Edirne [eˈdiɾne], historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria. Edirne served as the third capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1369 to 1453, before Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) became the empire's fourth and final capital between 1453 and 1922. The city's estimated population in 2014 was 165,979.
Location of Edirne within Turkey
|• Mayor||Recep Gürkan (CHP)|
|• Governor||Dursun Ali Şahin|
|• Province||6,098 km2 (2,354 sq mi)|
|• City||844 km2 (326 sq mi)|
|Elevation||42 m (138 ft)|
|• Density||196.7/km2 (509/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (FET)|
|Area code(s)||(+90) 284|
The city was founded as Hadrianopolis (Ἁδριανούπολις in Greek), named after the Roman emperor Hadrian. This name is still used in the modern Greek language (Αδριανούπολη, Adrianoúpoli). The Turkish name Edirne derives from the Greek name. The name Adrianople was used in English until the Turkish adoption of the Latin alphabet in 1928 made Edirne the internationally recognized name. Bulgarian: Одрин, Albanian: Edrenë, Macedonian: Одрин / Eдрене, Slovene: Odrin and Serbian: Једрене / Jedrene are adapted forms of the name Hadrianopolis or of its Turkish version; see also its other names.
The area around Edirne has been the site of numerous major battles and sieges, from the days of the ancient Greeks. The vagaries of the border region between Asia and Europe gives rise to Edirne's historic claim to be the most frequently contested spot on the globe.
In Greek mythology, Orestes, son of king Agamemnon, built this city as Orestias, at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza). The city was (re)founded eponymously by the Roman Emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement known as Uskadama, Uskudama, Uskodama or Uscudama. It was the capital of the Bessi, or of the Odrysians. Hadrian developed it, adorned it with monuments, changed its name to Hadrianopolis (which would be corrupted into Adrianopolis, Anglicised as Adrianople), and made it the capital of the Roman province of Thrace. Licinius was defeated there by Constantine I in 323, and Emperor Valens was killed by the Goths in 378 during the Battle of Adrianople (378).
During the existence of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, the Crusaders were decisively defeated by the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan in the Battle of Adrianople (1205). In 1206 Adrianople and its territory was given to the Byzantine aristocrat Theodore Branas as a hereditary fief by the Latin regime. Theodore Komnenos, Despot of Epirus, took possession of it in 1227, but three years later was defeated at Klokotnitsa by Emperor Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria.
In 1361, the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad I invaded Thrace. Murad captured Adrianople, probably in 1369 (the date is disputed). The city became "Edirne" (the Turkish pronunciation). Murad moved the Ottoman capital to Edirne. Mehmed the Conqueror (Sultan Mehmed II) was born in Edirne, where he fell under the influence of some Hurufis dismissed by Taş Köprü Zade in the Şakaiki Numaniye as "Certain accursed ones of no significance", who were burnt as heretics by a certain Mahmud Pasha.
The city remained the Ottoman capital for 84 years until 1453, when Mehmed II took Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) and moved the capital there. Edirne is famed for its many mosques, domes, minarets, and palaces from the Ottoman period.
Sultan Mehmed IV left the palace in Constantinople and died in Edirne in 1693.
Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, lived in Edirne from 1863 to 1868. He was exiled there by the Ottoman Empire before being banished further to the Ottoman penal colony in Akka. He referred to Edirne in his writings as the "Land of Mystery".
Edirne was a sanjak centre during the Ottoman period and was bound to, successively, the Rumeli Eyalet and Silistre Eyalet before becoming a provincial capital of the Eyalet of Edirne at the beginning of the 19th century; until 1878, the Eyalet of Edirne comprised the sanjaks of Edirne, Tekfurdağı, Gelibolu, Filibe, and İslimye.
Edirne was briefly occupied by imperial Russian troops in 1829 during the Greek War of Independence and in 1878 during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. The city suffered a fire in 1905. In 1905 it had about 80,000 inhabitants, of whom 30,000 were Turks; 22,000 Greeks; 10,000 Bulgarians; 4,000 Armenians; 12,000 Jews; and 2,000 more citizens of unclassified ethnic/religious backgrounds.
