Ed Delahanty

Edward James Delahanty (October 30, 1867 – July 2, 1903), nicknamed "Big Ed", was an American professional baseball player, who spent his Major League Baseball (MLB) playing career with the Philadelphia Quakers, Cleveland Infants, Philadelphia Phillies, and Washington Senators. He was renowned as one of the game's early power hitters, and while primarily a left fielder, also spent time as an infielder. Delahanty won a batting title, batted over .400 three times, and has the fifth-highest career batting average in MLB history. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, in 1945. Delahanty died falling into Niagara Falls or the Niagara River, after being removed from a train while intoxicated.

Delahanty's biographer argues that:

Baseball for Irish kids was a shortcut to the American dream and to self-indulgent glory and fortune. By the mid-1880s these young Irish men dominated the sport and popularized a style of play that was termed heady, daring, and spontaneous.... [Delahanty] personified the flamboyant, exciting spectator-favorite, the Casey-at-the-bat, Irish slugger. The handsome masculine athlete who is expected to live as large as he played.[1]

Four of Delahanty's brothers, Frank, Jim, Joe, and Tom, also played in the big leagues.[2]

Ed Delahanty
MLB-Ed Delahanty
Left fielder
Born: October 30, 1867
Cleveland, Ohio
Died: July 2, 1903 (aged 35)
Niagara Falls, Ontario
Batted: Right Threw: Right
MLB debut
May 22, 1888, for the Philadelphia Quakers
Last MLB appearance
June 25, 1903, for the Washington Senators
MLB statistics
Batting average.346
Hits2,596
Home runs101
Runs batted in1,464
Stolen bases455
Teams
Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction1945
Election MethodVeteran's Committee

Early life

A Cleveland, Ohio native nicknamed "Big Ed", Delahanty was an outfielder and powerful right-handed batter in the 1890s. Crazy Schmit, who pitched for the Giants and Orioles, said of him, "When you pitch to [Ed] Delahanty, you just want to shut your eyes, say a prayer and chuck the ball. The Lord only knows what'll happen after that." (quoted in Autumn Glory by Louis P. Masur)

Delahanty attended Cleveland's Central High School and went on to college at St. Joseph's. He signed on to first play professional baseball with Mansfield of the Ohio State League in 1887.[3] Delahanty also played minor league ball in Wheeling, West Virginia. In 1887, the Wheeling team sold Delahanty to the Philadelphia Phillies for $1,900.[4] He became the most prominent member of the largest group of siblings ever to play in the major leagues: brothers Frank, Jim, Joe and Tom also spent time in the majors.[2]

Major league career

Early career

The Phillies obtained Delahanty as a replacement for Charlie Ferguson. Ferguson was a pitcher who had converted to second base for his final season, but he died early in 1888 from typhoid fever. Delahanty was brought in to fill in for him at second base.[5] He began his career on May 22, 1888, with the Philadelphia Phillies in the National League (NL), playing 74 games that season with a .228 average, 1 HR, and 31 RBI. The next year, in 56 games, he raised his average to .293.

In 1890, he jumped to the Players' League (PL), but returned to the Phillies the next year when that league folded. He hit .306 and tallied 6 HR and 91 RBI in 1892. During one game that season, St. Louis infielder George Pinkney charged toward home plate, expecting Delahanty to bunt; Delahanty swung and hit a ball that "appeared to have been shot from a cannon", breaking Pinkney's ankle.[6]

That same year, Delahanty was the victim behind one of "The Most Shameful Home Runs of All Time", according to authors Bruce Nash and Allan Zullo. When Delahanty's Phillies hosted the Chicago White Stockings at Philadelphia's Huntingdon Street Grounds in July, Cap Anson hit a fly ball to center field. The ball hit a pole and landed right in the "doghouse", a little-known feature of the park that was used to store numbers for the manually run scoreboard. Delahanty tried reaching over the "doghouse" and then tried crawling down into it. He got stuck, and by the time teammate Sam Thompson had freed Delahanty from the area, Anson had crossed home plate.

