According to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, the Netherlands was the 18th largest economy of the world in 2012, while the country has only about 17 million inhabitants. (see: List of countries by GDP (nominal)). GDP per capita is roughly $48,860 which makes it one of richest nations in the world (see: List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita). Between 1996 and 2000 annual economic growth (GDP) averaged over 4%, well above the European average. Growth slowed considerably in 2001–05 as part of the global economic slowdown. 2006 and 2007 however showed economic growth of 3.4% and 3.9%. The Dutch economy was hit considerably by the ongoing global financial crisis and the ensuing European debt crisis.
The Netherlands has discovered huge natural gas resources since 1959. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all Natural Gas reserves in the EU. The sale of natural gas generated enormous revenues for the Netherlands for decades, adding hundreds of billions of euros to the government's budget. However, the unforeseen consequences of the country's huge energy wealth impacted the competitiveness of other sectors of the economy, leading to the theory of Dutch disease.
The Netherlands have a prosperous and open economy, which depends heavily on foreign trade. The economy is noted for stable industrial relations, fairly low unemployment and inflation, a sizable current account surplus (compared to the size of the country even more than Germany) and an important role as a European transportation hub, with Rotterdam as by far the biggest port in Europe and Amsterdam with one of the biggest airports in Europe. Industrial activity is predominantly in food processing, chemicals, petroleum refining, hightech, financial services, creative sector and electrical machinery. A highly mechanised agricultural sector employs no more than 2% of the labour force but provides large surpluses for the food-processing industry and for exports. The Netherlands, along with 11 of its EU partners, began circulating the euro currency on 1 January 2002.
The stern financial policy has been abandoned in 2009 because of the current credit crises. The relatively large banking sector was partly nationalised and bailed out through government interventions. The unemployment rate dropped to 5.0% in the summer of 2011, but increased with a sharp rate since then to 7.3% in May 2013, 6.8% in 2015 but dropped again to 3.9% in March 2018. The state budget deficit is about 2.2% in 2015 well below the norm of 3.0% in the EU. In 2016 the state budget showed a surplus of 0.4% and this is expected to grow to a surplus of over 1.0% in 2017. Historically, the Dutch introduced and invented the stock market by the merchandise trading through Dutch East India Company. The Netherlands is a founding member of the European Union, the OECD and the World Trade Organization.
|Economy of Netherlands|
|Currency||Euro (EUR) = €1|
|EU, WTO and OECD|
|GDP||$850 billion (nominal, 2018) $910 billion (PPP, 2017)|
|GDP rank||18th (nominal) / 28th (PPP)|
GDP per capita
|$49,760 (nominal, 2018 est.) $50,338 (PPP, 2016 est.)|
GDP by sector
|agriculture: 1.6%; industry: 18.8%; services: 79.6% (2015 est.)|
|2.1% (October 2018)|
Population below poverty line
|5% (2017 est.)|
|30.3 (2015 est.)|
|9.2 million (Q3 2018)|
Labour force by occupation
|agriculture: 1.2% industry: 17.2% services: 81.6% (2015 est.)|
|Unemployment||3.3% (April 2019)|
Average gross salary
|3,073 € / month (2016)|
|2,263 € / month (2016)|
|agriculture-related industries, oil and natural gas, metal and engineering products, electronic machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing|
|Exports||$528.2 billion (2016 est.)|
|natural gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs|
Main export partners
| Germany 24.5% |
United Kingdom 9.3%
Italy 4.2% (2015 est.)
|Imports||$429.5 billion (2016 est.)|
|machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, clothing|
Main import partners
| Germany 14.7% |
United Kingdom 5.1%
Norway 4.1% (2015 est.)
