Ed Koch

Edward Irving Koch (/kɒtʃ/ KOTCH;[1] December 12, 1924 – February 1, 2013) was an American lawyer, politician, political commentator, movie critic and television personality. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1969 to 1977 and was mayor of New York City from 1978 to 1989.

Koch was a lifelong Democrat who described himself as a "liberal with sanity".[2] The author of an ambitious public housing renewal program in his later years as mayor, he began by cutting spending and taxes and cutting 7,000 employees from the city payroll. As a congressman and after his terms as mayor, Koch was a fervent supporter of Israel. He crossed party lines to endorse Rudy Giuliani for mayor of New York City in 1993, Michael Bloomberg for mayor of New York City in 2001, and George W. Bush for president in 2004.[3]

A popular figure, Koch rode the New York City Subway and stood at street corners greeting passersby with the slogan "How'm I doin'?"[4] A lifelong bachelor with no children, Koch rebuffed speculation about his sexuality and refused to publicly discuss his romantic relationships. After his retirement from politics, he declared that he was heterosexual.

Koch was first elected mayor of New York City in 1977, and he won reelection in 1981 with 75% of the vote. He was the first New York City mayor to win endorsement on both the Democratic and Republican party tickets. In 1985, Koch was elected to a third term with 78% of the vote. His third term was fraught with scandal regarding political associates (although the scandal never touched him personally) and with racial tensions, including the murder of Yusuf Hawkins a month before the 1989 mayoral primary. In a close race, Koch lost the 1989 Democratic primary to his successor, David Dinkins.[3]

Ed Koch
Edward Koch (1988)
105th Mayor of New York City
In office
January 1, 1978 – December 31, 1989
Preceded byAbraham Beame
Succeeded byDavid Dinkins
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 18th district
In office
January 3, 1973 – December 31, 1977
Preceded byCharles Rangel
Succeeded byBill Green
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 17th district
In office
January 3, 1969 – January 3, 1973
Preceded byTheodore Kupferman
Succeeded byJohn Murphy
Member of the New York City Council from the 2nd district
In office
January 1, 1967 – January 3, 1969
Preceded byWoodward Kingman
Succeeded byCarol Greitzer
Personal details
Born
Edward Irving Koch

December 12, 1924
The Bronx, New York City, U.S.
DiedFebruary 1, 2013 (aged 88)
Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Alma mater
Signature
Ed Koch's signature
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/serviceSeal of the United States Department of War.png United States Army
Years of service1943–1946
RankUS Army WWII SGT.svg Sergeant
Unit104TrngDivLdrTrngDUILeft.jpg 104th Infantry Division
Battles/warsWorld War II
Awards

Early life

Koch was born in Crotona Park East section of The Bronx borough of New York City,[5] the son of Yetta (or Joyce,[6] née Silpe) and Louis (Leib) Koch, immigrants from Kozliv and Uścieczko in Eastern Galicia.[7] He came from a family of Conservative Jews who resided in Newark, New Jersey, where his father worked at a theater. As a child, he worked as a hatcheck boy in a Newark dance hall.[8] He graduated from South Side High School in Newark in 1941.[9]

In 1943 he was drafted into the United States Army,[10] where he served as an infantryman with the 104th Infantry Division, landing in Cherbourg, France, in September 1944. He earned a European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with two campaign stars, a World War II Victory Medal, and the Combat Infantryman Badge for service in the European Theater of Operations. After V-E Day, because he could speak German, Koch was sent to Bavaria to help remove Nazi public officials from their jobs and find non-Nazis to take their place. He was honorably discharged with the rank of Sergeant in 1946.[5][11]

Koch returned to New York City to attend City College of New York, graduating in 1945, and New York University School of Law, receiving his law degree in 1948. Koch was a sole practitioner from 1949 to 1964, and a partner with Koch, Lankenau, Schwartz & Kovner from 1965 to 1968. A Democrat, he became active in New York City politics as a reformer and opponent of Carmine DeSapio and Tammany Hall. In 1962 Koch ran for office for the first time, unsuccessfully opposing incumbent William Passannante, a DeSapio ally, for the Democratic nomination for the State Assembly.

In 1963, Koch defeated DeSapio for the position of Democratic Party leader for the district which included Greenwich Village, and Koch won again in a 1965 rematch.[12] Koch served on the New York City Council from 1967 to 1969.[13]

Career

U.S. Congressman

Ed Koch 95th congress
Koch served in the United States House of Representatives from 1969 to 1977.

Koch was the Democratic U.S. Representative from New York's 17th congressional district from January 3, 1969, until January 3, 1973, when, after a redistricting, he represented New York's 18th congressional district until December 31, 1977, when he resigned to become Mayor of New York City.

Koch said he began his political career as "just a plain liberal", with positions including opposing the Vietnam War and marching in the South for civil rights.[14] In April 1973, Koch coined the term "Watergate Seven" when, in response to U.S. Senator Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.'s indicating that one of the men in Watergate scandal had been ordered in the spring of 1972 to keep certain senators and representatives under surveillance, he posted a sign on his office door reading, "These premises were surveilled by the Watergate Seven. Watch yourself".[15] At about the same time, Koch began his rightward shift toward being a "liberal with sanity" after reviewing the 1973 controversy around then-New York City Mayor John Lindsay's attempt to place a 3,000-person housing project in a middle-class community in Forest Hills, Queens. Koch met with residents of the community, most of whom were against the proposal. He was convinced by their arguments, and spoke out against the plan, shocking some of his liberal allies.[16]

Koch was active in advocating for a greater U.S. role in advancing human rights within the context of fighting Communism. He had particular influence in the foreign aid budget, as he sat on the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations. In 1976, Koch proposed that the U.S. cut off military aid and supplies to the government of Uruguay, which was a dictatorship. In mid-July 1976, the CIA learned that two high-level Uruguayan intelligence officers had discussed a possible assassination attempt on Koch by Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (DINA), the Chilean secret police. The CIA did not regard these threats as credible until after the September 1976 assassination of Orlando Letelier in Washington, D.C., by DINA agents coordinated by Operation Condor. After that, Director of Central Intelligence George H.W. Bush informed Koch of the threat. Koch subsequently asked both the CIA and the FBI for protection, but none was extended.[17]

Mayor of New York City

Koch briefly ran for Mayor in 1973, but garnered little support and dropped out before the Democratic primary. He threw his support to State Assemblyman Albert H. Blumenthal, but Blumenthal's bid was derailed by a scandal and he came in third.[18]

1977 election and first term

Koch Abzug Carter photo op
Koch (left) with Representative Bella Abzug (center) and President Jimmy Carter (right) in 1978

In 1977, Koch won the Democratic primary in the New York City mayoral election, defeating Bella Abzug, Mario Cuomo, and incumbent Abe Beame, among others. Koch ran to the right of the other candidates on a "law and order" platform. According to historian Jonathan Mahler, the New York City blackout of 1977 that happened in July, and the subsequent rioting, helped catapult Koch and his message of restoring public safety to front-runner status.[19] Notable first-term events included David Berkowitz's convictions and life sentences for his Son of Sam murders and the 1978 New York Times strike from August 9 to November 5 (both in the year his administration began), Ronald Reagan's pre-election debut tour and Pope John Paul II's papal debut (1979), and the Democratic National Convention held at Madison Square Garden on August 11-14, 1980.