Middle career

Delahanty blossomed in 1893 with a .368 average, 19 home runs, and 146 RBI. He narrowly missed the Triple Crown, as teammates Billy Hamilton and Sam Thompson led the league in batting with .380 and .370 averages respectively. While with the Phillies, Delahanty played under manager Harry Wright, the man who assembled, managed, and played center field for baseball's first fully professional team, the 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings. Wright managed the Phillies with Delahanty for four seasons, from 1890 to 1893, with the two and their fine supporting cast leading the Phils to "first division" finishes during those years, though the team never won a pennant. Between 1894 and 1896 Delahanty compiled astonishing batting marks: .407, 4 HR, 131 RBI; .404, 11 HR, 106 RBI; .397, 13 HR, 126 RBI.

In 1894, despite his high average of .407, the batting title went to Hugh Duffy with a major league record-setting .440. The 1894 Phillies outfield had a big season, with all four players averaging over .400. That season, Delahanty hit .407, Sam Thompson batted .407, Billy Hamilton .404 and spare outfielder Tuck Turner finished second to Hugh Duffy in hitting at .416. Delahanty won his first batting title in 1899 with a .410 batting average, adding nine homers and 137 RBI and becoming the first player in major league history to hit .400 three times. Delahanty was surrounded by talent in the Philadelphia outfield. Author Bill James wrote, "Any way you cut it, the Phillies had the greatest outfield of the 19th century."[7]

Ed Delahanty
Delahanty with the Senators in 1903

On July 13, 1896, Delahanty became the second player to hit four home runs in a game. He was the first player to do so in a losing effort. (The Phillies lost the game, 9–8.) Two of them were hit into the bleachers while the other two were inside-the-park. In 1899, Delahanty hit four doubles in the same game. He remains the only man with a four-homer game and a four-double game. The same year Delahanty collected hits in 10 consecutive at bats. He tallied six-hit games in 1890 and 1894.

Later career

After switching to the new American League (AL) in 1902, playing for the Washington Senators, Delahanty won his second batting title with a .376 mark. To date, he is the only man to win a batting title in both the AL and NL. After the 1902 season, Delahanty commented to a reporter, "I know I am getting along in years and won't be able to last much longer in first-class baseball, therefore I am going to get all the money there is in sight... Last year I was playing with the Phillies for $3,000, this season the Washington Club gives me $4,000, and if I can get $5,000 no one can blame me for taking it."[8]

Delahanty returned to the Senators for the 1903 season. He was hitting .333 with one home run and 21 RBI in 42 games that year until the incident at Niagara Falls.[2]

Death

Delahanty died when he was swept over Niagara Falls in early July 1903. He was apparently kicked off a train by the train's conductor for being drunk and disorderly. The conductor said Delahanty was brandishing a straight razor and threatening passengers after he consumed five whiskies.[9] After being kicked off the train, Delahanty started his way across the International Railway Bridge connecting Buffalo, New York with Fort Erie (near Niagara Falls) and fell or jumped off the bridge (some accounts say Ed was yelling about death that night).[10] Whether "Big Ed" died from his plunge over the Falls or drowned on the way to the Falls is uncertain. His body was found at the bottom of Niagara Falls two weeks after his death.

A study of the tragedy appeared with the publication of July 2, 1903: The Mysterious Death of Big Ed Delahanty, by Mike Sowell (New York, Toronto, MacMillan Publishing Co., 1992). Sowell presents the evidence of a drunken accident, suicide, and even possibly a robbery-murder (there were reports of a mysterious man following Delahanty).

Legacy

Ed Delahanty Cooperstown plaque
Delahanty's plaque at the Baseball Hall of Fame

In his 16 seasons with Philadelphia, Cleveland and Washington, Delahanty batted .346, with 101 HRs and 1464 RBIs, 522 doubles, 185 triples and 455 stolen bases. He also led the league in slugging percentage and runs batted in three times each, and batted over .400 three times (1894-1895, 1899).[2] Rogers Hornsby is the only other three-time .400-hitter in National League history (1922, 1924–25). Delahanty's lifetime batting average of .346 ranks fifth all-time behind Ty Cobb (.366), Rogers Hornsby (.359), Joe Jackson (.356), and Lefty O'Doul (.349).

