Editorial cartoon

An editorial cartoon, also known as a political cartoon, is a drawing containing a commentary expressing the artist's opinion. An artist who writes and draws such images is known as an editorial cartoonist. They typically combine artistic skill, hyperbole and satire in order to question authority and draw attention to corruption, political violence and other social ills.[1][2]

Developed in England in the latter part of the 18th century, James Gillray was a pioneer of the political cartoon.[3] Founded in 1841, the British periodical Punch appropriated the term cartoon to refer to its political cartoons, which led to the term's widespread use.[4]

History

Origins

The Rake's Progress 8
A Rake's Progress, Plate 8, 1735, and retouched by Hogarth in 1763 by adding the Britannia emblem[5][6]

The pictorial satire has been credited as the precursor to the political cartoons in England: John J. Richetti, in The Cambridge history of English literature, 1660–1780, states that "English graphic satire really begins with Hogarth's Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme".[7][8] William Hogarth’s pictures combined social criticism with sequential artistic scenes. A frequent target of his satire was the corruption of early 18thcentury British politics. An early satirical work was an Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme (c.1721), about the disastrous stock market crash of 1720 known as the South Sea Bubble, in which many English people lost a great deal of money.[9]

His art often had a strong moralizing element to it, such as in his masterpiece of 1732–33, A Rake's Progress, engraved in 1734. It consisted of eight pictures that depicted the reckless life of Tom Rakewell, the son of a rich merchant, who spends all of his money on luxurious living, services from sex workers, and gambling—the character's life ultimately ends in Bethlem Royal Hospital.[10]

However, his work was only tangentially politicized and was primarily regarded on its artistic merits. George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend produced some of the first overtly political cartoons and caricatures in the 1750s.[8][11]

Development

Caricature gillray plumpudding
James Gillray’s The Plumb-pudding in Danger (1805). The world being carved up into spheres of influence between Pitt and Napoleon. According to Martin Rowson, it is “probably the most famous political cartoon of all time—it has been stolen over and over and over again by cartoonists ever since."[12]

The medium began to develop in England in the latter part of the 18th century—especially around the time of the French Revolution—under the direction of its great exponents, James Gillray and Thomas Rowlandson, both from London. Gillray explored the use of the medium for lampooning and caricature, and has been referred to as the father of the political cartoon.[3] Calling the king, prime ministers and generals to account, many of Gillray's satires were directed against George III, depicting him as a pretentious buffoon, while the bulk of his work was dedicated to ridiculing the ambitions of Revolutionary France and Napoleon.[3] The times in which Gillray lived were peculiarly favourable to the growth of a great school of caricature. Party warfare was carried on with great vigour and not a little bitterness; and personalities were freely indulged in on both sides. Gillray's incomparable wit and humour, knowledge of life, fertility of resource, keen sense of the ludicrous, and beauty of execution, at once gave him the first place among caricaturists.[13]

George Cruikshank became the leading cartoonist in the period following Gillray (1820s–40s). His early career was renowned for his social caricatures of English life for popular publications. He gained notoriety with his political prints that attacked the royal family and leading politicians and was bribed in 1820 "not to caricature His Majesty" (George IV) "in any immoral situation". His work included a personification of England named John Bull who was developed from about 1790 in conjunction with other British satirical artists such as Gillray and Rowlandson.[14]

Cartoonist's magazines

BritishLionTenniel1857Punch1
The British Lion's Vengeance..., cartoon by John Tenniel in the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Lincoln and Johnsond
An editorial cartoon of Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln, 1865, entitled The Rail Splitter at Work Repairing the Union. The caption reads: (Johnson): "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." (Lincoln): "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended."