1981 election and second term; run for governor

New York mayor Ed Koch
Koch giving interview to WABC-TV in 1981

In 1981, he ran for reelection as mayor on both the Democratic and Republican Party lines; in November he won, defeating his main opponent, Unity Party candidate Frank J. Barbaro, with 75% of the vote.

In 1982, Koch ran unsuccessfully for Governor of New York, losing the Democratic primary to Mario Cuomo, who was then lieutenant governor. Many say the deciding factor in Koch's loss was an interview with Playboy magazine in which he described the lifestyle of suburbia and upstate New York as "sterile" and lamented the thought of having to live in "the small town" of Albany as governor. Koch's remarks are thought to have alienated many voters from outside New York City.

Koch often deviated from the conventional liberal line, strongly supporting the death penalty, adding 3,500 officers to the NYPD in the 1980s,[20] and taking a hard line on "quality of life" issues, such as giving police broader powers in dealing with the homeless and favoring (and signing) legislation banning the playing of radios on subways and buses. These positions prompted harsh criticism from the local chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union and many African-American leaders, particularly Reverend Al Sharpton.

In 1984, Koch published his first memoir, Mayor, which became a best-seller and was later turned into an Off Broadway and later Broadway musical, Mayor.[21]

1985 election and third term

In 1985, Koch again ran for reelection, this time on the Democratic and Independent tickets; he defeated Liberal Party candidate Carol Bellamy, Republican candidate Diane McGrath, and Right to Life candidate Rabbi Lew Y. Levin with 78% of the vote.[22] [23] During the campaign, Koch visited the late Lubavitcher Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, seeking his blessing and endorsement.[24]

In 1986, Koch signed a lesbian and gay rights ordinance for the city after the City Council passed the measure (on March 20), following several failed attempts by that body to approve such legislation. Despite his overall pro-lesbian and pro-gay-rights stance, he nonetheless backed up the New York City Health Department's decision to shut down the city's gay bathhouses in 1985 in response to concerns over the spread of AIDS. The enactment of the measure the following year placed the city in a dilemma, as it apparently meant that the bathhouses would have to be reopened because many heterosexual "sex clubs" – most notably Plato's Retreat – were in operation in the city at the time, and allowing them to remain open while keeping the bathhouses shuttered would have been a violation of the newly adopted anti-discrimination law. The Health Department, with Koch's approval, reacted by ordering the heterosexual clubs, including Plato's Retreat, to close as well.

Koch consistently demonstrated a fierce love for New York City, which some observers felt he carried to extremes on occasion: in 1984 he went on record as opposing the creation of a second telephone area code for the city, claiming that this would divide the city's population; and when the National Football League's New York Giants won Super Bowl XXI in January 1987, he refused to grant a permit for the team to hold their traditional victory parade in the city, quipping famously, "If they want a parade, let them parade in front of the oil drums in Moonachie" (a town in New Jersey adjacent to the East Rutherford site of the Meadowlands Sports Complex, where the Giants play their home games).

Edward Koch at commissioning of USS Lake Champlain (CG-57) cropped
Edward Koch at the commissioning of USS Lake Champlain (1988)

In his third term, Koch's popularity was shaken after a series of corruption scandals, touched off by Donald Manes's suicide and the PVB scandal, which revealed that he had acceded to the requests of political allies (most notably Queens Borough President Manes, Bronx Democratic Party official Stanley Friedman and Brooklyn Democratic Party chairman Meade Esposito) to stack city agencies with patronage appointments. There were no allegations that Koch obtained any financial benefit from the corruption, but the scandals undermined Koch's claims that he ran a patronage-free municipal government. Michael Tager attributes the scandals not to Koch's failures but to the steadily declining power of the Democratic machine and its bosses' desperate efforts to reverse the collapse.[25][26]

Koch suffered a stroke in 1987, but recovered and was able to continue his duties.[27]

In July 1987, Koch proposed banning bicycling on Fifth, Park and Madison Avenues during weekdays, but many bicyclists protested and had the ban overturned.[28][29]

It has been said that race relations in Mayor Koch's last years were not good.[30] He became a controversial figure in the 1988 presidential campaign with his public criticism of Democratic candidate Jesse Jackson, who surprised many political observers by winning key primaries in March and running even with the front-runner, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis. As the April New York primary approached, Koch reminded voters of Jackson's earlier anti-semitic statements, and said that Jews would be "crazy" to vote for Jackson. Koch endorsed Tennessee Senator Al Gore, who had run well in his native South, but hadn't won 20% in a northern state. As Koch's anti-Jackson rhetoric intensified, Gore seemed to shy away from Koch. On primary day, Gore finished a weak third place with 10% of the vote and dropped out of the race. Jackson ran ten points behind Dukakis, whose nomination became assured after his New York win.

In 1989, Koch ran for a fourth term as mayor but lost the Democratic primary to Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins, who went on to defeat Rudolph Giuliani in the general election. Koch's criticism of Jesse Jackson had angered many black voters and was cited as a major reason for his defeat.

Post-mayoral years

2004 OSCE Anti-Semitism Conference photo op cropped
Koch and Colin Powell lead the US delegation for the 2004 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Conference on Anti-Semitism, held in Berlin, Germany (April 28, 2004)

In the years following his mayoralty, Koch became a partner in the law firm of Robinson, Silverman, Pearce, Aronsohn, and Berman LLP (now Bryan Cave LLP) and a commentator on politics, as well as reviewing movies and restaurants for newspapers, radio and television. He also became an adjunct professor at New York University (NYU) and the judge on The People's Court for two years (1997–99) following the retirement of Judge Joseph Wapner. In 1999, he was a visiting professor at Brandeis University. Koch regularly appeared on the lecture circuit, and had a high-rated talk show on WABC radio. He also hosted his own online movie review show, The Mayor at the Movies.[31]

On August 12, 1993, a street in southern Tel Aviv was named after Koch in a ceremony attended by him alongside prominent Israeli and American dignitaries.[32]

In 2004, together with his sister Pat (also Pauline)[6] Koch Thaler, Koch wrote a children's book, Eddie, Harold's Little Brother; it tells the story of Koch's childhood, when he tried unsuccessfully to emulate his older brother Harold's baseball talents, before realizing that he should instead focus on what he was already good at, which was telling stories and speaking in public.