There is a sports bar in Phillipsburg, New Jersey, Delahanty's Tavern On The Square, named in his memory. His photograph and life story line the walls and menus inside. In 2008, he was memorialized by the band The Baseball Project on their album, Volume 1: Frozen Ropes and Dying Quails. The song, "The Death of Big Ed Delahanty", is a driving, punk-influenced ballad.[11]

The Hamburg Marines, a German Baseball Club, named their ballpark in the Hamburg quarter Billwerder after Ed Delahanty.

See also

References

  1. ^ Jerrold Casway, Ed Delahanty in the Emerald Age of Baseball (2004) p. x
  2. ^ a b c d "Ed Delahanty Stats". Baseball-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. 2019. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  3. ^ George B. Kirsch Othello Harris Claire Elaine Nolte (2000) Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-688-11273-0 Excerpt, pg. 129
  4. ^ "Lookink (sic) back to ye olden days on diamond". The Norwalk Hour. January 26, 1923. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  5. ^ David M. Jordan (2002) Occasional Glory: The History of the Philadelphia Phillies, McFarland, ISBN 0-7864-1260-7 Excerpt, pg. 11
  6. ^ Grayson, Harry (June 16, 1943). "Ed Delahanty was right-handed Babe Ruth of Dead Ball Era". San Jose Evening News. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  7. ^ James, Bill (2010). The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract. Simon & Schuster. p. 675. ISBN 1439106932.
  8. ^ "Delahanty admits that he is out for coin". The Pittsburgh Press. December 5, 1902. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  9. ^ "Delehanty's (sic) body found". The New York Times. July 10, 1903. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
  10. ^ Niagara Blog, On this day in Niagara Falls History – July 2, 1903"
  11. ^ "Features of This Track: electric rock instrumentation punk influences a subtle use of vocal harmony mild rhythmic syncopation": Pandora

Further reading

  • Casway, Jerrold (2004). Ed Delahanty in the Emerald Age of Baseball. University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-02291-7.

External links

Achievements
Preceded by
Tip O'Neill
Single season doubles record holders
1899–1922
Succeeded by
Tris Speaker
Preceded by
Bobby Lowe
Batters with 4 home runs in one game
July 13, 1896
Succeeded by
Lou Gehrig
1894 Philadelphia Phillies season

The 1894 Philadelphia Phillies season was a season in American baseball. The team finished in fourth place in the National League with a record of 71–57, 18 games behind the Baltimore Orioles. In August, the Phillies scored 312 runs, which still stands as the record in Major League Baseball for runs scored in a single month. Four of the team's outfielders hit over .400: Hall of Famers Sam Thompson, Ed Delehanty, and Billy Hamilton, plus reserve Tuck Turner.

1898 Philadelphia Phillies season

The following lists the events of the 1898 Philadelphia Phillies season.

1901 Philadelphia Phillies season

The following lists the events of the 1901 Philadelphia Phillies season.

1902 Philadelphia Phillies season

The 1902 Philadelphia Phillies season was a season in American baseball. The team finished seventh in the National League with a record of 56–81, 46 games behind the Pittsburgh Pirates.

1902 Washington Senators season

The 1902 Washington Senators won 61 games, lost 75, and finished in sixth place in the American League. They were managed by Tom Loftus and played home games at American League Park II.

1903 Washington Senators season

The 1903 Washington Senators won 43 games, lost 94, and finished in eighth place in the American League. They were managed by Tom Loftus and played home games at National Park.

Washington had finished in sixth place in each of the previous two seasons (the first two seasons of the American League's existence). However, they fell to eighth and last in 1903. Their only star player, Big Ed Delahanty, got drunk and fell off a bridge into Niagara Falls midway through the season.

The Senators' pitching had always been bad, and indeed, they would allow the most runs in the AL, but without Delahanty the offense sputtered to a halt. Their collective batting average was .231, bad even for the dead-ball era, and no one drove in more than 49 runs.

