Edgar Ansel Mowrer (March 8, 1892 – March 2, 1977) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American journalist and author best known for his writings on international events.
Born in Bloomington, Illinois to Rufus and Nellie née Scott, Mowrer graduated from the University of Michigan in 1913. From his elder brother, Paul Scott Mowrer, the editor of Chicago Daily News, Mowrer received a job and in 1914 went to France as a foreign correspondent. From there he reported on events throughout the First World War, including the Italians' defeat at the Battle of Caporetto. In 1916, he married Lilian Thomson; the two had a daughter, Diana, and would remain together until Mowrer's death 61 years later.
Mowrer remained a correspondent in Europe throughout the 1920s and 1930s, living in Rome for eight years before moving to Berlin. In 1933, Mowrer won the Pulitzer Prize for Correspondence for his reporting on the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany, and was named president of the Foreign Press Association. In his dispatches from Germany he had managed to cut below the patina of normalcy to capture events that challenged the belief that Germany's transformation was democratic and natural; he was therefore a target of Nazi ire. In addition to reporting for the Chicago Daily News, Mowrer wrote a best-selling book, Germany Puts the Clock Back, published in 1933, which had angered Nazi officials to the point where Mowrer's friends believed he faced mortal danger.
The German government openly pressured him to leave the country, with Germany's ambassador to the United States notifying the State Department that because of the "people's righteous indignation" the government could no longer hope to keep Mowrer free from harm. When the Chicago Daily News learned about the threats, Frank Knox, the owner of the newspaper, offered Mowrer a position in the paper’s bureau in Tokyo. Mowrer, who did not want to leave Germany, agreed to leave after covering the annual Nazi Party spectacle in Nuremberg set to begin 1 September 1933. After American diplomatic missions to Germany refused to guarantee his and his family's safety, and after a futile personal appeal to newly appointed US ambassador to Germany William Dodd, Mowrer agreed to depart immediately, in return for the release of Paul Goldmann, an elderly Jewish correspondent for the Austrian newspaper Neue Freie Presse, who was being held by the Gestapo for high treason.
A Nazi official, assigned to make sure Mowrer actually left Berlin, approached him as he was boarding the train and asked when he was coming back to Germany; Mowrer answered: "Why, when I can come back with about two million of my countrymen." Initially, he became the Chicago Daily News Tokyo correspondent, then later took over as the Paris bureau chief, continuing to report on European affairs until France's defeat by German forces in 1940.
Returning to the United States, Mowrer served as the Deputy Director, first of the Office of Facts and Figures, then, after the OFF's consolidation, of the Office of War Information, from 1942 until 1943. Upon his departure, he started his column "Edgar Mowrer on World Affairs," which he later supplemented with a column entitled "What's Your Question on World Affairs?" After the Second World War, Mowrer wrote a number of books and helped organize the Americans for Democratic Action. In 1956, he took over as editor of Western World magazine, a position he held for four years. In 1969, he moved to Wonalancet, New Hampshire and wrote a column for The Union Leader until 1976.
The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1933 .Anschluss
Anschluss (German: [ˈʔanʃlʊs] (listen) "joining") refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938. The word's German spelling, until the German orthography reform of 1996, was Anschluß and it was also known as the Anschluss Österreichs (pronunciation , English: Annexation of Austria).
Prior to the Anschluss, there had been strong support from people of all backgrounds – not just Nazis – in both Austria and Germany for a union of the two countries. The desire for a union formed an integral part of the Nazi "Heim ins Reich" movement to bring ethnic Germans outside Nazi Germany into Greater Germany. Earlier, Nazi Germany had provided support for the Austrian National Socialist Party (Austrian Nazi Party) in its bid to seize power from Austria's Fatherland Front government.
The idea of an Anschluss (a united Austria and Germany that would form a "Greater Germany") began after the unification of Germany excluded Austria and the German Austrians from the Prussian-dominated German Empire in 1871. Following the end of World War I with the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in 1918, the newly formed Republic of German-Austria attempted to form a union with Germany, but the Treaty of Saint Germain (10 September 1919) and the Treaty of Versailles (28 June 1919) forbade both the union and the continued use of the name "German-Austria" (Deutschösterreich); and stripped Austria of some of its territories, such as the Sudetenland.CBS
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City (at the CBS Broadcast Center) and Los Angeles (at CBS Television City and the CBS Studio Center).
CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951. It has also been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley. It can also refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950.The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc., a collection of 16 radio stations that was purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, and eventually one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks. In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known simply as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, and eventually adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, which was formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television, radio, and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which also controls the current Viacom.
CBS formerly operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to then, CBS Radio mainly provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, and affiliated radio stations in various other markets. While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations and will license the rights to use CBS trademarks under a long-term contract. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; some of them are also available in Canada via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. The company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue.Dietrich Eckart
Dietrich Eckart (German: [ˈɛkaʁt]; 23 March 1868 – 26 December 1923) was a German journalist, playwright, poet, and politician who was one of the founders of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party, DAP), which later evolved into the Nazi Party (NSDAP). He was a key influence on Adolf Hitler in the early years of the Nazi Party and was a participant in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch.