On March 23, 2011, the New York City Council voted to rename the Queensboro Bridge the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge.[33] Later, city councilman Peter Vallone (D-Queens) introduced legislation banning the naming of New York City property after people who are still alive, but the legislation failed.[34]

Koch formed an organization called New York Uprising to push for statewide redistricting reform. In April 2011, he publicly upbraided 42 state legislators he claimed had broken their promises to support redistricting reform.[35]

In May 2011, Koch sat for a portrait by Dmitry Borshch that has been exhibited at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, DePaul University, Brecht Forum, and CUNY Graduate Center, and is included in the Catalog of American Portraits at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery.[36][37][38]

"Mayor at the Movies"

In the summer of 2009, Koch began appearing in weekly movie review segments for an online show, Mayor at the Movies.[39] He was an avid moviegoer who often saw two or three movies a weekend. Although he was invited to private screenings, Koch preferred to see films with a public audience and was often approached by moviegoers who were surprised to find him there. His reviews were outspoken and wry, with his rating system consisting not of stars but of a "plus" for a good film or a "minus" for a bad one.

He had a particular passion for independent cinema and documentaries, but enjoyed dramas and action films as well. In addition to Mayor at the Movies,[39] his film reviews were regularly featured on The Huffington Post[40] and in the New York newspaper The Villager.[41] Koch also appeared in more than 60 Hollywood films and television shows as himself, including Sex and the City, Spin City, and Saturday Night Live.[42] A documentary about his life, Koch, had its world premiere at the Hamptons International Film Festival on October 8, 2012, and was released theatrically on February 1, 2013 (coincidentally, the day of Koch's death).[43]

Political endorsements

After leaving office, Koch frequently endorsed prominent Republican candidates, including Rudy Giuliani and Michael Bloomberg for mayor, Al D'Amato for U.S. Senate, Peter T. King for U.S. House, George Pataki for governor, and, in 2004, George W. Bush for president. Koch also endorsed Democrats, including Eliot Spitzer for governor in the 2006 election. He endorsed Bill Bradley for president in 2000.

Koch took back his endorsement of Spitzer in the aftermath of the governor's prostitution scandal. He said, "At the time the prostitution episode emerged, I commented that nothing could explain his behavior other than the fact that he had a screw loose in his head. Probably several."[44]

Though Koch supported Giuliani's first mayoral bid, he became opposed to him in January 1996, and began writing a series of columns in the New York Daily News criticizing Giuliani, most frequently accusing him of being authoritarian and insensitive. In 1999, the columns were compiled into the book Giuliani: Nasty Man. He resumed his attacks, and had the book republished, in 2007, after Giuliani announced his candidacy for president. In May 2007, Koch called Giuliani "a control freak" and said that "he wouldn't meet with people he didn't agree with. That's pretty crazy." He also said that Giuliani "was imbued with the thought that if he was right, it was like a God-given right. That's not what we need in a president."[45]

Koch originally endorsed Hillary Clinton for president during the 2008 campaign,[46] then endorsed Democratic nominee Barack Obama in the general election. In his endorsement of Obama, Koch wrote that he felt that (unlike in 2004) both candidates would do their best to protect both the United States and Israel from terrorist attacks, but that he agreed with Obama's domestic policies much more and that the idea of Republican vice-presidential nominee Sarah Palin ascending to the presidency "would scare me".[47] In 2010 he rescinded his support for Obama, saying that Obama could very well harm American–Israeli relations.[48]

In 2011, Koch endorsed Republican Bob Turner for Congress, because Koch "wanted to send a message to Obama to take a stronger position in support of Israel."[49] Many conservative Jewish voters joined Koch to elect the Roman Catholic Turner, rather than his Jewish Democratic opponent David Weprin, giving Republicans their first win in the NY-9th Congressional district since the 1920s.[50]

In October 2012, Koch told Al Sharpton that after a conversation with Obama about his position on Israel he was satisfied, and endorsed his reelection.[51]

Early in 2013, Koch endorsed Christine Quinn in the Democratic primary for that year's mayoral election.[52]

Other political statements

Koch often wrote in defense of Israel and against anti-Semitism. He was a contributor to Newsmax, a conservative magazine.[53] He also appeared in the documentary FahrenHYPE 9/11 defending President Bush and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and blasting Michael Moore. Koch was quoted in the film saying of Moore's film Fahrenheit 9/11, "It's not a documentary, it's a lie."

Koch praised New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, saying that he had the right approach in reducing government spending and refraining from raising taxes.[54]

Koch was an early supporter of the Iraq War. In July 2007, Koch wrote that he was "bailing out" of his previous support for that war, due to the failure of the United States' NATO allies, and other Arab countries, to contribute to the war effort. Koch wrote, "I would support our troops remaining in Iraq if our allies were to join us. But they have made it clear they will not." He added that the U.S. must still "prepare for the battles that will take place on American soil by the Islamic forces of terror who are engaged in a war that will be waged by them against Western civilization for at least the next 30 years."[55]

On April 8, 2010,[56] Koch wrote a piece in The Jerusalem Post excoriating what he saw as increasing anti-Catholicism in the media, largely made evident by coverage of the priest sex abuse scandals. While denouncing the abuse, Koch wrote, "the procession of articles on the same events are, in my opinion, no longer intended to inform, but simply to castigate." He also wrote that he believed that many in the media, some themselves Catholic, exhibited such anti-Catholicism largely because of their opposition to the Catholic Church's teachings on such issues as abortion, homosexuality, and artificial contraception. He stated that, while he opposed the Church's teaching in all these matters, he firmly believed that the Church had the right to espouse these beliefs and to expect its members to espouse them as well, calling the Church "a force for good in the world, not evil."