1936 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

The first elections to select inductees to the Baseball Hall of Fame were held in 1936. Members of the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) were given authority to select individuals from the 20th century; while a special Veterans Committee, made up of individuals with greater familiarity with the 19th century game, was polled to select deserving individuals from that era. The intent was for 15 honorees to be selected before the 1939 ceremonies – 10 from the 20th century and 5 from the 19th; additional players from both eras would be selected in later years. Voters were given free rein to decide for themselves in which group a candidate belonged, with neither group knowing the outcome of the other election; some candidates had their vote split between the elections as a result – Cy Young, the pitcher with most wins in Major League history, finished 8th in the BBWAA vote and 4th in the Veterans vote. In addition, there was no prohibition on voting for active players, a number of whom received votes. Individuals who had been banned from baseball – such as Shoeless Joe Jackson and Hal Chase – were also not formally excluded, though few voters chose to include them on ballots.

In the BBWAA election, voters were instructed to cast votes for 10 candidates, the same number of desired selections; in the Veterans' election, voters were also instructed to vote for 10, although the desire for only 5 initial selections led to revisions in the way the votes were counted. Any candidate receiving votes on at least 75% of the ballots in either election would be honored with induction to the Hall upon its opening in the sport's supposed centennial year of 1939.

1945 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1945 included the first regular election conducted in three years and a strong response to criticism of the slow pace of honors.

The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent players and elected no one. The Old Timers Committee responded by electing the biggest class yet, ten people: Roger Bresnahan, Dan Brouthers, Fred Clarke, Jimmy Collins, Ed Delahanty, Hugh Duffy, Hughie Jennings, King Kelly, Jim O'Rourke, and Wilbert Robinson.

After the baseball centennial and grand opening of the Hall of Fame in 1939, the BBWAA had determined to vote only every third year. After electing three players that year, it elected one in 1942 and none in 1945. New rules now provided that the writers would return to voting on recent players annually.

Batting average (baseball)

In baseball, the batting average (BA) is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is usually reported to three decimal places and read without the decimal: A player with a batting average of .300 is "batting three-hundred." If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken beyond the .001 measurement. In this context, a .001 is considered a "point," such that a .235 batter is 5 points higher than a .230 batter.

Big Ed

Big Ed may refer to:

Nickname:

Ed "Big Ed" Burns (c. 1842–?), American con man and crime boss

Ed Delahanty (1867–1903), American Major League Baseball player

Edward Melvin Deline

Ed Reulbach (1882–1961), American Major League Baseball pitcher

Ed Sanders (boxer) (1930–1954), American boxer and 1952 Olympic heavyweight champion

Ed Stevens (baseball) (1925–2012), American Major League Baseball player

Ed Walsh (1881–1959), American Major League Baseball pitcher and manager

Ed White (American football) (born 1947), American former National Football League player

Ed Wilkes (1931–1998), radio personality in Lubbock, Texas

Ed Dhandapani, a character on the American TV series ScrubsStage name:

Big Ed (rapper)

Bill Joyce (baseball)

William Michael Joyce (September 21, 1865 – May 8, 1941) was an American professional baseball player and manager. He was a third baseman over parts of eight seasons with the Brooklyn Ward's Wonders (of the Players' League), Boston Reds (of the American Association), Brooklyn Grooms, Washington Senators, and New York Giants. He also served as manager during his tenure with the Giants.

Joyce tied for the National League lead in home runs in 1896 (with Ed Delahanty) while playing for Washington and New York, and finished second three other times. He holds the record with four triples in one game, which he accomplished in 1897 (tying George Strief's 1885 record). In 1891, he reached base in 64 consecutive games, a major league record not bettered until 1941.

Joyce was born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1865, and died in St. Louis at the age of 75. He is buried at Bellefontaine Cemetery.

List of Major League Baseball annual doubles leaders

Major League Baseball recognizes doubles champions in the American League and National League each season.

List of Major League Baseball career batting average leaders

In baseball, the batting average (BA) is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is usually reported to three decimal places and pronounced as if it were multiplied by 1,000: a player with a batting average of .300 is "batting three-hundred." A point (or percentage point) is understood to be .001 . If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken to more than three decimal places.

