Ed Wood (film)

Ed Wood is a 1994 American biographical comedy-drama film directed and produced by Tim Burton and starring Johnny Depp as the eponymous cult filmmaker. The film concerns the period in Wood's life when he made his best-known films as well as his relationship with actor Bela Lugosi, played by Martin Landau. Sarah Jessica Parker, Patricia Arquette, Jeffrey Jones, Lisa Marie, and Bill Murray are among the supporting cast.

The film was conceived by writers Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski when they were students at the USC School of Cinematic Arts. Irritated at being thought of solely as writers for family films with their work on Problem Child and its sequel, Alexander and Karaszewski struck a deal with Burton and Denise Di Novi to produce the Ed Wood biopic, and Michael Lehmann as director. Due to scheduling conflicts with Airheads, Lehmann had to vacate the director's position, which was taken over by Burton.

Ed Wood was originally in development at Columbia Pictures, but the studio put the film in "turnaround" over Burton's decision to shoot in black-and-white. Ed Wood was taken to the Walt Disney Studios, which produced the film through the studio's Touchstone Pictures division. The film was released to critical acclaim, but was a box office bomb, making only $5.9 million against an $18 million budget. It won two Academy Awards: Best Supporting Actor for Landau and Best Makeup for Rick Baker (who designed Landau's prosthetic makeup), Ve Neill and Yolanda Toussieng.

Ed Wood
Ed Wood film poster
Theatrical release poster
Directed byTim Burton
Produced by
Written byScott Alexander
Larry Karaszewski
Based onNightmare of Ecstasy
by Rudolph Grey
Starring
Music byHoward Shore
CinematographyStefan Czapsky
Edited byChris Lebenzon
Production
company
Distributed byBuena Vista Pictures
Release date
Running time
126 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$18 million[2]
Box office$5.9 million (North America)[2]

Plot

In 1952, Ed Wood is struggling to join the film industry. Upon hearing of an announcement in Variety magazine that producer George Weiss is trying to purchase Christine Jorgensen's life story, Wood wants to meet Weiss. Weiss explains that Variety's announcement was a news leak, and it is impossible to purchase Jorgensen's rights. The producer decides to fictionalize the film, titled I Changed My Sex!. Wood tries to convince Weiss that he is perfect to direct the film, owing to the fact that he himself is a closeted transvestite and knows what it's like to live with a secret and worry what people might think, but is unsuccessful since Weiss wants a director with experience. Wood meets his longtime idol Bela Lugosi and the two become friends. Wood persuades Weiss to let him direct the film by convincing him that having a star in the film would sell tickets, and they could sign Lugosi for a low price.

Wood and Weiss argue over the film's title and subject matter: Weiss has the poster printed, which Wood changes to Glen or Glenda and writes the film about a transvestite rather than a sex change. Weiss allows Wood to shoot whatever he wants as long as the film meets the required length. Wood takes to film production with an unusual approach; shooting only one take per scene, giving actors very little direction and using stock footage to fill in gaps. The movie is released to critical and commercial failure. Because of this, Wood is unsuccessful in getting a job at Weiss' Screen Classics or making a partnership with Warner Bros. executive Feldman, but his girlfriend, Dolores Fuller, tells him that he should try financing his next film independently. Wood is unsuccessful in finding money for Bride of the Atom, but is introduced to the psychic The Amazing Criswell who gives him advice on how to sell himself better.

Wood meets Loretta King, whom he thinks has enough money to fund Bride of the Atom and ends up casting her as the lead instead of Fuller as planned. Filming begins, but is halted when it is revealed that King is actually poor, and Wood has no money to continue production. Wood convinces meat packing industry tycoon Don McCoy to take over funding the film, who agrees as long as the film stars his son Tony as the leading man and the film ends with an explosion. The filming finishes with the title being changed to Bride of the Monster, but Fuller breaks up with Wood after the wrap party because of his circle of misfit friends, his work, and transvestism. Lugosi attempts to conduct a double suicide with Ed after the government cuts off his unemployment, but is talked out of it. Lugosi checks himself into rehab, and Wood meets Kathy O'Hara, who is visiting her father there. He takes her on a date and reveals to her his transvestism, which she accepts.

Wood shoots a film with Lugosi outside his home. When Wood and company attend the premiere for Bride of the Monster, an angry mob chases them out of the theater. Lugosi passes away, leaving Wood without a star. Wood convinces his landlord, a church leader named Reynolds, that funding Wood's script for Grave Robbers from Outer Space would result in a box office success, and generate enough money for Reynolds' dream project. Dr. Tom Mason, O'Hara's chiropractor, is chosen to be Lugosi's stand-in for resembling Lugosi. Wood and the Baptists have conflicts over the title and content of the script which they want to have changed to Plan 9 from Outer Space, along with Ed's B movie directing style, his casting decisions and his transvestism. Wood leaves the set to go to the nearest bar, where he encounters his idol, Orson Welles. Filming for Plan 9 finishes with Ed taking action against his producers. After attending the premiere of Plan 9, Wood and O'Hara go to Las Vegas to get married.