Edirne was a vital fortress defending Ottoman Constantinople and Eastern Thrace during the Balkan Wars of 1912–13. It was briefly occupied by the Bulgarians in 1913, following the Siege of Adrianople. The Great Powers–Britain, Italy, France, and Russia–forced the Ottoman Empire to cede Edirne to Bulgaria at the end of First Balkan War, which created a political scandal in the Ottoman government in Istanbul (as Edirne was a former capital of the Empire), leading to the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état. Although it was victorious in the coup, the Committee of Union and Progress was unable to keep Edirne, but under Enver Pasha (who proclaimed himself the "second conqueror of Edirne", after Murad I), it was retaken from the Bulgarians soon after the Second Balkan War began.
It was occupied by the Greeks between the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 and their defeat at the end of the Greco-Turkish War, also known as the Western Front of the larger Turkish War of Independence, in 1922.
According to the 2007 census, Edirne Province had a population of 382,222 inhabitants. The city is a commercial centre for woven textiles, silks, carpets and agricultural products.
Adrianople was made the seat of a Greek metropolitan and of an Armenian bishop. Adrianople is also the centre of a Bulgarian diocese, but not recognized and deprived of a bishop. The city also had some Protestants. The Latin Catholics, foreigners for the most part, and not numerous, were dependent on the vicariate-apostolic of Constantinople. At Adrianople itself were the parish of St. Anthony of Padua (Minors Conventual) and a school for girls conducted by the Sisters of Charity of Agram. In the suburb of Karaağaç were a church (Minor Conventuals), a school for boys (Assumptionists) and a school for girls (Oblates of the Assumption). Each of its mission stations, at Tekirdağ and Alexandroupoli, had a school (Minor Conventuals), and there was one at Gallipoli (the Assumptionists).
Around 1850, from the standpoint of the Eastern Catholic Churches, Adrianople was the residence of a Bulgarian vicar-apostolic for the 4,600 Eastern Catholics of the Ottoman vilayet (province) of Thrace and after 1878 - of the principality of Bulgaria. They had 18 parishes or missions, 6 of which were in the principality, with 20 churches or chapels, 31 priests, of whom 6 were Assumptionists and 6 were Resurrectionists; 11 schools with 670 pupils. In Adrianople itself were only a very few United Bulgarians, with an Episcopal church of St. Elias, and the churches of St. Demetrius and Sts. Cyril and Methodius. The last is served by the Resurrectionists, who have also a college of 90 pupils. In the suburb of Karaağaç, the Assumptionists have a parish and a seminary with 50 pupils. Besides the Eastern Catholic Bulgarians, the above statistics included the Greek Catholic missions of Malgara (now Malkara) and Daoudili (now Davuteli village in Malkara), with 4 priests and 200 faithful, because from the civil point of view belonged to the Bulgarian Vicariate.
Later however, the Roman Catholic diocese was discontinued, and exists only in name as a titular metropolitan archbishopric, under the full name Hadrianopolis in Haemimonto to distinguish it from several other titular sees named Hadrianopolis.
Situated 7 km (4.3 mi) near the Greek and 20 km (12 mi) Bulgarian borders, Edirne is famed for its many mosques, domes and minarets. The Selimiye Mosque, built in 1575 and designed by Turkey's greatest master architect, Mimar Sinan (c. 1489/1490–1588), is one of the most important monuments in the city. It has the highest minarets in Turkey, at 70.90 m (232.6 ft) and a cupola 3 or 4 ft (0.91 or 1.22 m) higher than that of Hagia Sophia, the Byzantine Orthodox Cathedral (now museum) in Istanbul. Carrying the name of the then reigning Ottoman Sultan Selim II (r. 1566–1574), this mosque futures Turkish marble handicrafts, and it is covered with valuable tiles and fine paintings. Other notable mosques are Eski Cami (Old Mosque), and Burmalı Cami (Serpent Mosque), aka Üç Şerefeli Mosque.
Edirne has three historic covered bazaars: Arasta, next to Selimiye Mosque, Bedesten next to Eski Cami and Ali Paşa Çarşısı (Ali Pasha Bazaar).
Besides the mosques, there are visitor attractions in Edirne, all reflecting its rich past. The most prominent place being the Edirne Palace (Ottoman Turkish: Saray-ı Cedid-i Amire for "New Imperial Palace") in Sarayiçi quarter, built during the reign of Murad II (r. 1421–1444). Although the buildings of the palace and its bath (Kum Kasrı Hamamı) are in ruined form, the palace gate and the palace kitchen facility are restored. The Kasr-ı Adalet ("Justice Castle"), built as part of the palace complex, stands intact next to the small Fatih Bridge over the Tunca river.