Outfielder Ty Cobb, whose career ended in 1928, has the highest batting average in Major League Baseball (MLB) history. He batted .366 over 24 seasons, mostly with the Detroit Tigers. In addition, he won a record 11 batting titles for leading the American League in BA over the course of an entire season. He batted over .360 in 11 consecutive seasons from 1909 to 1919. Rogers Hornsby has the second highest BA of all-time, at .358. He won seven batting titles in the National League (NL) and has the highest NL average in a single season since 1900, when he batted .424 in 1924. He batted over .370 in six consecutive seasons.Shoeless Joe Jackson is the only other player to finish his career with a batting average over .350. He batted .356 over 13 seasons before he was permanently suspended from organized baseball in 1921 for his role in the Black Sox Scandal. Lefty O'Doul first came to the major leagues as a pitcher, but after developing a sore arm, he converted to an outfielder and won two batting titles. The fifth player on the list, and the last with at least a .345 BA, is Ed Delahanty. Delahanty's career was cut short when he fell into the Niagara Falls and died during the 1903 season.The last player to bat .400 in a season, Ted Williams, ranks tied for seventh on the all-time career BA list. Babe Ruth hit for a career .342 average and is tenth on the list. A player must have a minimum of 3,000 plate appearances in order to qualify for the list.

List of Major League Baseball doubles records

Major League Baseball has various records related to doubles.

Players denoted in boldface are still actively contributing to the record noted.

(r) denotes a player's rookie season.

List of Major League Baseball players with a .400 batting average in a season

In baseball, batting average (AVG) is a measure of a batter's success rate in achieving a hit during an at bat, and is calculated by dividing a player's hits by his at bats. The achievement of a .400 batting average in a season is recognized as "the standard of hitting excellence", in light of how batting .300 in a season is already regarded as solid. Twenty players have recorded a batting average of at least .400 in a single Major League Baseball (MLB) season as of 2018, the last being Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox in 1941. Three players – Ed Delahanty, Ty Cobb and Rogers Hornsby – have accomplished the feat in three different seasons, and no player has ever hit over .440, a single-season record established by Hugh Duffy in 1894. Ross Barnes was the first player to bat .400 in a season, posting a .429 batting average in the National League's inaugural 1876 season.In total, 20 players have reached the .400 mark in MLB history and five have done so more than once. Of these, ten were right-handed batters, nine were left-handed, and one was a switch hitter, meaning he could bat from either side of the plate. Two of these players (Terry and Williams) played for only one major league team. The Philadelphia Phillies are the only franchise to have four players reach the milestone while on their roster: Delahanty, Billy Hamilton, Sam Thompson, and Tuck Turner, all of whom attained a batting average over .400 during the 1894 season. Three players won the Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award in the same year as their .400 season. Tip O'Neill, Nap Lajoie, and Hornsby are the only players to have earned the Triple Crown alongside achieving a .400 batting average, leading their respective leagues in batting average, home runs and runs batted in (RBI). Although Shoeless Joe Jackson's .408 batting average in 1911 did not earn him the American League's batting title, it established a major league record for a rookie that stands to this day. Fred Dunlap has the lowest career batting average among players who have batted .400 in a season with .292, while Cobb – with .366 – recorded the highest career average in major league history.Due to the 75 years that have elapsed since Williams became the last player to achieve the feat and the integral changes to the way the game of baseball is played since then – such as the increased utilization of specialized relief pitchers – a writer for The Washington Post called the mark "both mystical and unattainable". Consequently, modern day attempts to reach the hallowed mark by Rod Carew (.388 in 1977), George Brett (.390 in 1980) and Tony Gwynn (.394 in the strike-shortened 1994 season) have generated considerable hype among fans and in the media. Of the seventeen players eligible for the Baseball Hall of Fame who have batted .400 in a season, fourteen have been elected and two were elected on the first ballot. Players are eligible for the Hall of Fame if they have played in at least 10 MLB seasons, and have either been retired for five seasons or deceased for at least six months. These requirements leave two players ineligible – Barnes and Turner – who did not play in at least 10 seasons. Shoeless Joe Jackson is ineligible for the Hall of Fame because he was permanently banned from baseball in 1921 for his involvement in the Black Sox Scandal.