Cast

  • Johnny Depp as Ed Wood: Burton approached Depp and "within 10 minutes of hearing about the project, I was committed," the actor remembers.[3] At the time, Depp was depressed about films and filmmaking. By accepting this part, it gave him a "chance to stretch out and have some fun", and working with Martin Landau, "rejuvenated my love for acting".[3] Depp was already familiar with some of Wood's films through John Waters, who had shown him Plan 9 from Outer Space and Glen or Glenda.[3] To get a handle on how to portray Wood, Depp studied the performance of Jack Haley as the Tin Man in The Wizard of Oz, and the acting of Mickey Rooney, Ronald Reagan and Casey Kasem.[4][5] He watched several Reagan speeches because the actor felt that "he had a kind of blind optimism that was perfect for Ed Wood." Depp also borrowed some of Kasem's cadence and "that utterly confident, breezy salesman quality in his voice".[3]
  • Martin Landau as Bela Lugosi: An old popular horror film actor whom Ed brings back into the spotlight. Rick Baker created Martin's prosthetic makeup. Baker did not use extensive make-up appliances, only enough to resemble Lugosi and allow Landau to use his face to act and express emotion which consisted of a set of ears, nose, chin, and an appliance that covered his upper lip.[6] For research, Landau watched 25 of Lugosi's films and seven interviews between the years of 1931 and 1956.[6] Landau did not want to deliver an over-the-top performance. "Lugosi was theatrical, but I never wanted the audience to feel I was an actor chewing the scenery... I felt it had to be Lugosi's theatricality, not mine."[6]
  • Sarah Jessica Parker as Dolores Fuller: Ed's girlfriend before his relationship with Kathy. Dolores is embarrassed by Ed's transvestism, which leads to their breakup. Dolores later becomes a successful songwriter for Elvis Presley.
  • Patricia Arquette as Kathy O'Hara: Ed's girlfriend after his relationship with Dolores. Kathy does not have a problem with Ed's transvestism, and is eventually married to Ed. Their marriage lasts until Ed's death in 1978. She never remarried. Arquette met her real-life counterpart during filming. The actress found her to be "very graceful and very nice".[7]
  • Lisa Marie as Vampira: Hostess of the local Vampira Show. She is dismissive of Ed at first, but decides to join the cast of Plan 9 from Outer Space, on the condition that she has no lines.
  • Jeffrey Jones as The Amazing Criswell: A local psychic TV entertainer. Criswell helps Ed with usual production duties, finding investors and acting in Ed's films.
  • Max Casella and Brent Hinkley portray Paul Marco and Conrad Brooks: Two of Ed's all-around production assistants and frequent actors. Paul is hired to find the Lugosi stand-in for Plan 9 from Outer Space, while Conrad accidentally has a brief dispute with Lugosi during Glen or Glenda.
  • Bill Murray as John "Bunny" Breckinridge: Ed's drag queen friend who helps him with Plan 9 from Outer Space
  • George "The Animal" Steele as Tor Johnson: A Swedish professional wrestler hired by Wood to be in two of his films, Bride of the Monster and Plan 9.
  • Juliet Landau as Loretta King: King replaces Dolores in Bride of the Monster after Wood mistakes her for an heiress able to front the money for the production costs.
  • Ned Bellamy as Tom Mason: Kathy's chiropractor who is chosen to be Lugosi's stand-in for Plan 9.
  • Mike Starr as George Weiss: Short-tempered and foul-mouthed Z movie producer, known for his work on exploitation films. Weiss hires Ed to direct Glen or Glenda. He threatens to kill Wood over the phone following Glen or Glenda's critical and commercial failure.
  • Stanley DeSantis as Mr. Feldman: an executive at Warner Bros., to whom Wood shows the first cut of Glen or Glenda in an attempt to make movies for Warners; he later tells Wood over the phone that it is the worst picture he has ever seen.
  • Rance Howard as Old Man McCoy: a meat packing tycoon, who agrees to fund Ed's next picture, Bride of The Monster, in exchange for his son Tony being the leading man and the film ending with an explosion.
  • Vincent D'Onofrio as Orson Welles: Appears in a cameo late in the film. Maurice LaMarche provided Welles' voice in an uncredited performance.
  • G. D. Spradlin as Reverend Lemon: a Baptist minister who funds Plan 9 From Outer Space.
  • Korla Pandit, credited as "Indian Musician", essentially appears as himself; like he originally did on his 1950s TV program, Pandit plays organ and does not speak in this cameo.

The film also includes cameos from actors who worked with Wood on Plan 9 from Outer Space, Gregory Walcott and Conrad Brooks.

Production

Writers Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski conceived the idea for a biopic of Ed Wood when they were students at the USC School of Cinematic Arts.[8] Alexander even proposed making a documentary about Wood, The Man in the Angora Sweater, in his sophomore year at USC.[9] However, Karaszewski figured, "there would be no one on the planet Earth who would make this movie or want to make this movie, because these aren't the sort of movies that are made."[9] Irritated at being thought of solely as writers for family films for their work on Problem Child and Problem Child 2, Alexander and Karaszewski wrote a 10-page film treatment for Ed Wood and pitched the idea to Heathers director Michael Lehmann, with whom they attended USC film school.[8] The basis for their treatment came from Rudolph Grey's Nightmare of Ecstasy,[10] a full-length biography, which draws on interviews from Wood's family and colleagues.[11] Lehmann presented their treatment to his producer on Heathers, Denise Di Novi. Di Novi had previously worked with Tim Burton on Edward Scissorhands, Batman Returns and The Nightmare Before Christmas, and a deal was struck with Lehmann as director and Burton and Di Novi producing.[8]

Burton began reading Nightmare of Ecstasy and some of Wood's letters. He was taken by how he "wrote about his films as if he was making Citizen Kane, you know, whereas other people perceived them as, like, the worst movies ever".[11] Burton admits to having always been a fan of Ed Wood, which is why the biopic is filmed with an aggrandizing bias borne of his admiration for Wood's work, rather than the derisive attitude of Wood's detractors.[12] The relationship between Wood and Lugosi in the script echoes closely Burton's relationship with his own idol and two-time colleague, Vincent Price. He said in an interview, "Meeting Vincent had an incredible impact on me, the same impact Ed must have felt meeting and working with his idol."[13] Meanwhile, Burton had been asked to direct Mary Reilly for Columbia Pictures with Winona Ryder in the title role.[8]

However, Burton dropped out of Mary Reilly over Columbia's decision to fast track the film and their interest with Julia Roberts in the title role instead of Ryder. This prompted Burton to becoming interested in directing Ed Wood himself, on the understanding it could be done quickly.[8] Lehmann said, "Tim wanted to do this movie immediately and direct, but I was already committed to Airheads."[5] Lehmann was given executive producer credit. Alexander and Karaszewski delivered a 147-page screenplay in six weeks. Burton read the first draft and immediately agreed to direct the film as it stood, without any changes or rewrites.[8] Ed Wood gave Burton the opportunity to make a film that was more character-driven as opposed to style-driven. He said in an interview, "On a picture like this I find you don't need to storyboard. You're working mainly with actors, and there's no effects going on, so it's best to be more spontaneous."[14]