Personal life

Koch was a lifelong bachelor, and his sexual orientation became an issue in the 1977 mayoral election with the appearance of placards and posters (disavowed by the Cuomo campaign) with the slogan "Vote for Cuomo, Not the Homo." Koch denounced the attack.[57] Writer and LGBT rights activist Larry Kramer, who often criticized Koch for not doing more about the HIV/AIDS crisis in the city, publicly alleged that Koch was a closet homosexual.[58]

In 1989, Koch was interviewed about a book he had coauthored with Cardinal John J. O'Connor. When the interviewer asked Koch to clarify his views on homosexuality relative to O'Connor, Koch responded, "I happen to believe that there's nothing wrong with homosexuality. It's whatever God made you. It happens that I'm a heterosexual."[59] He once told New York magazine, "Listen, there's no question that some New Yorkers think I'm gay, and voted for me nevertheless. The vast majority don't care, and others don't think I am. And I don't give a (expletive) either way!"[58]

He was frequently accompanied at political functions by his friend Bess Myerson, whose presence was regarded by some observers as an effort to defuse rumors of his alleged homosexuality.[60][61][62]

In the 2009 film Outrage, David Rothenberg (who served as New York City Human Rights Commissioner in the Koch administration) "went public with his knowledge of Koch’s boyfriend, Richard Nathan (who died of AIDS in 1996), who told him Koch made it clear that he had to leave town soon after Koch was elected mayor."[63] According to AIDS activist Rodger McFarlane, "Dick was threatened, physically threatened and financially threatened ... and he was terrified, in the middle of the night, leaving the city."[63]

Shortly before he succumbed to AIDS in 2009, former New York City senior assistant corporation counsel Denis deLeon accused Koch of sexual harassment during a visit to Koch's apartment. Koch "dismissed the story mockingly" in a conversation with journalist Andy Humm in 2011.[64]

Death and funeral

Koch died of heart failure on February 1, 2013.[65] He had lived in several places in Greenwich Village; at the time of his death, he lived at 2 Fifth Avenue, overlooking Washington Square Park.[66]

His funeral took place on February 4, 2013, at Temple Emanu-El, a Reform Jewish congregation in Manhattan.[67] Because of Koch's fierce loyalty to Israel, the Israeli Consul-General to New York City spoke. Former president Bill Clinton also addressed the congregation, serving as President Obama's representative. New York City Police Department helicopters gave a fly-over at the service.[68][67]

In April 2008, Koch had purchased a burial plot in Trinity Church Cemetery so that he could be buried in Manhattan. It is the only graveyard in the borough that is accepting new burials. He chose to put the last words of the late journalist Daniel Pearl on his tombstone: "My father is Jewish, my mother is Jewish, I am Jewish."[69]

Wit

A practiced public speaker since his days stumping for Adlai Stevenson, Koch was well known for his quips and one-liners.[70] A few include:

(On the occasion of his primary loss to David Dinkins) "The people have spoken...and they must be punished."[70]

"I'm the sort of person who will never get ulcers. Why? Because I say exactly what I think. I'm the sort of person who might give other people ulcers."[70]

"If you agree with me on nine out of 12 issues, vote for me. If you agree with me on 12 out of 12 issues, see a psychiatrist."[70]