The art of the editorial cartoon was further developed with the publication of the British periodical Punch in 1841, founded by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells (an earlier magazine that published cartoons was Monthly Sheet of Caricatures, printed from 1830 and an important influence on Punch).[15] It was bought by Bradbury and Evans in 1842, who capitalised on newly evolving mass printing technologies to turn the magazine into a preeminent national institution. The term "cartoon" to refer to comic drawings was coined by the magazine in 1843; the Houses of Parliament were to be decorated with murals, and "carttons" for the mural were displayed for the public; the term "cartoon" then meant a finished preliminary sketch on a large piece of cardboard, or cartone in Italian. Punch humorously appropriated the term to refer to its political cartoons, and the popularity of the Punch cartoons led to the term's widespread use.[4]

Artists who published in Punch during the 1840s and 50s included John Leech, Richard Doyle, John Tenniel and Charles Keene. This group became known as "The Punch Brotherhood", which also included Charles Dickens who joined Bradbury and Evans after leaving Chapman and Hall in 1843. Punch authors and artists also contributed to another Bradbury and Evans literary magazine called Once A Week (est.1859), created in response to Dickens' departure from Household Words.

The most prolific and influential cartoonist of the 1850s and 60s was John Tenniel, chief cartoon artist for Punch, who perfected the art of physical caricature and representation to a point that has changed little up to the present day. For over five decades he was a steadfast social witness to the sweeping national changes that occurred during this period alongside his fellow cartoonist John Leech. The magazine loyally captured the general public mood; in 1857, following the Indian Rebellion and the public outrage that followed, Punch published vengeful illustrations such as Tenniel's Justice and The British Lion's Vengeance on the Bengal Tiger.

Maturation

Tammany Ring, Nast crop
Thomas Nast depicts the Tweed Ring: "Who stole the people's money?" / "'Twas him."
School Begins (Puck Magazine 1-25-1899)
1899 cartoon showing Uncle Sam lecturing four children labeled Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and Cuba. The caption reads: School Begins. Uncle Sam (to his new class in Civilization)!
Panama canal cartooon 1903
1903 political cartoon. The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia

By the mid 19th century, major political newspapers in many countries featured cartoons designed to express the publisher's opinion on the politics of the day. One of the most successful was Thomas Nast in New York City, who imported realistic German drawing techniques to major political issues in the era of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Nast was most famous for his 160 editorial cartoons attacking the criminal characteristics of Boss Tweed's political machine in New York City. Albert Boime argues that:

As a political cartoonist, Thomas Nast wielded more influence than any other artist of the 19th century. He not only enthralled a vast audience with boldness and wit, but swayed it time and again to his personal position on the strength of his visual imagination. Both Lincoln and Grant acknowledged his effectiveness in their behalf, and as a crusading civil reformer he helped destroy the corrupt Tweed Ring that swindled New York City of millions of dollars. Indeed, his impact on American public life was formidable enough to profoundly affect the outcome of every presidential election during the period 1864 to 1884.[16]

Notable editorial cartoons include Benjamin Franklin's Join, or Die (1754), on the need for unity in the American colonies; The Thinkers Club (1819), a response to the surveillance and censorship of universities in Germany under the Carlsbad Decrees; and E. H. Shepard's The Goose-Step (1936), on the rearmament of Germany under Hitler. The Goose-Step is one of a number of notable cartoons first published in the British Punch magazine.

Recognition

Institutions which archive and document editorial cartoons include the Center for the Study of Political Graphics in the United States,[17] and the British Cartoon Archive in the United Kingdom.[18]

Editorial cartoons and editorial cartoonists are recognised by a number of awards, for example the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning (for US cartoonists, since 1922) and the British Press Awards' "Cartoonist of the Year".

Modern political cartoons

Political cartoons can usually be found on the editorial page of many newspapers, although a few (such as Garry Trudeau's Doonesbury) are sometimes placed on the regular comic strip page. Most cartoonists use visual metaphors and caricatures to address complicated political situations, and thus sum up a current event with a humorous or emotional picture.

Yaakov Kirschen, creator of the Israeli comic strip Dry Bones, says his cartoons are designed to make people laugh, which makes them drop their guard and see things the way he does. In an interview, he defined his objective as a cartoonist as an attempt to "seduce rather than to offend." [19]

Modern political cartooning can be built around traditional visual metaphors and symbols such as Uncle Sam, the Democratic donkey and the Republican elephant. One alternative approach is to emphasize the text or the story line, as seen in Doonesbury which tells a linear story in comic strip format.