Initially, Ed Wood was in development with Columbia, but when Burton decided he wanted to shoot the film in black-and-white, studio head Mark Canton would not agree to it unless Columbia was given a first look deal.[15] Burton said black-and-white was "right for the material and the movie, and this was a movie that had to be in black-and-white". He insisted on total creative control, and so in April 1993, a month before the original start date, Canton put Ed Wood into turnaround. The decision sparked interest from Warner Bros., Paramount Pictures and 20th Century Fox in optioning the film rights, but Burton accepted an offer from Walt Disney Studios, who had previously produced The Nightmare Before Christmas. Similar to Nightmare, Disney released Ed Wood under their Touchstone Pictures banner. With a budget of $18 million, Disney did not feel the film was that much of a risk, and granted Burton total creative autonomy. Burton also refused a salary, and was not paid for his work on Ed Wood. Principal photography began in August 1993,[16] and lasted 72 days.[4] Despite his previous six-film relationship with Danny Elfman, Burton chose Howard Shore to write the film score. Under the pressure of finishing the score for Batman Returns, Burton's relationship with Elfman became strained[17] and Burton admitted he and Elfman experienced "creative differences" during The Nightmare Before Christmas.[18]

The movie was filmed at various locations in and around the Los Angeles area.[19]

Historical accuracy

When describing the film's accuracy, Burton explained, "it's not like a completely hardcore realistic biopic. In doing a biopic you can't help but get inside the person's spirit a little bit, so for me, some of the film is trying to be through Ed a little bit. So it's got an overly optimistic quality to it."[8] Burton acknowledged that he probably portrayed Wood and his crew in an exaggeratedly sympathetic way, stating he did not want to ridicule people who had already been ridiculed for a good deal of their life. Burton decided not to depict the darker side of Wood's life because his letters never alluded to this aspect and remained upbeat. To this end, Burton wanted to make the film through Wood's eyes.[12] He said in an interview, "I've never seen anything like them, the kind of bad poetry and redundancy– saying in, like, five sentences what it would take most normal people one [...] Yet still there is a sincerity to them that is very unusual, and I always found that somewhat touching; it gives them a surreal, weirdly heartfelt feeling."[20]

The scenes of Bela Lugosi used for Plan 9 from Outer Space were not filmed outside his own house, as the film depicts. They were, in fact, filmed outside Tor Johnson's house. Additionally, Lugosi was not prone to fits of swearing, particularly in front of women and did not perform his own water stunt in Bride of the Monster.[21] Lugosi is also depicted as dying alone and miserable. Lugosi's wife of twenty years, Lillian, did leave him in 1953, but he remarried in 1955 to Hope Lininger. They were together until his death a year later. This, plus any reference to Lugosi's teenage son, Bela G. Lugosi, were omitted,[22] as is any mention of Lugosi's role in the 1956 United Artists film The Black Sleep. Also, when Ed Wood talks to George Weiss about making I Changed My Sex!, Weiss mentions Chained Girls, implying that Chained Girls was made before Glen or Glenda, when in fact Chained Girls was made afterwards.

The film also omits any reference to Ed Wood's 1954 film Jail Bait, which was made between Glen or Glenda and Bride of the Monster.

The scene where Bela is seen walking towards his house after Ed drops him off, he mentions how Hollywood has changed its horror films and how they aren't what they used to be back in the 1930s. He mentions movies about giant bugs (Them!), giant spiders, (Tarantula) and giant grasshoppers (Beginning of the End), however these movies came out after when the scene was supposed to be set and after the release of Glen or Glenda.

According to Bela G. Lugosi (his son), Forrest Ackerman, Dolores Fuller and Richard Sheffield, the film's portrayal of Lugosi is inaccurate: in real life, he never used profanity, owned small dogs, or slept in coffins. And contrary to this film, Bela did not struggle performing on The Red Skelton Show.[23][24]

Burton biographer Ken Hanke criticized the depiction of Dolores Fuller. "The real Fuller is a lively, savvy, humorous woman," Hanke said, "while Parker's performance presents her as a kind of sitcom moron for the first part of the film and a rather judgmental and wholly unpleasant character in her later scenes."[22] During her years with Wood, Fuller had regular TV jobs on Queen for a Day and The Dinah Shore Show, which are not mentioned. Fuller criticized Parker's portrayal and Burton's direction, but still gave Ed Wood a positive review. "Despite the dramatic liberties, I think Tim Burton is fabulous. I wished they could have made it a deeper love story, because we really loved each other. We strove to find investors together, I worked so hard to support Ed and I."[22]

Release

Ed Wood had its premiere at the 32nd New York Film Festival at the Lincoln Center.[25] The film was then shown shortly after at the 21st Telluride Film Festival[26] and later at the 1995 Cannes Film Festival, where it was in competition for the Palme d'Or.[27][28]

Home media

The DVD edition of Ed Wood initially had difficulty reaching store shelves in the United States and Canada due to unspecified legal issues. The initial release had a featurette on transvestites — not relating to the film or its actors in any way — which was removed from subsequent releases. An initial street date of August 13, 2002 was announced[29] only to be postponed.[30] A new date of February 3, 2003 was set,[31] only for it to be recalled again without explanation, although some copies quickly found their way to collectors' venues such as eBay. The DVD was finally released on October 19, 2004.[32]

Reception

Box office

Ed Wood had its limited release on September 30, 1994. When the film went into wide release on October 7, 1994 in 623 theaters, Ed Wood grossed $1,903,768 in its opening weekend.[33] The film went on to gross $5,887,457 domestically,[33] much less than the production budget of $18 million.[34]

Critical response

Ed Wood received critical acclaim. It has an approval rating of 92% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 63 reviews, with an average rating of 8/10. The website's critical consensus states, "Tim Burton and Johnny Depp team up to fête the life and work of cult hero Ed Wood, with typically strange and wonderful results."[35] The film also has a score of 70 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 19 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[36]

Roger Ebert gave a largely positive review: "What Burton has made is a film which celebrates Wood more than it mocks him, and which celebrates, too, the zany spirit of 1950s exploitation films, in which a great title, a has-been star and a lurid ad campaign were enough to get bookings for some of the oddest films ever made."[37] Ebert and Gene Siskel gave the film "Two Thumbs Up" on Siskel and Ebert, with Siskel calling it "a tribute to creative passion and also to friendship" and "one of the year's very best".