See also

Works

  • Koch, Edward I. (1980). The Mandate Millstone. US Conference of Mayors. OCLC 040152378. ASIN B00072XPA8
  • Koch, Edward I. (1980). "The mandate millstone". National Affairs (61).
  • Koch, Ed (1981). How'm I doing?: The wit and wisdom of Ed Koch. New York: Lion Books. ISBN 0-87460-362-5.
  • Rauch, William; Koch, Ed (1984). Mayor. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-49536-4.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Rauch, William; Koch, Ed (1985). Politics. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-53296-0.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Koch, Ed; O'Connor, John Joseph (1989). His Eminence and Hizzoner: a candid exchange. New York: Morrow. ISBN 0-688-07928-8.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Jones, Leland T.; Koch, Ed (1990). All the best: letters from a feisty mayor. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-69365-4.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Paisner, Daniel; Koch, Ed (1992). Citizen Koch: an autobiography. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-08161-8.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Koch, Ed (1994). Ed Koch on Everything: Movies, Politics, Personalities, Food, and Other Stuff. Carol Publishing Corporation. ISBN 1-55972-225-8.
  • Resnicow, Herbert; Koch, Ed (1995). Murder at city hall. New York: Kensington Books. ISBN 0-8217-5087-9.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Koch, Edward I. (1997). Murder on Broadway. New York: Kensington. ISBN 1-57566-186-1.
  • Koch, Ed (1997). Murder on 34th Street. New York: Kensington. ISBN 1-57566-232-9.
  • Koch, Ed (1998). The Senator Must Die. New York: Kensington. ISBN 1-57566-325-2.
  • Koch, Ed (1999). Giuliani: Nasty Man. New York: Barricade Books. ISBN 1-56980-155-X.
  • Graham, Stephen; Koch, Ed (1999). New York: A State of Mind (Urban Tapestry Series). Towery Pub. ISBN 1-881096-76-9.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Paisner, Daniel; Koch, Ed (2000). I'm not done yet!: keeping at it, remaining relevant, and having the time of my life. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-17075-7.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Warhola, James; Thaler, Pat Koch; Koch, Ed; Koch, Edward D. (2004). Eddie: Harold's little brother. New York: G. P. Putnam's sons. ISBN 0-399-24210-4.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Heady, Christy; Koch, Edward D.; Koch, Ed (2007). Buzz: how to create it and win with it. New York, N.Y: American Management Association. ISBN 0-8144-7462-4.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Koch". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ "Mayor Koch, Self-Proclaimed 'Liberal With Sanity' Who Led New York From Fiscal Crisis, Is Dead at 88". The New York Sun. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
  3. ^ a b Smith, Benjamin (February 1, 2013). "Mayor Koch, Self-Proclaimed 'Liberal With Sanity' Who Led New York From Fiscal Crisis, Is Dead at 88". New York Sun.
  4. ^ "New York City Mayor Ed Koch: From TIME's Archives". Time. February 1, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Koch, Edward Irving – Biographical Information". Retrieved November 11, 2009.
  6. ^ a b "1940 US Federal Census". Ancestry.com. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  7. ^ The Jews of Capitol Hill: A Compendium of Jewish Congressional Members – Kurt F. Stone – Google Books. Books.google.ca. December 29, 2010. ISBN 9780810877382. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  8. ^ New Jersey Trivia. Rutledge Hill Press. 1993. p. 74. ISBN 1-55853-223-4.
  9. ^ The Ultimate New Jersey High School Yearbook. The Star Ledger. June 27, 1999.
  10. ^ "NARA WWII Enlistment Records – Koch Edward I". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.
  11. ^ Saxena, Jaya. "behindthescenes.nyhistory.org". Mayor Ed Koch Speaks at WWII & NYC Opening Reception. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
  12. ^ Village Voice, Ed Koch Finally Slays Carmine DeSapio For Good Archived February 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, by Tony Ortega, October 19, 2009, reprint of story by Jack Newfield, September 23, 1965
  13. ^ Bryan Cave, LLP, Partner biography, Ed Koch Archived January 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved August 11, 2012
  14. ^ "Ed Koch's Legacy". Gotham Gazette. November 14, 2005. Archived from the original on April 27, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  15. ^ Madden, Richard L. (April 7, 1973). "Javits Picks a Campaign Team, Citing the Need to Think Ahead; Votes in Congress This Week's Tally for Metropolitan Area Senate House". The New York Times. p. 19. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  16. ^ Vincent Cannato (2009). The Ungovernable City. Basic Books. p. 511.
  17. ^ "Ed Koch Threatened with Assassination". The National Security Archives. George Washington University. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
  18. ^ "New York's colorful, feisty former Mayor Edward I. Koch dies". United Press International. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  19. ^ "That 70's Show" Archived May 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Gotham Gazette, May 9, 2005
  20. ^ Langan 2004; Appendix table 3
  21. ^ Lumenick, Lou (February 2, 2013). "Ed Koch was a pop-culture sensation". New York Post. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
  22. ^ Caliendo, Ralph J. (2010). New York City Mayors, Volume 1. Xlibris Corporation. p. 419. ISBN 1-4500-8814-7.
  23. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1985/09/29/nyregion/the-race-is-low-key-for-koch-and-3-rivals.html
  24. ^ Ehrlich, M. Avrum, The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present, (KTAV Publishing, January 2005) p. 109. ISBN 0-88125-836-9
  25. ^ Michael Tager, "Corruption And Party Machines in New York City," Corruption & Reform (1988) 3#1 pp 25–39
  26. ^ Newfield, Jack & Barrett, Wayne. City For Sale: Ed Koch and the Betrayal of New York, London: HarperCollins, 1989. ISBN 0-06-091662-1
  27. ^ Roberts, Sam (March 1, 2009). "Koch Makes His Peace and Dares to Look Ahead". The New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
  28. ^ Dunham, Mary Frances. "Bicycle Blueprint – Fifth, Park and Madison", Transportation Alternatives. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
  29. ^ Yee, Marilynn K. "Ban on Bikes Could Bring More Mopeds", The New York Times, Tuesday, August 25, 1987. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
  30. ^ "How Would Dinkins Have Done, Had He Come After Giuliani?". New York. Jan 17–24, 2011.
  31. ^ "Mayor at the Movies with Ed Koch". Mayorkoch.blip.tv. Archived from the original on April 1, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  32. ^ http://www.jta.org/1993/08/16/archive/ed-koch-returns-to-israel-and-receives-heros-welcome
  33. ^ Einhorn, Erin (March 23, 2011). "Ed Koch Queensborough bridge: Span officially renamed in honor of former New York City mayor". Daily News. New York.
  34. ^ Lamb, Rich (July 11, 2012). "Councilman Peter Vallone Wants To Ban The Renaming of City Property After Living People". CBS local. New York: CBS Radio. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
  35. ^ "Ed Koch identifies New York lawmakers who reneged on redistricting reform plan". Syracuse.com. April 12, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2018.
  36. ^ Dmitry Borshch, Catalog of American Portraits (CAP), National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
  37. ^ "ARTstor, Happy birthday to Mayor Ed Koch!". Artstor Blog. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  38. ^ "Russian American Cultural Center on ArtDiscover". Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  39. ^ a b "The Mayor at the Movies". Mayorkoch.com. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  40. ^ "Koch's page at The Huffington Post". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  41. ^ "The Villager homepage". thevillager.com. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  42. ^ Ed Koch on IMDb
  43. ^ "Koch". Zeitgeist Films.
  44. ^ "Client 9: The Rise and Fall of Eliot Spitzer". The Mayor at the Movies. January 11, 2011. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012.
  45. ^ Seidman, David. "Railing at Rudy," New York Post, May 13, 2007, p. 9.
  46. ^ "Giuliani Should Not Be a Favorite". Newsmax.com. August 25, 2007. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  47. ^ Smith, Ben. Koch backs Obama, calls Palin 'scary', Politico, September 9, 2008
  48. ^ Koch Outraged By Obama's Treatment of Israel Over Housing Construction Archived July 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, April 1, 2010.
  49. ^ Guttman, Nathan (September 16, 2011). "Koch Takes a Victory Lap on N.Y. Congressional Race". The Jewish Daily Forward.
  50. ^ Gould, Martin (September 14, 2011). "Koch: NY Race Proves Obama Can't Take Jewish Vote for Granted". Newsmax. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
  51. ^ Ed Koch Tells Al Sharpton He's 'Back On Board The Bus' With President Obama. Mediaite. October 13, 2012.
  52. ^ Michael M. Grynbaum (February 9, 2013). "An Endorsement Hard to Pass Up, and Harder to Promote". The New York Times.
  53. ^ "NewsMax Pundits". Newsmax. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  54. ^ "Reason.tv: Mayor Ed Koch on rent control, his sexuality, Andrew Cuomo, and how he helped save New York". Reason. June 29, 2011.
  55. ^ Koch, Ed. "I'm Done Defending the Iraq Policy", RealClearPolitics, July 18, 2007
  56. ^ "He that is without sin, cast the next stone – enough already". Members.shaw.ca. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  57. ^ Hornblower, Margot (February 2, 1984). "Koch Lets Hair Down in Biography Mayor". The Washington Post. p. A3.
  58. ^ a b Almasy, Steve (March 7, 2013). "New York's brash former mayor, Ed Koch, dies at 88". CNN. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  59. ^ "Mayor Koch: 'I'm a Heterosexual'". AP News Archive. Associated Press. March 16, 1989.
  60. ^ Ed Koch Dies: Was Former NYC Mayor Gay? Bess Myerson Campaign Appearances, Richard Nathan Fueled Rumors Of Homosexuality by Howard Koplowitz. International Business Times, February 1, 2013
  61. ^ "Ed Koch's pal, former Miss America Bess Myerson, was a constant at his side." New York Daily News. February 2, 2013
  62. ^ "Bess Myerson Is One Tough Customer" by Susan Berman. New York. November 14, 1977
  63. ^ a b https://www.huffingtonpost.com/michelangelo-signorile/ed-koch-how-the-gay-close_b_2614722.html
  64. ^ http://gaycitynews.nyc/ed-koch-12-years-as-mayor-a-lifetime-in-the-closet/
  65. ^ "New York Former Mayor Ed Koch dies at 88". BBC News. February 1, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
  66. ^ Bermsn, Andrew (February 1, 2013). "Ed Koch (1924-2013) and the Village". Off the Grid. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  67. ^ a b Jim Fitzgerald (February 4, 2013). "Ed Koch Funeral: Clinton, Bloomberg Speak At Service For Former NYC Mayor". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  68. ^ Deepti Hajela (February 3, 2013). "With death of legendary New York City mayor, Koch tributes pour in; funeral set for Monday". Star Tribune. Minneapolis. Associated Press. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  69. ^ Mary Frances Schjonberg (February 4, 2013). "Former New York Mayor Ed Koch laid to rest in Trinity plot". Episcopal News Service.
  70. ^ a b c d Joe Coscarelli (February 1, 2013). "The Quotable Ed Koch: Wit, Wisdom, and One-Liners". New York.