Cartoons have a great potential to political communication capable of enhancing political comprehension and reconceptualization of events, through specific frames of understanding (Mateus, 2016). Mateus' analysis "seems to indicate that the double standard thesis can be actually applied to trans-national contexts. This means that the framing of politics and business may not be limited to one country but may reflect a political world-view occurring in contemporary societies. From the double standard standpoint, there are no fundamental differences in the way Canadian political cartoonists and Portuguese political cartoons assess politics and business life" (Mateus, 2016:216). The paper does not tell that all political cartoons are based on this kind of double standard, but suggests that the double standard thesis in Political Cartoons may be a frequent frame among possible others.

A political cartoon commonly draws on two unrelated events and brings them together incongruously for humorous effect. The humour can reduce people's political anger and so serves a useful purpose. Such a cartoon also reflects real life and politics, where a deal is often done on unrelated proposals beyond public scrutiny.

Pocket cartoons

A pocket cartoon is a form of cartoon which generally consists of a topical political gag/joke and appears as a single-panel single-column drawing. It was introduced by Osbert Lancaster in 1939 at the Daily Express.[20] A 2005 obituary by The Guardian of its pocket cartoonist David Austin said "Newspaper readers instinctively look to the pocket cartoon to reassure them that the disasters and afflictions besetting them each morning are not final. By taking a sideways look at the news and bringing out the absurd in it, the pocket cartoonist provides, if not exactly a silver lining, then at least a ray of hope."[21]

Controversies

Editorial cartoons sometimes cause controversies.[22] Examples include the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy (stemming from the publication of cartoons of Muhammad) and the 2007 Bangladesh cartoon controversy.

Libel lawsuits have been rare. In Britain, the first successful lawsuit against a cartoonist in over a century came in 1921 when J.H. Thomas, the leader of the National Union of Railwaymen (NUR), initiated libel proceedings against the magazine of the British Communist Party. Thomas claimed defamation in the form of cartoons and words depicting the events of "Black Friday"—when he allegedly betrayed the locked-out Miners' Federation. Thomas won his lawsuit, and restored his reputation.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sterling, Christopher (2009). Encyclopedia of Journalism. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc. pp. 253–261. ISBN 0-7619-2957-6.
  2. ^ Shelton, Mitchell. "Editorial Cartoons: An Introduction | HTI". hti.osu.edu. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
  3. ^ a b c "Satire, sewers and statesmen: why James Gillray was king of the cartoon". The Guardian. 16 June 2015.
  4. ^ a b Appelbaum & Kelly 1981, p. 15.
  5. ^ J. B. Nichols, 1833 p.192 "PLATE VIII. ... Britannia 1763"
  6. ^ J. B. Nichols, 1833 p.193 "Retouched by the Author, 1763"
  7. ^ Richetti, John J. (2005). The Cambridge history of English literature, 1660–1780. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78144-2., p. 85.
  8. ^ a b Charles Press (1981). The Political Cartoon. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 34.
  9. ^ See Ronald Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works (3rd edition, London 1989), no. 43.
  10. ^ "A Rake's Progress". Sir John Soane's Museum. Sir John Soane's Museum. 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  11. ^ Chris Upton. "Birth of England's pocket cartoon".
  12. ^ Martin Rowson, speaking on The Secret of Drawing, presented by Andrew Graham Dixon, BBCTV
  13. ^ "James Gillray: The Scourge of Napoleon". HistoryToday.
  14. ^ Gatrell, Vic. City of Laughter: Sex and Satire in Eighteenth-Century London. New York: Walker & Co., 2006
  15. ^ "Caricature and cartoon". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  16. ^ Albert Boime, "Thomas Nast and French Art", American Art Journal (1972) 4#1 pp. 43–65
  17. ^ "CSPG, politicalgraphics". CSPG, politicalgraphics. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
  18. ^ "British Cartoon Archive at University of Kent | Culture24". www.culture24.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
  19. ^ Davis, Barry (2011-05-31). "'Dry Bones': Row shows clash of civilizations, Jerusalem Post". Jpost.com. Retrieved 2014-05-16.
  20. ^ David Smith, The Observer, 23 November 2008, Timeless appeal of the classic joke
  21. ^ Nicola Jennings and Patrick Barkham, The Guardian, 21 November 2005, David Austin: Guardian pocket cartoonist with a sceptically humanist view of the news
  22. ^ Navasky, Victor S. (12 November 2011). "Why Are Political Cartoons Incendiary?" – via NYTimes.com.
  23. ^ Samuel S. Hyde, "'Please, Sir, he called me “Jimmy!' Political Cartooning before the Law: 'Black Friday,' J.H. Thomas, and the Communist Libel Trial of 1921," Contemporary British History (2011) 25#4 pp 521–550