Peter Travers of Rolling Stone praised Burton's decision to not make a direct satire or parody of Wood's life. "Ed Wood is Burton's most personal and provocative movie to date," he wrote. "Outrageously disjointed and just as outrageously entertaining, the picture stands as a successful outsider's tribute to a failed kindred spirit."[38]

Janet Maslin, writing in The New York Times, thought Johnny Depp "proved" himself as an established "certified great actor". "Depp captures all the can-do optimism that kept Ed Wood going, thanks to an extremely funny ability to look at the silver lining of any cloud."[39] Todd McCarthy from Variety called Ed Wood "a fanciful, sweet-tempered biopic about the man often described as the worst film director of all time. Always engaging to watch and often dazzling in its imagination and technique, picture is also a bit distended, and lacking in weight at its center. The result is beguiling rather than thrilling."[40]

Richard Corliss, writing in Time magazine, gave a negative review. "The script by Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski posits Wood as a classic American optimist, a Capraesque hero with little to be optimistic about, since he was also a classic American loser. That's a fine start, but the film then marches in staid chronological order." Corliss continued, "One wonders why this Burton film is so dishwatery, why it lacks the cartoon zest and outsider ache of Beetlejuice, Edward Scissorhands or Batman Returns."[41]

Accolades

Ed Wood was nominated for three Golden Globes: Best Musical or Comedy, Johnny Depp for Best Actor in a Musical or Comedy and Martin Landau for Best Supporting Actor.[42] Landau won in his category, while Depp lost to Hugh Grant (for Four Weddings and a Funeral).[43] Landau and Rick Baker won Academy Awards for their work on the film.[44][45] Landau also won Best Supporting Actor at the first Screen Actors Guild Awards. Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski were nominated for Best Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen by the Writers Guild of America, which was a surprise as few predicted that it would be considered.[46]

Award Date of ceremony Category Recipient(s) Result Ref(s)
Academy Awards March 27, 1995 Best Supporting Actor Martin Landau Won [47]
Best Makeup Rick Baker, Ve Neill, Yolanda Toussieng Won
American Comedy Awards 1995 Funniest Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture Martin Landau Won [48]
Belgian Syndicate of Cinema Critics 1995 Grand Prix Ed Wood Nominated [49]
Boston Society of Film Critics December 18, 1994 Best Supporting Actor Martin Landau Won [50]
Best Cinematography Stefan Czapsky Won
British Academy Film Awards April 23, 1996 Best Supporting Actor Martin Landau Nominated [51]
Best Makeup Rick Baker, Ve Neill, Yolanda Toussieng Nominated
Chicago Film Critics Association 1995 Best Supporting Actor Martin Landau Won [52]
Golden Globes January 21, 1995 Best Motion Picture - Comedy or Musical Ed Wood Nominated [53]
Best Actor - Comedy or Musical Johnny Depp Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Martin Landau Won
London Film Critics' Circle 1996 Actor of the Year Johnny Depp Won [54]
Los Angeles Film Critics Association December 10, 1994 Best Supporting Actor Martin Landau Won [55]
Best Cinematography Stefan Czapsky Won
Best Music Howard Shore Won
National Society of Film Critics January 3, 1995 Best Supporting Actor Martin Landau Won [56]
Best Cinematography Stefan Czapsky Won
New York Film Critics Circle January 22, 1995 Best Supporting Actor Martin Landau Won [57]
Best Cinematography Stefan Czapsky Won
Saturn Awards June 26, 1995 Best Actor Martin Landau Won [58]
Best Music Howard Shore Won
Best Make-Up Ve Neill and Rick Baker Won
Best Fantasy Film Ed Wood Nominated
Best Writing Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski Nominated
Writers Guild of America March 19, 1995 Best Original Screenplay Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski Nominated [46]

Further reading

  • Ed Wood's Bride of the Monster by Gary D. Rhodes and Tom Weaver (2015) BearManor Media, ISBN 1593938578
  • Bela Lugosi: Dreams and Nightmares by Gary D. Rhodes, with Richard Sheffield, (2007) Collectables/Alpha Video Publishers, ISBN 0-9773798-1-7 (hardcover)
  • Lugosi: His Life on Film, Stage, and in the Hearts of Horror Lovers by Gary D. Rhodes (2006) McFarland & Company, ISBN 978-0786427659