Primary sources

  • Koch, Edward, and Daniel Paisner. Citizen Koch: an autobiography (St. Martin's Press, 1992).
  • Koch, Ed. The Koch Papers: My Fight Against Anti-Semitism (Macmillan, 2008).

Further reading

  • Goodwin, Michael, ed. New York Comes Back: The Mayoralty of Edward I. Koch, powerHouse Books, 2005. ISBN 1-57687-274-2.
  • Harrington, Michael. "When Ed Koch Was Still a Liberal". Dissent (1987): 595–602. online
  • Mollenkopf, John H. A Phoenix in the Ashes: The Rise and Fall of the Koch Coalition in New York city Politics. Princeton University Press, 1994.
  • Newfield, Jack and Barrett, Wayne. City For Sale: Ed Koch and the Betrayal of New York, London: HarperCollins, 1989. ISBN 0-06-091662-1.
  • Soffer, Jonathan. Ed Koch and the Rebuilding of New York City (Columbia University Press; 2010) 494 pages.
  • Thompson, J. Phillip. "David Dinkins' victory in New York City: The decline of the Democratic Party organization and the strengthening of black politics." PS: Political Science & Politics (1990) 23#2 pp. 145–148.

External links

Interviews

News collections

Archives

Political offices
Preceded by
Woodward Kingman
Member of the New York City Council
for the 2nd District

1967–1969
Succeeded by
Carol Greitzer
Preceded by
Abraham Beame
Mayor of New York City
1978–1989
Succeeded by
David Dinkins
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Theodore Kupferman
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 17th congressional district

1969–1973
Succeeded by
John Murphy
Preceded by
Charles Rangel
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 18th congressional district

1973–1977
Succeeded by
Bill Green
Legal offices
Preceded by
Joseph Wapner
Judge of The People's Court
1997–1999
Succeeded by
Jerry Sheindlin
1977 New York City mayoral election

The New York City mayoral election of 1977 occurred on Tuesday, November 8, 1977.

Incumbent mayor Abraham Beame, a Democrat, was challenged by five other Democrats, including Representative Ed Koch, New York Secretary of State Mario Cuomo, and feminist activist and former Representative Bella Abzug for the Democratic nomination. Koch won the initial vote in the Democratic primary as well as a runoff vote held between him and Cuomo. In the general election, Koch beat Cuomo, who ran on the Liberal Party ticket, and Roy M. Goodman, who ran on the Republican ticket.

1981 New York City mayoral election

The New York City mayoral election of 1981 occurred on Tuesday, November 3, 1981, with Democratic incumbent Mayor Ed Koch being re-elected to a second term by a landslide margin.

Koch, a Democrat, also received the endorsement of and ran on the Republican Party ballot line.

Koch received an overwhelming 74.64% of the vote citywide. Koch also swept all five boroughs by landslide margins, breaking 60% of the vote in Manhattan and breaking 70% of the vote in Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens and Staten Island.Koch's closest competitor was the short-lived New York Unity Party nominee Frank J. Barbaro, who received 13.31%.

Finishing in a distant third and fourth were the Conservative Party nominee, John A. Esposito, who received 4.92%, and Liberal Party nominee, Mary T. Codd, who received 3.41%.

Koch defeated his nearest competitor by a landslide 61.35% Democratic margin of victory and was sworn into his second term in January 1982.

1985 New York City mayoral election

The New York City mayoral election of 1985 occurred on Tuesday, November 5, 1985, with Democratic incumbent Mayor Ed Koch being re-elected to a third term by a landslide margin.

Koch received an overwhelming 78.02% of the vote citywide. Koch also swept all five boroughs by landslide margins, breaking 70% of the vote in Manhattan and Queens and breaking 80% of the vote in Brooklyn, the Bronx, and Staten Island.Koch's closest competitor was the Liberal Party nominee, New York City Council President Carol Bellamy, who received 10.20% of the vote. Finishing in a distant third was the Republican nominee, Diane McGrath, who received 9.14% of the vote.

Koch defeated his nearest competitor by a landslide 67.82% Democratic margin of victory and was sworn into his third and final term in January 1986.

1989 New York City mayoral election

The New York City mayoral election of 1989 occurred on Tuesday, November 7, 1989, with Democratic candidate, Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins, narrowly defeating U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, Rudolph Giuliani, the Republican nominee. They also faced several third party candidates. Dinkins replaced outgoing Democratic incumbent mayor Ed Koch; Dinkins had defeated Koch in the Democratic primary.

Dinkins won with 50.42% of the vote to Giuliani's 47.84%.Whereas the two preceding mayoral elections of the 1980s had been Democratic landslide victories, with all five boroughs voting to re-elect incumbent Ed Koch, the 1989 election was a closely contested race that finished with a narrow 2.58% margin of victory for David Dinkins. Dinkins won majorities in the Bronx, Manhattan, and Brooklyn, while Giuliani carried Queens and Staten Island, the latter by a landslide margin. Four years later, in the 1993 election, Dinkins and Giuliani would face each other again in a re-match and Dinkins would narrowly lose to Giuliani in his bid for re-election.

2011 New York's 9th congressional district special election

A 2011 special election in New York's 9th congressional district was held on September 13, 2011 to fill a seat in the U.S. Congress for New York's 9th congressional district, after Representative Anthony Weiner resigned from this seat on June 21, 2011 due to his sexting scandal. Democratic Party nominee David Weprin, a member of the New York State Assembly, faced Republican and Conservative Party nominee Bob Turner, a businessman who unsuccessfully sought the seat in 2010.