There are caravansaries, like the Rustem Pasha and Ekmekcioglu Ahmet Pasha caravansaries, which were designed to host travelers, in the 16th century.
The historic Karaağaç railway station hosts today, after redevelopment, the Trakya University's Faculty of Fine Arts in Karaağaç suburb of Edirne. Next to it, the Treaty of Lausanne Monument and Museum are situated.
The traditional oil-wrestling tournament called Kırkpınar, is held every year in late June or early July. Kakava, an international festival celebrating the Roma people is held on 5 May each year.
Edirne is well known for local dishes. "Ciğer tava" (breaded and deep-fried liver) is often served with a side of cacık, a cool dish of diluted strained yogurt with chopped cucumber. Also, locally-made marzipan, which has a different recipe from standard marzipan, is one of traditional desserts of Edirne.
Handmade brooms with a mirror in them are one of the cultural images of the city and a central marriage tradition. Miniature versions are still sold in gift shops.
Edirne's economy largely depends on agriculture. 73% of the working population work in agriculture, fishing, forests and hunting. The lowlands are productive. Corn, sugarbeets and sunflowers are the leading crops. Melons, watermelons, rice, tomatoes, eggplants and viniculture are important.
Historic buildings and events have elevated tourism's role in the economy.
Industry is developing. Agriculture-based industries (agro-industries) are especially important for the city's economy.
The Vilayet of Adrianople or Vilayet of Edirne (Ottoman Turkish: ولايت ادرنه, Vilâyet-i Edirne) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
This vilayet was split between Turkey and Greece in 1923, culminating in the formation of Western and Eastern Thrace after World War I as part of the Treaty of Lausanne. A small portion of the Vilayet was given to Bulgaria in the Treaty of Bucharest (1913) after the Balkan wars. In the late 19th century it reportedly had an area of 26,160 square miles (67,800 km2). In the east it bordered with the Istanbul Vilayet, the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, in the west with the Salonica Vilayet, in the north with Eastern Rumelia (Bulgaria since 1885) and in the south with the Aegean Sea. Sometimes the area is described also as Southern Thrace, or Adrianopolitan Thrace.After the city of Edirne (pop. in 1905 about 80,000), the principal towns were Tekirdağ (35,000), Gelibolu (25,000), Kırklareli (16,000), İskeçe (14,000), Çorlu (11,500), Dimetoka (10,000), Enez (8000), Gümülcine (8000) and Dedeağaç (3000).Altınyazı Dam
Altınyazı Dam is a dam in Edirne Province, Turkey, built between 1965 and 1970.Edirne Museum
Edirne Museum is in Edirne, TurkeyEdirne Province
Edirne Province (Turkish: Edirne ili, Bulgarian: Одрин, Greek: Επαρχία Αδριανούπολης) is a Turkish province located in East Thrace. Part of European Turkey, it is one of only three provinces located entirely within continental Europe. Edirne Province is bordered by Tekirdağ Province and Kırklareli Province to the east, and the Gallipoli peninsula of Çanakkale Province to the south-east. It shares international borders with Bulgaria to the north and Greece to the west.
Edirne is the capital of the province, notable for serving as the third capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1363 to 1453.Enez
Enez is a town and a district of Edirne Province, in Thrace, Turkey. The pre-Turkish name of the town was Ainos (Greek: Αἶνος), Latinized as Aenus.
The mayor is Ahmet Çayır (DSP). The population is 3,826 as of 2010.Eskişehir Basket
Eskişehir Basket, known as NSK Eskişehir Basket for sponsorship reasons, is a professional basketball team based in the city of Eskişehir in Turkey. Their home arena is the Anadolu Üniversitesi Sport Hall with a capacity of 5,000 seats.Evliya Kasim Pasha Mosque
Evliya Kasim Pasha Mosque (Turkish: Evliya Kasım Paşa Cami) is a 15th-century Ottoman mosque in Edirne, northwestern Turkey. It is named after Kasim Pasha (fl. 1442–43).