References

  1. ^ Haflidason, Almar (October 14, 2002). "Ed Wood DVD (1994)". BBC. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2009-09-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ a b c d Gary Arnold (1994-10-02). "Depp sees promise in cult filmmaker Ed Wood's story". The Washington Times.
  4. ^ a b John Clark (1994). "The Wood, The Bad, and The Ugly". Premiere.
  5. ^ a b Ken Hanke (1999). "Ed Wood in Hollywood". Tim Burton: An Unauthorized Biography of the Filmmaker. Renaissance Books. pp. 155–165. ISBN 1-58063-162-2.
  6. ^ a b c Lawrence French (October 1994). "Playing Bela Lugosi". Cinefantastique. pp. 24–25.
  7. ^ Bob Thompson (1994-10-04). "Quirky Arquette Learns to Play Normal". Toronto Sun.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Salisbury, Burton, pp. 128-130
  9. ^ a b Chris Gore; Jeremy Berg (December 1994). "Ed or Johnny: The Strange Case of Ed Wood". Film Threat. p. 36.
  10. ^ Rudolph Grey (1994). Nightmare of Ecstasy: The Life and Art of Edward D. Wood, Jr. Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-24-5.
  11. ^ a b Michael Dwyer (1994-12-10). "The Stuff Dreams are Made Of". The Irish Times.
  12. ^ a b Bob Thompson (1994-10-04). "Beyond the Fringe". Toronto Sun.
  13. ^ Edwin Page (2007). "Ed Wood". Gothic Fantasy: The Films of Tim Burton. London: Marion Boyars Publishers. pp. 128–142. ISBN 0-7145-3132-4.
  14. ^ Lawrence French (October 1994). "Tim Burton's Ed Wood". Cinefantastique. pp. 32–34.
  15. ^ Leonard Klady; John Evan Prook (1993-04-22). "Burton pic in turnaround as Col chairman balks". Variety. Archived from the original on 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
  16. ^ Salisbury, Burton, pp.131-136
  17. ^ "Danny Elfman presents his Tim Burton movie scores at Adelaide Festival". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  18. ^ Salisbury, Burton, pp.137-144
  19. ^ Reeves, Tony (2006). The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations. London: Titan Books. p. 463. ISBN 9781840232073.
  20. ^ Gavin Smith (November–December 1994). "Tim Burton: Punching Holes in Reality". Film Comment. pp. 52–63.
  21. ^ Bride of the Monster (1955) trivia Archived 2010-12-23 at the Wayback Machine, IMDb
  22. ^ a b c Hanke, Chapter 17: "Visions Worth Fighting For", p. 167—182
  23. ^ Rhodes, Gary; Sheffield, Richard (2007). Bela Lugosi: Dreams and Nightmares. Collectables Press. ISBN 0977379817. Archived from the original on 2016-05-29.
  24. ^ Rhodes, Gary; Weaver, Tom (2015). Ed Wood's Bride of the Monster. BearManor Media. ISBN 1593938578. Archived from the original on 2016-05-30.
  25. ^ William Grimes (1994-08-27). "New York Film Festival to Show its First Feature by Woody Allen". The New York Times.
  26. ^ Todd McCarthy (1994-09-12). "Telluride to Earth: Trouble Ahead". Variety.
  27. ^ "Festival de Cannes: Ed Wood". festival-cannes.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-22. Retrieved 2009-09-03.
  28. ^ Jay Carr (1994-10-02). "Carving Out an Affectionate Look at Ed Wood". Boston Globe.
  29. ^ Peter M. Bracke (2002-06-03). "More Superbits; Buena Vista August title specs; Columbia unveils New Guy". DVDFile. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  30. ^ Peter M. Bracke (2002-07-25). "Street date alert; Spock specs; New Criterion titles; more D-VHS from Fox". DVDFile. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  31. ^ Peter M. Bracke (2003-11-05). "Ed Wood; Rain Man SE, more MGM; Warner TV on DVD". DVDFile. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  32. ^ Peter M. Bracke (2004-07-14). "That's Entertainment! box; Ed Wood returns; Universal classic comedy". DVDFile. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  33. ^ a b Box Office mojo. "Ed Wood (1994) - Weekend Box Office Results - Box Office Mojo". Archived from the original on 2009-12-18. Retrieved 2009-12-16.
  34. ^ Theiapolis Cinema. "Ed Wood (1994) - Stats, Budget, Gross". Archived from the original on 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2009-12-16.
  35. ^ "Ed Wood (1994)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on November 27, 2017. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  36. ^ "Ed Wood Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 27, 2008.
  37. ^ Ebert, Roger (October 7, 1994). "Ed Wood". RogerEbert.com. Ebert Digital LLC. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
  38. ^ Travers, Peter (December 8, 2000). "Ed Wood". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 5, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
  39. ^ Maslin, Janet (September 23, 1994). "Film Festival Review; Ode to a Director Who Dared to Be Dreadful". The New York Times.
  40. ^ McCarthy, Todd (September 7, 1994). "Ed Wood". Variety. Penske Business Media. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
  41. ^ Corliss, Richard (October 10, 1994). "A Monster to Be Despised". Time. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
  42. ^ Brian Lowry (1994-12-23). "Gump, Pulp Top Globe Noms". Variety.
  43. ^ "Golden Globe Winners". Variety. 1995-01-23.
  44. ^ "1994 Oscar Nominations". Variety. 1995-02-15.
  45. ^ Bob Thomas (1995-03-28). "Wiest, Landau Win Supporting Oscars". Ottawa Citizen.
  46. ^ a b Dan Cox (1995-02-10). "WGA Taps Quirky Pix". Variety.
  47. ^ "THE 67TH ACADEMY AWARDS". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  48. ^ Ramos, Dino-Ray (July 16, 2017). "Martin Landau Dies: Oscar-Winning 'Ed Wood', TV's 'Mission: Impossible' Actor Was 89". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 17, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  49. ^ "Les finalistes du prix UCC". Le Soir (in French). December 21, 1995. p. 11. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  50. ^ "Past Award Winners". Boston Society of Film Critics. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  51. ^ "Film in 1996". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Archived from the original on April 22, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
  52. ^ Gates, Anita (July 16, 2017). "Martin Landau, Actor Who Won an Oscar for 'Ed Wood,' Dies at 89". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 18, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  53. ^ "Ed Wood". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  54. ^ Michael Blitz; Louise Krasniewicz (2008). Johnny Depp: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 57. ISBN 0313343004.
  55. ^ "20TH ANNUAL LOS ANGELES FILM CRITICS ASSOCIATION AWARDS". Los Angeles Film Critics Association. Archived from the original on June 29, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  56. ^ "Past Awards". National Society of Film Critics. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  57. ^ Maslin, Janet (December 16, 1994). "Critics Honor 'Pulp Fiction' And 'Quiz Show'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  58. ^ "FILM AWARDS Best Actor in a Films". Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017.

External links

3 Hits from Hell

3 Hits from Hell (written as 3 hits from HeLL) was the sixth release from Lodi, New Jersey horror punk band Misfits.

The 7" EP was released in April 1981 as Plan 9 Records number PL1013. While there was no actual insert, some of the first pressing included a Misfits Fiend Club ad.