He died shortly after the putsch, and was elevated, during the Nazi era, to the status of a major thinker and writer.Edward R. Murrow
Edward Roscoe Murrow, (born Egbert Roscoe Murrow; April 25, 1908 – April 27, 1965) was an American broadcast journalist and war correspondent. He first gained prominence during World War II with a series of live radio broadcasts from Europe for the news division of CBS. During the war he recruited and worked closely with a team of war correspondents who came to be known as the Murrow Boys.
A pioneer of radio and television news broadcasting, Murrow produced a series of reports on his television program See It Now which helped lead to the censure of Senator Joseph McCarthy. Fellow journalists Eric Sevareid, Ed Bliss, Bill Downs, Dan Rather, and Alexander Kendrick consider Murrow one of journalism's greatest figures, noting his honesty and integrity in delivering the news.Free World (magazine)
Free World (1941–1946) was the monthly magazine of the International Free World Association, published by Free World, Inc. in New York City. It was edited by "Louis Dolivet," an émigré writer, film producer, and alleged Soviet spy born in Romania as Ludovici Udeanu with French citizenship under the alias Ludovic Brecher. Free World was militantly anti-Fascist, articulating the perspective of left-liberal Popular Front intellectuals and international political figures who supported the Allies in World War II and championed the creation of the United Nations as a successor to the failed post-World War I League of Nations.
Alongside academics and journalists from the United States, Britain, Canada, and Mexico, Free World prominently featured the voices of anti-Axis Chinese nationalists as well as exiled leaders from Spain, Italy, France, elsewhere in Europe, Brazil, Chile, and elsewhere in Latin America. An anonymous "Underground Reporter" gave regular updates on the activities of the Free French and other elements of the European resistance. The magazine's editorial position was fundamentally supportive of Soviet foreign policy, usually although not always in a subtle manner. In this respect Free World was related to publications like The Week (1933–1941), a newsletter used by British journalist and Comintern agent Claud Cockburn to wage a disinformation campaign against Nancy Astor's notorious pro-Nazi 'Cliveden set.'
Similar to other left-liberal journals of its era, Free World combined international political analysis, book reviews, and artwork along with occasional fiction and poetry. Freda Kirchwey and others at The Nation had links to Free World, as did Michael Straight and Henry Wallace of The New Republic. It featured contributions from some on the anti-Stalinist left who later became associated with cold war liberalism, and it bore a resemblance to influential journals associated with the New York intellectuals, including The New Leader, Partisan Review, Common Sense, and Commentary (which began in 1945, followed by The Reporter (1949), Encounter (1953), and Dissent (1954)).
Archived in the UNZ.org digital collection are fifty-five issues of Free World covering a sixty-three-month span from October 1941 through December 1946 (no editions appear for May 1942, January–June 1944, or August 1946; issues from July 1944 onward are shown with magazine covers featuring colorful artwork, while prior editions are displayed without a cover. Starting with its first issue, Free World was billed as "A Monthly Magazine Devoted to Democracy and World Affairs." The month prior to the opening of the United Nations Conference on International Organization in April 1945, the Free World tagline was changed to "A Non-Partisan Magazine Devoted to the United Nations and Democracy." In October 1945, as the UN Charter went into effect, it became simply "A Monthly Magazine for the United Nations." Despite this title, and the extensive involvement of many editors and writers in the establishment of the new international organization, Free World was never formally connected with the United Nations.
Attracting ministers and diplomats from across the nearly fifty original UN Member States, by the start of 1946 Free World published in eight different editions in four languages: American, Mexican, French, Chilean, Chinese, Greek, Puerto Rican, and Uruguayan; Russian, Swedish, Czechoslovakian, Italian, Arabic, and British editions were "in preparation" throughout the last year of publication. Following the final issue of Free World in December 1946, Dolivet launched a new magazine called United Nations World, its first issue appearing in February 1947 (if not earlier). He abandoned that venture in 1950, having returned to France in 1949 and subsequently being banned from reentering the United States upon suspicion of having ties to Communism. United Nations World lasted under different editorship until 1953.Hitlerland
Hitlerland: American Eyewitnesses to the Nazi Rise to Power is a 2012 book by the journalist Andrew Nagorski.
The book covers the years before and during Hitler's ascent to power in Germany—roughly 1922 through 1941, focusing on widely varying impressions of Hitler by Americans who managed to observe him close up. Few outsiders took the man himself seriously even whilst acknowledging the steadily growing power and popularity of the National Socialist Party.
Figures who appear include:
William Dodd, U.S. Ambassador to Germany.
Martha Dodd, daughter of the Ambassador, had numerous affairs with renowned figures in Berlin, became a Soviet agent.