Further reading

  • Adler, John, and Hill, Draper. Doomed by Cartoon: How Cartoonist Thomas Nast and the New York Times Brought Down Boss Tweed and His Ring of Thieves (2008)
  • Gocek, Fatma Muge. Political Cartoons in the Middle East: Cultural Representations in the Middle East (Princeton series on the Middle East) (1998)
  • Hess, Stephen, and Sandy Northrop. American Political Cartoons, 1754–2010: The Evolution of a National Identity (2010)
  • Keller, Morton. The Art and Politics of Thomas Nast (1975)
  • Knieper, Thomas. "Caricature and cartoon". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • Krauss, Jerelle. All the Art That’s Fit to Print (And Some That Wasn’t): Inside The New York Times Op-Ed Page (2009). excerpt ISBN 978-0-231-13825-3
  • "It's No Laughing Matter". Classroom Materials: Presentations and Activities. Library of Congress.
  • Mateus, Samuel. ""Political Cartoons as communicative weapons – the hypothesis of the 'Double Standard Thesis' in three Portuguese cartoons", Communication Studies, nº23, pp.195-221 (2016)
  • McKenna, Kevin J. All the Views Fit to Print: Changing Images of the U.S. in 'Pravda' Political Cartoons, 1917–1991 (2001)
  • Morris, Frankie. Artist of Wonderland: The Life, Political Cartoons, and Illustrations of Tenniel (Victorian Literature and Culture Series) (2005)
  • Navasky, Victor S. (2013). The Art of Controversy: Political Cartoons and Their Enduring Power. ISBN 978-0307957207.
  • Nevins, Allan. A Century of Political Cartoons: Caricature in the United States from 1800 to 1900 (1944)
  • Press, Charles. The Political Cartoon (1981)

External links

Backbench (comics)

Backbench is a panel cartoon appearing in The Globe and Mail. The strip is written and drawn by Graham Harrop. It consists of multiple- and single-panel jokes, generally drawn from and satirizing Canadian politics.

Graham Harrop also has an editorial cartoon in the Vancouver Sun three days a weeks as well as publishing books and cards for special occasions through his website: www.grahamharrop.com

Bad Reporter

Bad Reporter is a semi-weekly editorial cartoon in comic strip format

that first appeared in the San Francisco Chronicle on September 25, 2003. After being syndicated by Universal Press Syndicate from August 12, 2005 to 2011, it is now distributed by Andrews McMeel Syndication.

It typically contains four panels, the first a simple black panel with a caricature of creator Don Asmussen and the slogan "The lies behind the truth, and the truth behind those lies that are behind that truth". The remaining three are spoofs (parodies) of newspaper articles containing a mock-up of a prominent newspaper masthead (such as the Chronicle or The New York Times), a headline, a simulated photograph, and a short text introduction or lead. Images are often obviously doctored file photographs or images from recent newspapers. Often there are humorous sidebars and other graphics.

The strip grew out of an earlier effort for the paper titled The San Francisco Comic Strip. Its first topic was the recall of Governor Gray Davis. It then moved on to cover the 2004 presidential election and events beyond.