The mosque was built by Kasim Pasha in 1478–1479, the Beylerbey of the Rumelia Eyalet in the Ottoman Empire and a commander of the Ottoman forces during the reign of the sultans Mehmed the Conqueror (r. 1444‒1446, 1451‒1481) and Bayezid II (r. 1481–1512); he was also titled "Evliya", saint. The grave of Kasim Pasha is in the mosque's yard.Maritsa
The Maritsa, Meriç or Evros (Bulgarian: Марица, Marica; Ancient Greek: Ἕβρος, Hébros; Greek: Έβρος, Évros; Latin: Hebrus; Romanized Thracian: Evgos or Ebros; Turkish: Meriç) is, with a length of 480 km (300 mi) (of which 309 km or 192 mi in Bulgaria), the longest river that runs solely in the interior of the Balkans. Its drainage area is about 53,000 km2 (20,000 sq mi), of which 66.2% in Bulgaria, 27.5% in Turkey and 6.3% in Greece. It has its origin in the Rila Mountains in Western Bulgaria, flowing southeast between the Balkan and Rhodope Mountains, past Plovdiv and Parvomay (where the Mechka and the Kayaliyka join it) to Edirne, Turkey. East of Svilengrad, Bulgaria, the river flows eastwards, forming the border between Bulgaria (on the north bank) and Greece (on the south bank), and then between Turkey and Greece. At Edirne, the river flows through Turkish territory on both banks, then turns towards the south and forms the border between Greece on the west bank and Turkey on the east bank to the Aegean Sea. Turkey was given a small sector on the west bank opposite the city of Edirne. The river enters the Aegean Sea near Enez, where it forms a river delta. The Tundzha is its chief tributary; the Arda is another one. The lower course of the Maritsa/Evros forms part of the Bulgarian-Greek border and most of the Greek–Turkish border. The upper Maritsa valley is a principal east-west route in Bulgaria. The unnavigable river is used for power production and irrigation.
The places that the river flows through include Pazardzhik, Plovdiv, (next to) Parvomay, Dimitrovgrad and Svilengrad in Bulgaria, Edirne in Turkey and Kastanies, Pythio, Didymoteicho and Lavara in Greece. There are a number of bridges over the river, including the one at Svilengrad, the one west of Edirne in Turkey and GR-2 with the D110/E90 further south and as its border crossings.Muradiye Mosque, Edirne
The Muradiye Mosque (Turkish: Muradiye Camii) is a 15th-century Ottoman mosque in Edirne, Turkey. The building is noted for the tiles that decorate the mihrab and the walls of the prayer hall.Mustafa II
Mustafa II (; Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى ثانى Muṣṭafā-yi sānī; 6 February 1664 – 29 December 1703) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703.Old Mosque, Edirne
The Old Mosque (Turkish: Eski Camii) is an early 15th-century Ottoman mosque in Edirne, Turkey.Orestias
Orestias (Greek: Ορεστιάς) was an ancient Greek settlement next to the Maritsa (or Evros) river, near or at the site of present-day Edirne, and close to the current border between Turkey and Greece.Legends claim that Orestias was founded by Orestes, the son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra.
Orestias or Orestia is thought to have been the same town as Uscudama (other variants: Uskudama, Uskadama, Uskodama) or Odrysa (other variants: Odrysia, Odrysos, Odrysus) which was the first Odrysian capital. Orestias took its name by the Greeks, at least from the time Philip II of Macedon took over the town. The Roman emperor Hadrian expanded the town into a city, gave it a strong fortification and renamed it to Hadrianopolis. However the name Orestias for the city of Hadrian, was still used by many writers at the Byzantine era, along with Adrianoupolis.
During the Ottoman period the name of Adrianou(polis) was paraphrased by the Turks and eventually became Edirne.
In 1920 when the Greeks took over most of Eastern Thrace including Edirne, they restored the city's Roman name (Adrianoupolis) and not its old Greek name (Orestias), which was given to its suburb Karaağaç, in remembrance of the ancient Thracian town.
Orestiada (or Nea Orestias or New Orestias) is a modern Greek town founded in 1923 on a site 17 km to the south of Orestias, to house Greek refugees who had to abandon the latter border town, which was given to Turkey (along with two villages) by the Treaty of Lausanne.Selimiye Mosque
The Selimiye Mosque (Turkish: Selimiye Camii) is an Ottoman imperial mosque, which is located in the city of Edirne, Turkey. The mosque was commissioned by Sultan Selim II, and was built by the imperial architect Mimar Sinan between 1568 and 1575. It was considered by Sinan to be his masterpiece and is one of the highest achievements of Islamic architecture.Siege of Adrianople (1912–13)
The Battle of Adrianople or Siege of Adrianople (Bulgarian: Обсада на Одрин, Serbian: Опсада Једрена, Turkish: Edirne Kuşatması) was fought during the First Balkan War, beginning in mid-November 1912 and ending on 26 March 1913 with the capture of Edirne (Adrianople) by the Bulgarian 2nd Army and the Serbian 2nd Army.