The district with over 300,000 registered voters was expected to be eliminated during the 2012 redistricting. It is strongly Democratic, where registered Democrats out number Republican by a 3-to-1 ratio.Around midnight on September 14, the Associated Press called the race for Republican Bob Turner with 70% of precincts reporting and Turner leading Weprin 53 to 47. Turner is the first Republican Congressman to represent this district in 88 years. The last Republican to represent the district was Andrew Petersen who was elected in the Harding landslide of 1920.

59th Street (Manhattan)

59th Street is a crosstown street in the New York City borough of Manhattan, running from York Avenue/Sutton Place to the West Side Highway, with a discontinuity between Ninth Avenue/Columbus Avenue and Eighth Avenue/Central Park West where the Time Warner Center is located. At Second Avenue, 59th Street branches off onto the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, which is often referred to as the 59th Street Bridge, even though 59th Street continues east to York Avenue/Sutton Place.

The portion of the street forming the southern boundary of Central Park from Columbus Circle at Eighth Avenue/Central Park West on the west to Grand Army Plaza at Fifth Avenue on the east is known as Central Park South. Entry into Central Park can be made at the Scholars' Gate at Fifth Avenue, the Artists' Gate at Sixth Avenue, the Artisans' Gate at Seventh Avenue, and the Merchants' Gate at Columbus Circle. Central Park South contains four famous upscale hotels: the Plaza Hotel, the Ritz-Carlton, which is the flagship of the Ritz-Carlton chain, the Park Lane, and JW Marriott Essex House, and a notable residential building, the Gainsborough Studios.

While Central Park South is bi-directional, the section of 59th Street between Ninth and Eleventh Avenue/West End Avenue is one-way westbound, and the section between Fifth Avenue and Second Avenue is one-way eastbound.

59th Street forms the border between Midtown Manhattan and Uptown Manhattan. North of 59th Street, the Manhattan neighborhoods of the Upper West Side and Upper East Side continue on either side of Central Park. On the West Side, Manhattan's numbered avenues are renamed north of 59th Street, with Eighth Avenue becoming Central Park West, Ninth Avenue renamed Columbus Avenue, Tenth Avenue renamed Amsterdam Avenue, and Eleventh Avenue becoming West End Avenue.

Cuomo family

The Cuomo family is an American political family. Mario Cuomo and his son Andrew Cuomo both have served as governor of New York.

Mario Cuomo's parents, Andrea and Immacolata Cuomo, both emigrated to the United States from Italy. Andrea emigrated in 1926 and Immacolata immigrated in 1927.

Mario Cuomo (June 15, 1932-January 1, 2015), unsuccessful candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York (1974); appointed New York Secretary of State by Governor Hugh Carey (1975–1978); unsuccessful candidate in 1977 Democratic primary for mayor of New York City (lost to Ed Koch); unsuccessful Liberal Party of New York candidate in general election for New York City Mayor (1977), again losing to Ed Koch; Lieutenant Governor of New York 1979–1982; Governor of New York (1983–1994); keynote speaker at the 1984 Democratic National Convention in San Francisco.

Matilda Cuomo, wife of Mario Cuomo, former First Lady of New York (1983–1994)

Andrew Cuomo (born December 6, 1957), son of Mario and Matilda Cuomo; United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (1997–2001); New York State Attorney General (2007–2010); governor of New York (2011–present).

Christopher Cuomo (born August 9, 1970), son of Mario and Matilda Cuomo; CNN Anchor; host of "Cuomo Prime Time" evening news program; Former ABC News chief law and justice correspondent; former news anchor for Good Morning America; co-anchor for ABC's 20/20; winner of six national Emmys; picked as one of People magazine's "50 Sexiest People" in 1997.Maria Cuomo Cole, producer of social impact films at Cuomo Cole Prods, Chairman of Help USA. Daughter of Mario Cuomo, married Kenneth Cole, a well-known New York fashion designer.

Mario Cuomo's daughter Margaret I. Cuomo is a medical doctor.

From 1990 to 2003, Andrew Cuomo was married to Kerry Kennedy, daughter of Robert F. Kennedy and Ethel Skakel. Cuomo and Kennedy divorced, and Cuomo currently is dating Food Network host Sandra Lee.

Fahrenhype 9/11

Fahrenhype 9/11 (stylized FahrenHYPE 9/11) is a 2004 documentary video made in response to Michael Moore's documentary Fahrenheit 9/11. Part of a large group of documentaries that began appearing in the mid-2000s as improved technology allowed anyone to quickly and affordably create movies, the video was created in 28 days and was narrated by Ron Silver. Dick Morris (who also receives a co-writing credit), appears frequently, and features interviews with various political figures, including David Frum, Georgia Democratic Senator Zell Miller, social and political commentator Ann Coulter, and former Democratic New York City mayor Ed Koch.

The movie was released with a companion book, on October 5, 2004, the same day that Fahrenheit 9/11 was released on home video.

John Hour

The John Hour refers to the public naming of "johns" (male customers of female prostitutes).

In October 1979, New York City mayor Ed Koch instructed WNYC, the city's public radio station, to read the names of convicted "johns". Koch intended to use this public shaming, swiftly dubbed "The John Hour", as a tool to reduce prostitution.

The first John Hour was broadcast on WNYC in October 23, 1979, readed by announcer Joe Rice; it was also read on WMCA and published in the New York Daily News. An uproar ensued. On October 26, the New York Times editorialized:

"This week's premiere of Mayor Koch's 'John Hour,' which broadcast the names of nine convicted customers of prostitutes, was a shabby show, in no way redeemed by its brevity. It took only about a minute for city-employed announcers to read the names over city-owned radio and television stations. But it was a mighty misuse of government power."After one broadcast, "The John Hour" was discontinued.In March 2008, New York governor Eliot Spitzer was exposed as a customer of a high-priced prostitution ring. In the wake of this scandal, Koch advocated reinstating "The John Hour".

Koch (film)

Koch is a 2012 documentary film directed by Neil Barsky about former New York City Mayor Ed Koch. Koch premiered at the Hamptons International Film Festival on October 8, 2012 and is distributed by Zeitgeist Films. It opened theatrically in the United States on February 1, 2013 (coincidentally, the day of Koch's death).

List of mayors of New York City

The Mayor of New York City is the chief executive of New York City's government, as stipulated by New York City's charter. The current mayor, the 109th in the sequence of regular mayors, is Bill de Blasio, a Democrat.

During the Dutch colonial period from 1624 to 1664, New Amsterdam was governed by the Director of New Netherland. Following the 1664 creation of the British Province of New York, newly renamed New York City was run by the British military governor, Richard Nicolls. The office of Mayor of New York was established in 1665. Holders were appointed by colonial governors, beginning with Thomas Willett. The position remained appointed until 1777.