W.E.B. Du Bois
Ernst Hanfstaengl, German/American close friend of Adolf Hitler. Sometimes known as "Hitler's Piano Player"
Richard Helms Later head of the CIA
Philip Johnson Future influential American architect, and admirer of the Nazis.
H. V. Kaltenborn, famed American radio announcer, doubted Nazi brutality until he and his son were beaten for not giving the Nazi salute in 1933.
George F. Kennan Later famous as the architect of containment
Hubert Renfro Knickerbocker, journalist
Charles Lindbergh An admirer of the Nazis, though he spied on them to report to Roosevelt on their air power.
Edgar Ansel Mowrer, Chicago Daily News Berlin bureau chief, one of the first to report Nazi atrocities, lived in daily peril due to his reports of Nazi atrocities. Eventually forced to flee Germany due to threats on his life.
George S. Messersmith, U.S. Consul in Berlin who very early signaled to American officials the dangers of Nazism and Hitler.
Jesse Owens Winner of four gold medals at the 1936 Olympics
Franz von Papen, Vice Chancellor under Hindenburg.
Sigrid Schultz, popular hostess in Berlin
William Shirer, foreign correspondent for the International News Service and later for CBS.
Howard K. Smith
Truman Smith The first American official to meet Hitler.
Karl Henry von Wiegand First American reporter to interview Hitler, in 1922, his views became enormously influential in American views of Hitler
Sherwood Eddy The Protestant missionary who in the first year of Hitler's reign, visited Germany and spoke against Nazi atrocities.In the Garden of Beasts
In the Garden of Beasts: Love, Terror, and an American Family in Hitler's Berlin is a 2011 non-fiction book by Erik Larson.List of University of Michigan alumni
There are more than 500,000 living alumni of the University of Michigan. Notable alumni include computer scientist and entrepreneur Larry Page, actor James Earl Jones, and President of the United States Gerald Ford.Mowrer
Mowrer is the surname of the following people:
Edgar Ansel Mowrer (1892–1977), American journalist and author
Gordon Mowrer (1936–2016), American politician, businessman, and ordained pastor
Nick Mowrer (born 1988), American sport shooter
Orval Hobart Mowrer (1907–1982), American psychologist
Paul Scott Mowrer (1887–1971), American newspaper correspondentPaul Kosok
Paul August Kosok (21 April 1896 – 1959), an American professor in history and government, is credited as the first serious researcher of the Nazca Lines in Peru. His work on the lines started in 1939, when he was doing field study related to the irrigation systems of ancient cultures. By the 1950s, he had completed extensive mapping of more than 300 ancient canals in Peru, in collaboration with archeologist Richard P. Schaedel. Kosok demonstrated the culture's sophisticated management of water to support their settlements.Observing the Nazca Lines, he recognized that some patterns represented living creatures, and some lines related to astronomical events. His study of archeo-astronomy aspects contributed to the recognition of the lines as an important archeological resource, which Peru has protected. The Nazca Lines were designated in 1994 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Pulitzer Prize for Correspondence
The Pulitzer Prize for Correspondence was awarded from 1929 to 1947.Shiela Grant Duff
Shiela Grant Duff (11 May 1913 – 19 March 2004) was a British author, journalist and foreign correspondent. She was notable for her opposition to appeasement before the Second World War.Society for the Prevention of World War III
The Society for the Prevention of World War III was an organization set up in the U.S. in 1944 during World War II that advocated a harsh peace for Germany in order to completely remove Germany as a future military threat.
The Organization was a spin-off of the Writers' War Board, with both headed by (anti-German) novelist Rex Stout and the organization's monthly publication mainly republishing material produced by the War Board.
It succeeded in hardening attitudes towards Germany both in the media and in the government, but by 1948 it had failed in its overall mission, with JCS 1067 rescinded and the Marshall Plan helping Germany, along with the rest of Europe, back on its feet.United States Office of War Information
The United States Office of War Information (OWI) was a United States government agency created during World War II. OWI operated from June 1942 until September 1945. Through radio broadcasts, newspapers, posters, photographs, films and other forms of media, the OWI was the connection between the battlefront and civilian communities. The office also established several overseas branches, which launched a large-scale information and propaganda campaign abroad.William Dodd (ambassador)
William Edward Dodd (October 21, 1869 – February 9, 1940) was an American historian, author and diplomat. A liberal Democrat, he served as the United States Ambassador to Germany from 1933 to 1937 during the Nazi era. Initially a holder of the slightly Antisemitic notions of his times, he went to Germany with instructions from President Franklin D. Roosevelt to do what he could to protest Nazi treatment of Jews in Germany "unofficially," while also attempting to follow official State Department instructions to maintain cordial official diplomatic relations. Convinced from first hand observation that the Nazis were an increasing threat, he resigned over his inability to mobilize the Roosevelt administration, particularly the State Department, to counter the Nazis prior to the start of World War II.