The humor is generally topical and absurdist, describing one local or national current event in the terms and context of another. The strip often focuses on political scandals in San Francisco, California. For example, a panel from one 2007 strip describes a notorious brawl between students at a local Catholic high school and a visiting Yale University a cappella glee club in terms usually used with respect to the Iraq War (the 2003 United States military action in Iraq), with local celebrities the Brown Twins humorously portrayed as "warlords" who want the college singer "occupiers" out "right now."

Berry's World

Berry's World was the title of a syndicated daily editorial cartoon by Jim Berry which ran from 1963 through 2003, with a weekly color installment that appeared in the Sunday comic strip section. Berry received the National Cartoonist Society Newspaper Panel Cartoon Award for 1965, 1966, and 1972 for his work on the strip.

Bhutan Observer

The Bhutan Observer was Bhutan's first private bilingual newspaper. It was launched as a private limited company by parent company Bhutan Media Services (BMS), and began publishing on June 2, 2006, in Thimphu. Its Dzongkha edition is called Druk Nelug, and the newspaper maintains an online service in English.The newspaper employs about 60 people in editorial, commercial, administrative, and managerial departments. The editorial department has won several national journalism awards for the best editorial, best Dzongkha issue, best editorial cartoon, and the most valuable story on Gross National Happiness. The former Executive Editor, Sonam Kinga, was one of several relatively young individuals to make an early entry into newly democratic Bhutanese politics in 2007, winning a seat and leadership position in the kingdom's first National Council elections.As Bhutan has begun developing its private media sector, fledgling media outlets including the Bhutan Observer have faced scrutiny by public figures over novice reporting, misquoted sources, and viewpoint biases with the effect of presenting overly sensational and negative coverage in articles. Language of publication has also become a significant issue, as government language requirements strain publishers' budgets.

Blaine (cartoonist)

Blaine (July 7, 1937 – February 5, 2012) was the name used by Canadian political cartoonist Blaine MacDonald.

Blaine was born in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, and later relocated to Hamilton, Ontario. His work was published in The Hamilton Spectator. He received the National Cartoonist Society Editorial Cartoon Award for 1969. In 1963 Blaine became the first cartoonist ever to win the now internationally famous Salon of Cartoons, in Montreal. He once presented a pencil sketch of Lindon B. Johnson to him at the White House.

Blaine died in Hamilton on February 5, 2012.

Finn Graff

Finn Graff (born 25 December 1938) is a Norwegian illustrator.

He was born in Wangerooge, Germany as a son of aviator Heinz Friedrich Wöhlecke (1909–1944) and translator Margit-Ruth Graff (1914–2000). He was an older brother of Jens Graff. He moved to Norway in 1946, but had no father and lived at the orphanage Christiania Opfostringshus from 1949 to 1954. He did however take higher education, at the Norwegian National Academy of Craft and Art Industry from 1959 to 1963. In 1960 he was hired as an illustrator and political cartoonist in the newspaper Morgenposten. From 1963 to 1988 he worked in Arbeiderbladet and from 1988 in Dagbladet. He has also drawn several book covers. He is represented in the National Gallery of Norway. He won the Editorial Cartoon of the Year award in 2000 and 2005. He was decorated as Knight First Class of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav in 2007.

Frank Miller (editorial cartoonist)

Frank Andrea Miller (March 28, 1925 – February 17, 1983) was an American editorial cartoonist. He was a cartoonist for the Des Moines Register from 1953 to 1983. In 1963, Miller received the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning for his notable editorial cartoon on nuclear warfare which depicts a world destroyed and one ragged figure saying to another, "I said -- we sure settled that dispute, didn't we!"