In 1777, during the American Revolution, a Council of Appointment was formed by the State of New York. In 1821 the New York City Council – then known as the Common Council – began appointing mayors.

Since 1834, mayors have been elected by direct popular vote.Before 1898, the city included little beyond the island of Manhattan. The 1898 consolidation created the city as it is today with five boroughs: Manhattan, the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island.

The longest-serving mayors have been Fiorello H. La Guardia (1934–1945), Robert F. Wagner Jr. (1954–1965), Ed Koch (1978–1989), and Michael Bloomberg (2002–2013) each of whom was in office for twelve years (three successive 4-year terms). The shortest terms in office since 1834 have been those of acting mayors: Thomas Coman (five weeks from Monday, November 30, 1868, to Monday, January 4, 1869) and Samuel B. H. Vance (one month from November 30 to December 31, 1874), in addition to the purely nominal single day that William T. Collins served in 1925.

Every mayor was white until the election of David Dinkins (1990–1993), to date the city's only African American to hold the office. New York has not had a Hispanic or Latino mayor, with the possible exception of John Purroy Mitchel (1914–1917), who was of Spanish descent and whose grandfather was born in Venezuela. New York's mayors have been religiously diverse; the city has had Protestant, Jewish, and Catholic mayors. No woman has ever served as mayor of New York City.

Mayor (musical)

Mayor is a musical with a book by Warren Leight and music and lyrics by Charles Strouse. It is based on the memoir by former New York City Mayor Ed Koch and depicts a single day in the life of the city's mayor. The musical ran on Broadway in 1985 after an Off-Broadway run.

Queensboro Bridge

The Queensboro Bridge, also known as the 59th Street Bridge – because its Manhattan end is located between 59th and 60th Streets – and officially titled the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, is a cantilever bridge over the East River in New York City that was completed in 1909. It connects the neighborhood of Long Island City in the borough of Queens with the neighborhood of the Upper East Side Manhattan, passing over Roosevelt Island.

The Queensboro Bridge carries New York State Route 25, which terminates at the west (Manhattan) side of the bridge. The bridge once carried NY 24 and NY 25A as well. The western leg of the Queensboro Bridge is flanked on its northern side by the freestanding Roosevelt Island Tramway. The bridge was, for a long time, simply called the Queensboro Bridge, but in March 2011, the bridge was officially renamed in honor of former New York City mayor Ed Koch.

No tolls are charged for motor vehicles to use the bridge. The Queensboro Bridge is the first entry point into Manhattan in the course of the New York City Marathon and the last exit point out of Manhattan in the Five Boro Bike Tour.

Recurring Saturday Night Live characters and sketches introduced 1981–1982

The following is a list of recurring Saturday Night Live characters and sketches introduced between October 3, 1981, and May 22, 1982, the seventh season of SNL.

Recurring Saturday Night Live characters and sketches introduced 1982–1983

The following is a list of recurring Saturday Night Live characters and sketches introduced between September 25, 1982, and May 14, 1983, the eighth season of SNL.

Rose Hill Gymnasium

Rose Hill Gymnasium is a 3,200-seat multi-purpose arena on the Rose Hill campus of Fordham University in The Bronx, New York City, New York. The arena, which opened in 1925, is the oldest on-campus venue currently used primarily for a NCAA Division I basketball team and the second-oldest overall (with the oldest being Northeastern University's Matthews Arena, opened in 1910 and currently used for its basketball and hockey teams). Fordham's volleyball team also used the gym.

At the time it was built, it was one of the largest on-campus facilities in the country, earning it the nickname "The Prairie." The Rose Hill Gymnasium has been the site of many legendary college and high school basketball games, including the final high school game of Lew Alcindor, later known as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. During World War II, it was also used as a barracks. New York City Mayor Ed Koch lived in these barracks for a time. As early as 1970 an effort, headed by famed Fordham alumnus Vince Lombardi, was made to build a new arena. This effort ended with Lombardi's death and the move of head basketball coach "Digger" Phelps to the University of Notre Dame.

The People's Court

The People's Court is an American arbitration-based reality court show presided over by retired Florida State Circuit Court Judge Marilyn Milian (her 16th season as the show's arbitrator by September 5, 2016). Milian, the show's longest-reigning arbiter, handles small claims disputes in a simulated courtroom set.The People's Court as of September 5, 2016, having entered its 32nd season ranks as the second-longest running courtroom series in history, behind Divorce Court and the third highest rated after Judge Judy and Hot Bench. Its current production life entered its 20th season on September 5, 2016.

Tompkins Square Park riot (1988)

The Tompkins Square Park Riot occurred on August 6–7, 1988 in New York City's Tompkins Square Park. Groups of "drug pushers, homeless people and young people known as squatters and punks," had largely taken over the park. The Alphabet City/East Village neighborhood, in which the park was located, was divided about what, if anything, should be done about it. The local governing body, Manhattan Community Board 3, recommended, and the New York City Parks Department adopted, a 1 a.m. curfew for the previously 24-hour park, in an attempt to bring it under control. On July 31, a protest rally against the curfew saw several clashes between protesters and police.Another rally was held on August 6. Here, the police charged a crowd of protesters, and a riot ensued. Bystanders, activists, police officers, neighborhood residents and journalists were caught up in the violence. Despite a brief lull in the fighting, the mêlée continued until 6 a.m. the next day. Mayor Ed Koch temporarily rescinded the curfew. The neighborhood, previously divided over how to deal with the park, was unanimous in its condemnation of the heavy-handed actions of the police.Over 100 complaints of police brutality were lodged following the riot. Much blame was laid on poor police handling and the commander of the precinct in charge was deprived of office for a year. In an editorial entitled "Yes, a Police Riot", The New York Times commended Commissioner Benjamin Ward and the New York City Police Department for their candor in a report that confirmed what ubiquitous media images made clear: the NYPD were responsible for inciting a riot.

Wayne Barrett

Wayne Barrett (July 11, 1945 – January 19, 2017) was an American journalist. He was an investigative reporter and senior editor for The Village Voice for 37 years. Barrett was a Fellow with The Nation Institute and contributor to Newsweek. He held degrees from Saint Joseph's University and the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, where he served on the adjunct faculty for over thirty years.

Barrett authored many articles and books about politicians, especially New York City figures such as Ed Koch, Donald Trump, and Rudy Giuliani. He was a major interviewee in Kevin Keating's 2006 documentary Giuliani Time.

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