The loss of Edirne delivered the final decisive blow on the Ottoman army and brought to a close the First Balkan War. A treaty was signed in London on 30 May. The city was re-occupied and kept by Turkey in the Second Balkan War.The victorious end of the siege was considered an enormous military success because the defenses of city were carefully developed by leading German siege experts and were dubbed 'undefeatable'. The Bulgarian army, after 5 months of siege and two bold night attacks, took the Ottoman stronghold.
The victors were under the overall command of General Nikola Ivanov, and the commander of the Bulgarian forces on the Eastern sector of the fortress was General Georgi Vazov, brother of the famous Bulgarian writer Ivan Vazov and General Vladimir Vazov.
One early use of an airplane for bombing took place during the siege: the Bulgarians dropped special hand grenades from one or more airplanes in an effort to cause panic among Turkish soldiers. Many young Bulgarian officers and professionals who took part in this decisive battle of the First Balkan War, later played important roles in the politics, culture, commerce and industry of Bulgaria.Süloğlu Dam
Süloğlu Dam is a dam in Süloğlu district, Edirne Province, Turkey. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works and was built between 1975 and 1981.Trakya University
Trakya University (Turkish: Trakya Üniversitesi), a.k.a. University of Thrace, established on July 20, 1982, is a state university located in Edirne, at Turkey's European part Eastern Thrace. Trakya University is a regional university with institutions and schools spread over the Thrace region. Trakya University Edirne runs scientific activities related to regional development and has international relationships especially within the Balkan Universities Network including more than 40 Universities from Balkan countries and the University Loerrach in Germany. Erhan Tabakoglu was elected and confirmed as new Rector of the university in July 2016.Treaty of Adrianople (1829)
The Treaty of Adrianople (also called the Treaty of Edirne) concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. It was signed on 14 September 1829 in Adrianople by Count Alexey Fyodorovich Orlov of Russia and by Abdülkadir Bey of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire gave Russia access to the mouths of the Danube and the fortresses of Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki in Georgia. The Sultan recognized Russia's possession of Georgia (with Imeretia, Mingrelia, Guria) and of the Khanates of Erivan and Nakhichevan which had been ceded to the tsar by Persia in the Treaty of Turkmenchay a year earlier. The treaty opened the Dardanelles to all commercial vessels, thus liberating commerce for cereals, livestock and wood. However, it took the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi (1833) to finally settle the Straits Question between the signatories.
Under the Treaty of Adrianople, the Sultan reguaranteed the previously promised autonomy to Serbia, promised autonomy for Greece, and allowed Russia to occupy Moldavia and Wallachia until the Ottoman Empire had paid a large indemnity. However, under the modifications the later Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi, these indemniİties were sharply curtailed. The treaty also fixed the border between the Ottoman Empire and Wallachia on the thalweg of the Danube, transferring to Wallachia the rule of the rayas of Turnu, Giurgiu and Brăila.The main sections of treaty were as follows:
1) In recognition of the Treaty of London, the independence of Greece under suzerainty of Turkey was accepted.
2) Turkey had nominal suzerainty over the Danube states of Moldavia and Wallachia; for all practical purposes, they were independent.
3) Russia took control of the towns of Anape and Poti in Asia Minor.
4) The Russian traders in Turkey were placed under the legal jurisdiction of the Russian ambassador.Çakmak Dam (Edirne)
Çakmak Dam is a dam in Turkey. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.Üç Şerefeli Mosque
The Üç Şerefeli Mosque (Turkish: Üç Şerefeli Camii) is a 15th-century Ottoman mosque in Edirne, Turkey.
|Climate data for Edirne (1930–2017)|
|Record high °C (°F)||20.5
|Average high °C (°F)||6.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−19.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||66.7
|Average precipitation days||12.4||9.8||9.9||10.1||10.3||8.5||5.5||3.9||4.8||7.7||10.6||13.2||106.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||82||77||73||68||68||64||57||57||63||73||81||83||71|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||77.5||104.5||142.6||195.0||263.5||297.0||341.0||322.4||240.0||170.5||102.0||71.3||2,327.3|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||2.5||3.7||4.6||6.5||8.5||9.9||11.0||10.4||8.0||5.5||3.4||2.3||6.4|
|Source #1: Turkish State Meteorological Service|
|Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity 1931–1960)|
Metropolitan municipalities are bolded.