All three songs were recorded on 2" 16-track tape at Master Sound Productions in Franklin Square, New York, on August 7, 1980, with Bobby Steele on guitar for London Dungeon's main riff and producer Robbie Alter playing the chords while Jerry Only's younger brother, Doyle Wolfgang von Frankenstein (Paul Caiafa), played the rest of the songs on September 5, 1980, following Bobby's departure. It was during this session that Doyle officially joined the band as Bobby's replacement.

While none of the other ten songs from this session were released until 1985, after the band had broken up, all 13 tracks were later remixed for the 12 Hits From Hell release.

"London Dungeon" was written by Glenn Danzig about his experience while jailed in Brixton on December 2, 1979. Both "Horror Hotel" and "Ghouls Night Out" were based on horror films: Horror Hotel (a 1960 Christopher Lee vehicle) and the 1958 Ed Wood film Night of the Ghouls, respectively.

B movie

A B movie or B film is a low-budget commercial movie, but not an arthouse film. In its original usage, during the Golden Age of Hollywood, the term more precisely identified films intended for distribution as the less-publicized bottom half of a double feature (akin to B-sides for recorded music). Although the U.S. production of movies intended as second features largely ceased by the end of the 1950s, the term B movie continues to be used in its broader sense to this day. In its post-Golden Age usage, there is ambiguity on both sides of the definition: on the one hand, the primary interest of many inexpensive exploitation films is prurient; on the other, many B movies display a high degree of craft and aesthetic ingenuity.

In either usage, most B movies represent a particular genre—the Western was a Golden Age B movie staple, while low-budget science-fiction and horror films became more popular in the 1950s. Early B movies were often part of series in which the star repeatedly played the same character. Almost always shorter than the top-billed films they were paired with, many had running times of 70 minutes or less. The term connoted a general perception that B movies were inferior to the more lavishly budgeted headliners; individual B films were often ignored by critics.

Latter-day B movies still sometimes inspire multiple sequels, but series are less common. As the average running time of top-of-the-line films increased, so did that of B pictures. In its current usage, the term has somewhat contradictory connotations: it may signal an opinion that a certain movie is (a) a genre film with minimal artistic ambitions or (b) a lively, energetic film uninhibited by the constraints imposed on more expensive projects and unburdened by the conventions of putatively "serious" independent film. The term is also now used loosely to refer to some higher-budgeted, mainstream films with exploitation-style content, usually in genres traditionally associated with the B movie.

From their beginnings to the present day, B movies have provided opportunities both for those coming up in the profession and others whose careers are waning. Celebrated filmmakers such as Anthony Mann and Jonathan Demme learned their craft in B movies. They are where actors such as John Wayne and Jack Nicholson first became established, and they have provided work for former A movie actors, such as Vincent Price and Karen Black. Some actors, such as Bela Lugosi, Eddie Constantine and Pam Grier, worked in B movies for most of their careers. The term B actor is sometimes used to refer to a performer who finds work primarily or exclusively in B pictures.

Bela Lugosi

Béla Ferenc Dezső Blaskó (Hungarian: [ˈbeːlɒ ˈfɛrɛnt͡s ˈdɛʒøː ˈblɒʃkoː]; 20 October 1882 – 16 August 1956), better known as Bela Lugosi (; Hungarian: [ˈluɡoʃi]), was a Hungarian-American actor famous for portraying Count Dracula in the 1931 film and for his roles in other horror films.After playing small parts on the stage in his native Hungary, Lugosi got his first role in a film in 1917. He had to leave the country after the failed Hungarian Communist Revolution of 1919. He acted in several films in Weimar Germany before arriving in the United States as a seaman on a merchant ship.

In 1927, he appeared as Count Dracula in a Broadway adaptation of Bram Stoker's novel. He later appeared in the classic 1931 film Dracula by Universal Pictures. Through the 1930s, he occupied an important niche in popular horror films, with their East European setting, but his Hungarian accent limited his repertoire, and he tried unsuccessfully to avoid typecasting.

Meanwhile, he was often paired with Boris Karloff, who was able to demand top billing. To his frustration, Lugosi, a charter member of the American Screen Actors Guild, was increasingly restricted to minor parts, kept employed by the studio principally so that they could put his name on the posters. Among his pairings with Karloff, he performed major roles only in The Black Cat (1934), The Raven (1935), and Son of Frankenstein (1939); even in The Raven, Karloff received top billing despite Lugosi performing the lead role. By this time, Lugosi had been receiving regular medication for sciatic neuritis, and he became addicted to morphine and methadone. This drug dependence was noted by producers, and the offers eventually dwindled to a few parts in Ed Wood's low-budget films—most notably Plan 9 from Outer Space. Lugosi, who was married five times and had one son, Bela George, died of a heart attack on August 16, 1956.

Bettie Page

Betty Mae Page (April 22, 1923 – December 11, 2008), known professionally as Bettie Page, was an American model who gained a significant profile in the 1950s for her pin-up photos. Often referred to as the "Queen of Pinups", her jet-black hair, blue eyes, and trademark fringe have influenced artists for generations.

A native of Nashville, Tennessee, Page lived in California in her early adult years before moving to New York City to pursue work as an actress. There, she began to find work as a pin-up model, and posed for dozens of photographers throughout the 1950s. Page was "Miss January 1955", one of the earliest Playmates of the Month for Playboy magazine. "I think that she was a remarkable lady, an iconic figure in pop culture who influenced sexuality, taste in fashion, someone who had a tremendous impact on our society," said Playboy founder Hugh Hefner to the Associated Press in 2008.In 1959, Page converted to evangelical Christianity and worked for Billy Graham, studying at Bible colleges in Los Angeles and Portland, Oregon, with the intent of becoming a missionary. The latter part of Page's life was marked by depression, violent mood swings, and several years in a state psychiatric hospital suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. After years of obscurity, she experienced a resurgence of popularity in the 1980s.