Graeme MacKay

Graeme MacKay (born 23 September 1968) is the Hamilton Spectator's resident editorial cartoonist. Born in 1968, grew up in Dundas, Ontario. A graduate from Parkside High School in Dundas, Graeme attended the University of Ottawa majoring in History and Political Science. There he submitted cartoons to the student newspaper, The Fulcrum, and became the graphics editor. Between 1989 and 1991 he illustrated and, along with writer Paul Nichols, co-wrote a weekly comic strip, entitled "Alas & Alack", a satire of current day public figures framed in a medieval setting.After a 2 year working tour through Europe and North Africa he returned to Canada in 1994 and submitted cartoons to various newspapers. His work caught the eye of The Hamilton Spectator and in 1997, he was hired as a full-time editorial cartoonistBesides creating five editorial cartoons per week for the Spectator, Graeme's work is nationally syndicated through Artizans. Through distribution his cartoons appear across the Internet and in newspapers, big and small, throughout Canada, and occasionally in the United States.

Between 1999 and 2003, Graeme illustrated a comic strip exclusively for the Hamilton Spectator called Gridlock featuring 5 characters working at a fictitious local taxi company called Hammercab. Gridlock’s creation came about through a partnership with Wade Hemsworth, a columnist at the Hamilton Spectator, who wrote the scripts.Between 2008 and 2010 Graeme was President of the Association of Canadian Editorial Cartoonists, and hosted its biennial gathering in Hamilton in September, 2010.

Graeme has lived in Hamilton, Ottawa, Toronto and London UK, for 18 months (1994) as a counter clerk in the food halls of Harrods in Knightsbridge. He now resides in Hamilton, with his wife Wendi, and their daughters, Gillian and Jacqueline.

Jerry Holbert

Jerry Holbert is a cartoonist best known for his political cartoons.

He has a syndicated editorial comic strip. He received the National Cartoonist Society Editorial Cartoon Award for the year 2000.

Holbert grew up in Middletown Township, New Jersey.He currently works for the Boston Herald newspaper, where he publishes editorial cartoons.

In October 2014, Holbert came under criticism for what many people viewed as a racist depiction of United States President Barack Obama which used the watermelon stereotype: Holbert pictured a recent White House intruder using the president's bathtub while recommending to Obama the use of watermelon-flavored toothpaste. After negative public reaction, Holbert and also the Boston Herald apologized, and the nationally syndicated version of the cartoon was hastily edited to change the toothpaste flavor to raspberry.

John Fischetti

John R. Fischetti (September 27, 1916 – November 18, 1980) was an editorial cartoonist for the New York Herald Tribune and the Chicago Daily News. He received a Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1969 and numerous awards from the National Cartoonists Society.

Kevin Kallaugher

Kevin Kallaugher (born March 23, 1955 in Norwalk, Connecticut) is a political cartoonist for The Economist and the Baltimore Sun. He cartoons using the pen name, KAL.

Larry Wright (cartoonist)

Larry Wright was an American cartoonist, known for his conservative editorial cartoons published in The Detroit News from 1976 to 2009.He received the National Cartoonist Society Editorial Cartoon Award for 1980 and 1984. He was also the author of the comic strips Wright Angles and Kit 'N' Carlyle. Wright died on May 21, 2017 at the age of 77.

Merle Tingley

Merle "Ting" Tingley (1922-2017) was a Canadian cartoonist who was the main editorial cartoonist for the London, Ontario newspaper, The London Free Press, from 1948 to 1986 as well as being syndicated for 60 other publications as well.In World War II, Tingley was the official cartoonist for the Canadian Army magazine, Khaki, and a contributor for the overseas army newspaper, The Maple Leaf. After his discharge, Tingley toured the country on his motorcycle hoping to find work as a cartoonist only to have the various newspapers in applied at turn him down. When Tingley reached London, Ontario, he was out of funds and had to gain a menial job at the London Free Press with a friend's help. However, Tingley's fortunes improved when an editor on that paper noticed a cartoon Tingley drew of the mayor during the municipal election. The editor was impressed enough with that work to arrange to have Tingley become the resident editorial cartoonist.Tingley's mascot was a worm character called Luke Worm who usually was present in each of his cartoons.

