always used today to allow for multi-threading, so that each thread will see its own thread-local error number.

The header file also defines macros that expand to integer constants that represent the error codes. The C standard library only requires three to be defined:EDOM

Results from a parameter outside a function's domain, e.g. sqrt(-1)ERANGE

Results from a result outside a function's range, e.g. strtol("0xfffffffff",NULL,0) on systems with a 32-bit wide longEILSEQ (Required since 1994 Amendment 1 to C89 standard)

Results from an illegal byte sequence, e.g. mbstowcs(buf,"\xff", 1) on systems that use UTF-8.POSIX compliant operating systems like AIX, Linux or Solaris include many other error values, many of which are used much more often than the above ones, such as EACCES for when a file cannot be opened for reading. C++11 additionally defines many of the same values found within the POSIX specification.Traditionally, the first page of Unix system manuals, named intro(2), lists all errno.h macros, but this is not the case with Linux, where these macros are instead listed in the errno(3).

Esau

Esau (; Hebrew: עֵשָׂו, Modern: ʿĒsáv, Tiberian: ʿĒśāw, ISO 259-3 ʕeśaw; Greek: Ἠσαῦ Ēsaû; Latin: Hesau, Esau; Arabic: عِيسُو‎ ‘Īsaw; meaning "hairy" or "rough"), in the Hebrew Bible, is the older son of Isaac. He is mentioned in the Book of Genesis, and by the prophets Obadiah and Malachi. The New Testament alludes to him in the Epistle to the Romans and in the Epistle to the Hebrews.According to the Hebrew Bible, Esau is the progenitor of the Edomites and the elder brother of Jacob, the patriarch of the Israelites. Esau and Jacob were the sons of Isaac and Rebekah, and the grandsons of Abraham and Sarah. Of the twins, Esau was the first to be born with Jacob following, holding his heel. Isaac was sixty years old when the boys were born.

Esau, a "man of the field", became a hunter who had "rough" qualities that distinguished him from his twin brother. Among these qualities were his red hair and noticeable hairiness. Jacob was a shy or simple man, depending on the translation of the Hebrew word tam (which also means "relatively perfect man"). Throughout Genesis, Esau is frequently shown as being supplanted by his younger twin, Jacob (Israel).

Hadad (Bible)

Multiple biblical characters with the name Hadad (Hadar) existed.

Hadad is the name of Semitic storm god.

Abraham's son Ishmael had a son named Hadar who was a chief.

Hadad ben Bedad, an early king of Edom.

Hada, the last king of Edom He ruled from Pau, Edom, which some biblical scholars identify as an Egyptian city. Hadad’s wife was Queen Mehetabel ("God makes happy"), daughter of Matred and granddaughter of Me-Zahab.

Hadad the Edomite, a member of the royal house of Edom, who married the sister of Pharaoh's wife, Queen Tahpenes, and escaped from a massacre under Joab, fleeing to Egypt.

Jobab ben Zerah

Jobab ben Zerah was a king of ancient Edom, according to Genesis 36. He succeeded Bela ben Beor in the apparently elective kingship of the Edomites. He ruled from Bozrah. He was succeeded by Husham.

Although Adam Clarke maintains a different position, many notable Bible scholars identify Jobab with the biblical figure Job. A book by David J. Gibson entitled Whence Came the Hyksos, Kings of Egypt offers a detailed defense of the theory based on numerous Scriptures from the Book of Job, personal names, geography, occupation, and contemporaries. The same identification is present in Russian Orthodox Church's tradition: Church Slavonic versions of Book of Job and Russian Synodal Bible include a postscript in which Jobab is identified with Job, the anonymous author of the postscript refers to a "Syriac book"The date of his reign are unknown, and there is much dispute concerning whether the supposed connection with Job is even valid.

Maresha

Tel Maresha (Hebrew: תל מראשה‎) is the tell (archaeological mound) of the biblical Iron Age city of Maresha, and of the subsequent, post-586 BCE Idumean city known by its Hellenised name Marisa, Arabised as Marissa (ماريسا). The tell is situated in Israel's Shephelah region, i.e. in the foothills of the Judaean Mountains. It was first excavated in 1898-1900 by the British archaeologists Bliss and Macalister on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund and again after 1989 by Israeli archaeologist Amos Kloner on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority. The majority of the artifacts of the British excavation are to be found today in the Istanbul Archaeology Museums.