Christine Jorgensen

Christine Jorgensen (May 30, 1926 – May 3, 1989) was an American trans woman who was the first person to become widely known in the United States for having sex reassignment surgery in her 20s. Jorgensen grew up in the Bronx, New York City. Shortly after graduating from high school in 1945, she was drafted into the U.S. Army for World War II. After her service she attended several schools, worked, and around this time heard about sex reassignment surgery. She traveled to Europe and in Copenhagen, Denmark, obtained special permission to undergo a series of operations starting in 1951.She returned to the United States in the early 1950s and her transition was the subject of a New York Daily News front-page story. She became an instant celebrity, using the platform to advocate for transgender people and became known for her directness and polished wit. She also worked as an actress and nightclub entertainer and recorded several songs.

Dr. Acula

Dr. Acula is a variation of the name Dracula.

Dr. Acula also may refer to:

Pseudonym of Forrest J Ackerman (1916–2008), American collectorBands:

Dr. Acula (band), deathcore band from Long Island, New York

Dr. Acula, working title of Michigan post-hardcore band Bear vs. SharkFictional characters:

Dr. Acula, in the Ed Wood film Night of the Ghouls

Dr. Acula, in an episode "Fangboy" of Fanboy & Chum Chum seriesMoving-image works:

DR. Acula, film proposed by Ed Wood, as depicted in Ed Wood (film)

Dr. Acula, fictional film by the Scrubs character J.D.

Ed Wood

Edward Davis Wood Jr. (October 10, 1924 – December 10, 1978) was an American filmmaker, actor, and author.

In the 1950s, Wood made a number of low-budget films in the science fiction, crime and horror genres, intercutting stock footage. In the 1960s and 1970s, he made sexploitation movies and wrote over 80 pulp crime, horror and sex novels. In 1975, he was awarded a Golden Turkey Award as Worst Director of All Time, renewing public interest in his work. Wood's career and camp approach has earned him and his films a cult following.

Following the publication of Rudolph Grey's 1992 oral biography Nightmare of Ecstasy: The Life and Art of Edward D. Wood Jr., the public took a greater interest in Wood, leading up to director Tim Burton's biopic of Wood's life, Ed Wood (1994), a critically acclaimed film starring Johnny Depp as Wood that earned two Academy Awards.

Edward Wood

Edward or Ed Wood may refer to:

Edward Wood (MP) (fl. 1584–86), English politician

Sir Edward Wood (diplomat), British envoy to Sweden in the 1670s

Ed Wood (1924–1978), American filmmaker

Ed Wood (film), a 1994 film based on the life of the filmmaker

E. F. L. Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, full name Edward Frederick Lindley Wood (1881–1959)

Edward J. Wood (1866–1956), leader of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Alberta, Canada

Edward Allan Wood (1872–1930), British Army officer

Edward Rogers Wood (1866–1941), financier in Canadian business

Edward Wood (priest), Archdeacon of Mashonaland, 1946–1960

Edward John Wood, footballer known as Jackie Wood

Ed Wood (engineer) (born 1968), chief designer for the Williams Formula One team

Ed Wood (elm cultivar), a Chinese elm cultivar

Get Rollin'

Get Rollin' is a 1980 American roller disco documentary film directed by J. Terrance Mitchell.

Interplanetary Internet

The interplanetary Internet (based on IPN, also called InterPlaNet) is a conceived computer network in space, consisting of a set of network nodes that can communicate with each other. Communication would be greatly delayed by the great interplanetary distances, so the IPN needs a new set of protocols and technology that are tolerant to large delays and errors. Although the Internet as it is known today tends to be a busy network of networks with high traffic, negligible delay and errors, and a wired backbone, the interplanetary Internet is a store and forward network of internets that is often disconnected, has a wireless backbone fraught with error-prone links and delays ranging from tens of minutes to even hours, even when there is a connection.

Leonard Kastle

Leonard Gregory Kastle (February 11, 1929 – May 18, 2011) was an American opera composer, librettist, and director, although he is best known as the writer/director of the 1969 film, The Honeymoon Killers, his only venture into the cinema, for which he did all his own research. He was an adjunct member of the SUNY Albany music faculty.Following his high school education in Mount Vernon, New York, Kastle began his musical training at the Juilliard School of Music (1938–40). From 1940-42, he attended the Mannes Music School and later studied composition at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia (1944–50), earning a B.A. in 1950. While at the Curtis Institute, he held scholarships in composition with Rosario Scalero, Gian-Carlo Menotti and Samuel Barber, and a piano scholarship with Isabelle Vengerova. He attended Columbia University from 1947 to 1950.In 1956, Kastle composed a thirteen-minute "made-to-measure" opera, titled The Swing, for two singers, a speaking part, and piano accompaniment. It was commissioned by and broadcast on the NBC television network on Sunday, June 10, 1956, at noon. He also wrote The Pariahs, about the sinking of the whaler Essex, a trilogy of operas about the Shakers known under the collective title The Passion of Mother Ann: A Sacred Festival Play, a children's opera called Professor Lookalike and the Children, a piano concerto, sonatas for piano and violin, and three unproduced screenplays, Wedding at Cana, Change of Heart, and Shakespeare's Dog.In a 2003 interview for the Criterion Collection, he said that no producer wanted Wedding at Cana, just another Honeymoon Killers, which he did not want to do. After The Honeymoon Killers, Kastle returned to teaching and composing. After the Criterion release of the film, he was rediscovered by a new generation of cult film enthusiasts and occasionally attended film-related events such as the Ed Wood Film Festival in 2007, where he served on the panel of judgesKastle died May 18, 2011, at his home in Westerlo, New York, at the age of 82.

Plan 9 from User Space

Plan 9 from User Space (also plan9port or p9p) is a port of many Plan 9 from Bell Labs libraries and applications to Unix-like operating systems. Currently it has been tested on a variety of operating systems including: Linux, macOS, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris and SunOS. The project's name is a reference to the 1950s Ed Wood film Plan 9 from Outer Space.