Tingley's honours include the National Newspaper Award for editorial cartooning in 1955, National Headliner Award for Editorial Cartoon year for 1965 and induction into the Canadian Cartoonist Hall of Fame in 2015. In addition, collections of his work are stored at the University of Western Ontario and at Library and Archives Canada in Ottawa.After his retirement in 1986, his artistic contributions have been commemorated since 2014 in the Ting Comic And Graphic Arts Festival in London, Ontario. It is an annual three week arts festival at The TAP Centre for Creativity devoted to cartooning and sequential art which includes gallery displays of various local Canadian artists including selections of Tingley's art, as well as various activities devoted to the medium and is scheduled to conclude with the annual Free Comic Book Day event.

Print syndication

Print syndication distributes news articles, columns, political cartoons, comic strips and other features to newspapers, magazines and websites. The syndicates offer reprint rights and grant permissions to other parties for republishing content of which they own and/or represent copyrights. Other terms for the service include a newspaper syndicate, a press syndicate, and a feature syndicate.

The syndicate is an agency that offers features from notable journalists and authorities as well as reliable and established cartoonists. It fills a need among smaller weekly and daily newspapers for material that helps them compete with large urban papers, at a much lesser cost than if the client were to purchase the material themselves. Generally, syndicates sell their material to one client in each territory.

Typical syndicated features are advice columns (parenting, health, finance, gardening, cooking, etc.), humor columns, editorial opinion, critic's reviews, and gossip columns. Some syndicates specialize in one type of feature, such as comic strips.

Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning

The Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartoons is one of the fourteen Pulitzer Prizes that is annually awarded for Journalism. It has been awarded since 1922 for a distinguished editorial cartoon or portfolio of cartoons published during the year, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing, and pictorial effect.

Since 1980, finalists (usually two) have been announced in addition to the winner.

The Blade (Toledo, Ohio)

The Blade, also known as the Toledo Blade, is a daily newspaper in Toledo, Ohio, in the United States, first published on December 19, 1835.

The Brilliant Mind of Edison Lee

The Brilliant Mind of Edison Lee is a comic strip created by John Hambrock and distributed by King Features Syndicate. It debuted November 12, 2006. While this strip is about a ten-year-old boy genius, Edison Lee, it also has aspects of an editorial cartoon since Edison constantly talks about the US political, and economic situation. In March 2010, the strip was nominated for the National Cartoonists Society's division award in the category Newspaper Comic Strip, along with Zits and Non Sequitur.

Uclick

Uclick LLC was an American corporation (a division of Andrews McMeel Universal) selling "digital entertainment content" for the desktop, the web and mobile phones. Uclick operated several consumer websites, including the comic strip and editorial cartoon site GoComics and the puzzle and casual game sites ThePuzzleSociety.com and UclickGames.com.

Uclick content included comic strips, editorial cartoons, puzzles, casual games, manga, comic books, syndicated columns, photography and illustration. Uclick content was distributed online through consumer and news web portals such as Yahoo!, MSNBC.com, New York Times, washingtonpost.com, CNN, USA TODAY, and AOL. Comic strip and cartoon content from Uclick was available online and on mobile phones through the company's website, Uclick.com.

In July 2009, Uclick merged with Andrews McMeel's Universal Press Syndicate (UPS) to form Universal Uclick (now known as Andrews McMeel Syndication).

Vic Roschkov Sr.

Vic Roschkov Sr. is a Canadian editorial cartoonist and illustrator, now living in London, Ontario, Canada.

Born in Kiev in the Soviet Ukraine, he moved with his family to London, Ontario, at an early age and later began his career in journalism at the Windsor Star in the early 1970s. Roschkov subsequently moved to the Toronto Star where he won the prestigious National Newspaper Award for cartooning in 1980—the first time that he'd submitted an editorial cartoon for consideration.

Roschkov later worked for the Edmonton Sun.

Roschkov has had a selection of his cartoons published by Prentice-Hall and for many years was staff cartoonist at the Edmonton Sun. Numerous Roschkov editorial cartoons have been acquired by the National Archives of Canada and are now part of its permanent collection in Ottawa, Ontario.

Vic Roschkov Sr. has two sons: Vic, is also a notable artist living in London, Ontario and Tom, a musician who lives in Edmonton

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