List of Philadelphia Phillies team records

The Philadelphia Phillies have participated in 127 seasons in Major League Baseball since their inception in 1883. Through 2009, they have played 19,035 games, winning 9,035 and losing 10,162, for a winning their tenure as members of Major League Baseball's National League.

Chuck Klein, the franchise's only batting Triple Crown winner, holds the most franchise records as of the end of the 2009 season, with eight, including career slugging percentage, career on-base plus slugging (OPS), and single-season extra-base hits. He is followed by Billy Hamilton, who holds seven records, including career batting average and the single-season runs record.

Several Phillies hold National League and major league records. Pitcher/outfielder John Coleman is the most decorated in this category, holding three major league records, all from the franchise's inaugural season. Coleman set records for losses, earned runs allowed, and hits allowed, all in 1883 when he also set three additional franchise pitching records. Shortstop Jimmy Rollins broke Willie Wilson's record for at-bats in a single season with 716 in 2007, and first baseman Ryan Howard also set the major league record for strikeouts in a single season that same year with 199, before it was broken by Mark Reynolds of the Arizona Diamondbacks the following year. The 1930 Phillies, who went 52–102, set two more National League records, allowing 1,993 hits and 1,193 runs in the regular season.

Philadelphia Phillies all-time roster

The Philadelphia Phillies are a Major League Baseball team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They are a member of the Eastern Division of Major League Baseball's National League. The team has played officially under two names since beginning play in 1883: the current moniker, as well as the "Quakers", which was used in conjunction with "Phillies" during the team's early history. The team was also known unofficially as the "Blue Jays" during the World War II era. Since the franchise's inception, 2,006 players have made an appearance in a competitive game for the team, whether as an offensive player (batting and baserunning) or a defensive player (fielding, pitching, or both).

Of those 2,006 Phillies, 202 players have had surnames beginning with the letter M, which is the largest total of any single letter, followed by S with 187 players. The highest numbers of individual batters belongs to M (115), and S has the most pitchers (90). The letters with the smallest representation are Q (5 players), U (6 players), Z (7 players), and Y (8 players); however, there has never been a Phillies player, nor a player in Major League Baseball history, whose surname begins with the letter X.Thirty-two players in Phillies history have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Those players for whom the Hall recognizes the Phillies as their primary team include Grover Cleveland Alexander, Richie Ashburn, Dave Bancroft, Steve Carlton, Ed Delahanty, Billy Hamilton, Chuck Klein, Robin Roberts, Mike Schmidt, and Sam Thompson; manager Harry Wright was also inducted for his contributions with the club. The Phillies have retired numbers for six players, including Schmidt (#20), Carlton (#32), Ashburn (#1), Roberts (#36), and Jim Bunning (#14); the sixth retired number is Jackie Robinson's #42, which was retired throughout baseball in 1997. The Phillies also honor two additional players with the letter "P" in the manner of a retired number: Alexander played before numbers were used in the major leagues; and Klein wore a variety of numbers in his Phillies career.Thirty-six Phillies players have been elected to the Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame. All of the players listed above (save Robinson) have been elected; also included are Dick Allen, Bob Boone, Larry Bowa, Johnny Callison, Gavvy Cravath, Darren Daulton, Del Ennis, Jimmie Foxx, Dallas Green, Granny Hamner, Willie Jones, John Kruk, Mike Lieberthal, Greg Luzinski, Garry Maddox, Sherry Magee, Tug McGraw, Juan Samuel, Curt Schilling, Bobby Shantz, Chris Short, Curt Simmons, Tony Taylor, John Vukovich, and Cy Williams. Foxx and Shantz were inducted for their contributions as members of the Philadelphia Athletics. Two non-players are also members of the Wall of Fame for their contributions to the Phillies: broadcaster Harry Kalas; and manager, general manager, and team executive Paul Owens.

Ed Delahanty

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.