A number of key applications have been ported, as have programs used by the system itself, along with the requisite libraries from Plan 9. All of these have been made to work on top of a Unix-like environment instead of their native Plan 9. Some of the most significant ported components are:

rc – The Plan 9 shell.

sam – A text editor.

acme – A combination text editor and graphical shell especially useful to programmers.

mk – A tool for building software, analogous to the traditional Unix make utility.

plumber – An interprocess messaging facility.

Venti – A network storage system that permanently stores data blocks.

Plan Nine Publishing

Plan Nine Publishing was a small press book publisher known for publishing webcomics in printed form. The first series published, and perhaps its most famous, was Kevin and Kell.

Poughkeepsie, New York

Poughkeepsie ( pə-KIP-see), officially the City of Poughkeepsie, is a city in the state of New York, United States, which is the county seat of Dutchess County. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 32,736. Poughkeepsie is in the Hudson Valley midway between New York City and Albany, and is part of the New York metropolitan area. The name derives from a word in the Wappinger language, roughly U-puku-ipi-sing, meaning "the reed-covered lodge by the little-water place", referring to a spring or stream feeding into the Hudson River south of the present downtown area.Poughkeepsie is known as "The Queen City of the Hudson". It was settled in the 17th century by the Dutch and became New York's second capital shortly after the American Revolution. It was chartered as a city in 1854. Major bridges in the city include the Walkway over the Hudson, a former railroad bridge (originally called the Poughkeepsie Bridge), which re-opened as a public walkway on October 3, 2009; and the Mid-Hudson Bridge, a major thoroughfare built in 1930 that carries U.S. Route 44 (concurrent with State Route 55) over the Hudson. The city of Poughkeepsie lies in New York's 18th congressional district.

Steve Reeves

Stephen Lester Reeves (January 21, 1926 – May 1, 2000) was an American professional bodybuilder, actor, and philanthropist. He was famous in the mid-1950s as a movie star in Italian-made peplum films, playing the protagonist as muscular characters such as Hercules, Goliath, and Sandokan. At the peak of his career, he was the highest-paid actor in Europe.From 1959 through 1964, Reeves went on to appear in a string of sword and sandal movies shot on relatively small budgets and, although he is best known for his portrayal of Hercules, he played the character only twice: in the 1957 film (released in the US in 1959) and its 1959 sequel Hercules Unchained (released in the US in 1960). By 1960, Reeves was ranked as the number-one box-office draw in twenty-five countries around the world.

Superbuick

Superbuick is the second independently released album from heavy metal band Mushroomhead. The album was released in 1996. Most of the songs were later remastered on XX which was initially released by Eclipse Records, then through Universal Records after some slight modifications and two additional songs. This is their first album with Pig Benis on bass.

The album was repressed in 2002 along with their self-titled album and M3, though some major retailers do not carry them. All three can be purchased at live shows.

Superbuick uses these movie samples which have acknowledgments in the CD inlay:

Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me

Ed Wood (film)

Psych-Out

Se7en

Weird West

Weird West is a subgenre that combines elements of the Western with another genre, usually horror, occult, fantasy or science fiction.

DC's Weird Western Tales appeared in the early 1970s and the weird Western was further popularized by Joe R. Lansdale who is perhaps best known for his tales of the 'weird west,' a genre mixing splatterpunk with alternate history Western.

Examples of these cross-genres include Deadlands (Western/horror), The Wild Wild West and its later film adaptation (Western/steampunk), Jonah Hex (Western/supernatural), BraveStarr (Western/science fiction), The Goodbye Family (Western/macabre comedy), and many others.

Western (genre)

Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set primarily in the latter half of the 19th century in the American Old West, often centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse. Cowboys and gunslingers typically wear Stetson hats, neckerchief bandannas, vests, spurs, cowboy boots and buckskins (alternatively dusters). Recurring characters include the aforementioned cowboys, Native Americans, bandits, lawmen, bounty hunters, outlaws, gamblers, soldiers (especially mounted cavalry, such as buffalo soldiers), and settlers (farmers, ranchers, and townsfolk). The ambience is usually punctuated with a Western music score, including American and Mexican folk music such as country, Native American music, New Mexico music, and rancheras.

Westerns often stress the harshness of the wilderness and frequently set the action in an arid, desolate landscape of deserts and mountains. Often, the vast landscape plays an important role, presenting a "...mythic vision of the plains and deserts of the American West". Specific settings include ranches, small frontier towns, saloons, railways and isolated military forts of the Wild West.

Common plots include:

The construction of a railroad or a telegraph line on the wild frontier.

Ranchers protecting their family ranch from rustlers or large landowners or who build a ranch empire.

Revenge stories, which hinge on the chase and pursuit by someone who has been wronged.

Stories about cavalry fighting Native Americans.

Outlaw gang plots.

Stories about a lawman or bounty hunter tracking down his quarry.Many Westerns use a stock plot of depicting a crime, then showing the pursuit of the wrongdoer, ending in revenge and retribution, which is often dispensed through a shootout or quick-draw duel.The Western was the most popular Hollywood genre from the early 20th century to the 1960s.

Western films first became well-attended in the 1930s. John Ford's landmark Western adventure Stagecoach became one of the biggest hits in 1939 and it made John Wayne a mainstream screen star. The popularity of Westerns continued in the 1940s, with the release of classics such as Red River (1948). Westerns were very popular throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Many of the most acclaimed Westerns were released during this time, including High Noon (1952), Shane (1953), The Searchers (1956), Cat Ballou (1965), The Wild Bunch (1969) and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969). Classic Westerns such as these have been the inspiration for various films about Western-type characters in contemporary settings, such as Junior Bonner (1972), set in the 1970s, and The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada (2005), set in the 21st century.

What Are Little Boys Made Of?

"What Are Little Boys Made Of?" is a popular nursery rhyme dating from the early 19th century. It has a Roud Folk Song Index number of 821.

The author of the rhyme is uncertain, but may be English poet Robert Southey (1774–1843).

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.