This site is now protected as part of Bet Guvrin-Maresha National Park and recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

Mount Seir

Mount Seir (Hebrew: הַר-שֵׂעִיר‎; Har Se'ir), today known in Arabic as Jibāl ash-Sharāh, is the ancient, as well as biblical, name for a mountainous region stretching between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, demarcating the southeastern border of Edom with Judah. It may also have marked the older historical limit of Ancient Egypt in Canaan. A place called "Seir, in the land of Shasu" (ta-Shasu se`er, t3-sh3sw s`r), thought to be near Petra, Jordan, is listed in the temple of Amenhotep III at Soleb (ca. 1380 BC).

Obed-Edom

Obed-Edom is a biblical name which in Hebrew means "servant of Edom," and which appears in the books of 2 Samuel and 1 and 2 Chronicles. The relationship between these passages has been the subject of scholarly discussions which express uncertainty and disagreements about the relationships between various passages that use the name.

Psalm 60

Psalm 60 (Masoretic numbering; psalm 59 in Greek numbering) of the Book of Psalms is addressed "to the chief Musician upon Shushaneduth Michtam of David, when he strove with Aramnaharaim and with Aramzobah, when Joab returned, and smote of Edom in the valley of salt twelve thousand."

The heading text in the Revised Standard Version and the New American Bible (Revised Edition) refers to Aram-Zobah, whereas in the New King James Version the reference is to Zobah.

Sela (Edom)

Sela (Arabic: السلع‎, Hebrew: סֶּלַע‎, transliteration Sela‛, meaning rock; Arabic: as-Sala‛; Greek: πέτρα; Latin: petra) was the capital of Edom, situated in the great valley extending from the Dead Sea to the Red Sea (2 Kings 14:7). It was near Mount Hor, close by the desert of Zin. It is called "the rock" (Judges 1:36). When Amaziah of Judah took it he called it Joktheel (also spelled Jokteel (JPS) and Jectehel (DRB)) (q.v.) (Hebrew: יָקְתְאֵל‎, Yoqtĕ-’Ēl, "the blessedness of God" or "subdued by God"; Latin: Jectehel) or Kathoel (Greek: Καθοηλ) in the Septuagint. It is mentioned by the prophets (Isaiah 15:1; 16:1; Obadiah 1:3) as doomed to destruction.

Sela is identified with the ruins of Sela, east of Tafileh in Jordan (identified as biblical Tophel) and near Bozrah, all Edomite cities in the mountains of Edom.

Sela appears in later history and in the Vulgate under the name of Petra. "The caravan of all ages, from the interior of Arabia and from the Persian Gulf, from Hadhramaut on the ocean, and even from Sabea (Sheba) or Yemen, appear to have pointed to Petra as a common centre; and from Petra the tide seems again to have branched out in every direction, to Egypt, Palestine, and Syria, through Arsinoe, Gaza, Tyre, Jerusalem, and Damascus, and by other routes, terminating at the Mediterranean Sea."

Teman (Edom)

Teman (Hebrew: תימן‎), was the name of an Edomite clan and of its eponym, according to the Bible and an ancient biblical town of Arabia Petraea. The term is also traditionally used in Biblical Hebrew as the synonym of the direction South and was applied to being used as the Hebrew name of Yemen (whose Arabic name is "Yaman") due to its location in the Southern end of the Arabian Peninsula, thus making Yemenite Jews being called "Temanim" in Hebrew.

In the Book of Genesis, Genesis 36:15, the name Teman is referred to a son of Eliphaz, Esau's eldest son.

Job's friend Eliphaz was a Temani (Job 2:11).

Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt

Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt is a pasticcio Passion oratorio based on compositions by Carl Heinrich Graun, Georg Philipp Telemann, Johann Sebastian Bach and others. The pasticcio was assembled around 1750.

The only extant manuscript of the Pasticcio was written by Johann Christoph Farlau and an unknown scribe. Farlau was a pupil of Johann Christoph Altnickol, Bach's son-in-law. Since a reliable differentiation between the handwriting of the master and the pupil was only done in the early 21st century, older scholarship generally attributes the realisation of the Pasticcio to Altnickol and/or indicates Altnickol as the composer of the movements that can not be attributed to other composers.

In the second half of the 20th century Bach scholarship turned its attention to the pasticcio as it was possibly Bach's elusive "5th Passion", and for containing previously unknown work by the composer (BC D 10).

Ancient states and regions in the history of the Levant
Bronze Age
Iron Age
Classical Age

Languages

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