|$608.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)|
Gross external debt
|$4.154 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)|
|52.6% of GDP (2018) |
|Revenues||€331.8 billion (2018)|
|Expenses||€317.7 billion (2018)|
|Economic aid||€4 bn (As of 2005)|
|US$42.92 billion (31 December 2014 est.)|
After declaring its independence from the empire of Philip II of Spain in 1581, the Netherlands experienced almost a century of explosive economic growth. A technological revolution in shipbuilding and trade knowledge and capital, due to Protestant traders of Flanders who fled to the Netherlands, helped the young Republic become the dominant trade power by the mid-17th century. In 1670 the Dutch merchant marine totalled 568,000 tons of shipping—about half the European total. The main reasons for this were the dominance of the Amsterdam Entrepot in European trade, and that of the Dutch East India Company (or Vereenigde Oost-Indische Companie – VOC) and West India Companies in intercontinental trade. Unique was that the V.O.C. was the first multinational, while its shares were traded at the Amsterdam stock exchange, one of the first in the world. Beside trade, an early "industrial revolution" (powered by wind, water and peat), land reclamation from the sea, and agricultural revolution, helped the Dutch economy achieve the highest standard of living in Europe (and presumably the world) by the middle of the 17th century. Affluence facilitated what is known as the Dutch Golden Age. This economic boom abruptly came to an end by a combination of political-military upheavals and adverse economic developments around 1670. Still the Netherlands kept a high level of prosperity, due to trade and agriculture.
Towards the 1800s, the Netherlands did not industrialize as rapidly as some other countries in Europe. One explanation for this is that the Netherlands were struggling to come to terms with having lost their dominant economical (based mainly on trade and agriculture) and political position in the world. Griffiths argues that government policies made possible a unified Dutch national economy in the 19th century. They included the abolition of internal tariffs and guilds; a unified coinage system; modern methods of tax collection; standardized weights and measures; and the building of many roads, canals, and railroads.
As in the rest of Europe, the 19th century saw the gradual transformation of the Netherlands into a modern middle-class industrial society. The number of people employed in agriculture decreased while the country made a heroic effort to revive its stake in the highly competitive industrial and trade business. The Netherlands lagged behind Belgium until the late 19th century in industrialization, then caught up by about 1920. Major industries included textiles and (later) the great Philips industrial conglomerate. Rotterdam became a major shipping and manufacturing center. Poverty slowly declined and begging largely disappeared along with steadily improving working conditions for the population.
Since 1959, the Netherlands discovered large natural gas fields. The export of natural gas led to large windfall profits. However, as an unforeseen consequence, these were believed to have led to a decline in the manufacturing sector in the Netherlands.
While the private sector is the cornerstone of the Dutch economy, governments at different levels have a large part to play. Public spending, excluding social security transfer payments, was at 28% of GDP in 2011. Total tax revenue was 38.7% of GDP in 2010, which was below the EU average. In addition to its own spending, the government plays a significant role through the permit requirements and regulations pertaining to almost every aspect of economic activity. The government combines a rigorous and stable microeconomic policy with wide-ranging structural and regulatory reforms. The government has gradually reduced its role in the economy since the 1980s. Privatisation and deregulation is still continuing. With regards to social and economic policy, the government cooperates with its so called social partners (trade unions and employers' organizations). The three parties come together in the Social-Economic Council (‘Sociaal Economische Raad’), the main platform for social dialogue.
The Dutch social security is very comprehensive, covering Dutch residents in an encompassing manner and is divided into the national security (Volksverzekeringen) and the employee insurance (Werknemersverzekeringen). Whereas the first covers all living in the Netherlands and the social benefits provided, the latter provides employment-related benefits. All living in the Netherlands are required to pay into the social security system, including residents from outside the Netherlands, with a few exceptions.
It is overseen by the Social Insurance Bank (Sociale Verzekeringsbank (SVB)) and financed through earning-related contributions of employers and employees up until a maximum income-ceiling. Whilst employed persons get their contribution deducted automatically from their wage, the unemployed pay by themselves. The AKW is financed by employers, whereas the AOW is financed by the employees. The AOW, additionally, is financed by a small government subsidy.
The Werknemersverzekeringen is compulsory for all employed people within the Netherlands. It includes the coverage of employees in the following areas:
The unemployment benefits in the Netherlands, as set out under the WW, covers almost all employees, that are employees based on a working-contract. Excluded from the WW are the following: self-employed, nationally employed, persons working less than four days a week, heads of stockholders and voluntary workers that earn up to €150 per year.
To profit from the benefit the unemployed has to submit an application to the Employee Insurance Agency (Uitvoeringsinstituut Werknemersverzekeringen (UWV)) within one week of becoming unemployed and additionally has to register as job-seeker. The WW only covers employees with a sufficient work history, meaning that an applicant has to have been working for at least 26 weeks in the past 36 weeks before becoming unemployed. If so, the working-weeks requirement is met. Moreover, the employee is only eligible to unemployment benefits if the unemployment has not been due to his own fault (e.g. own termination of the job contract).
The benefits received through the WW are earnings-related and amount to a sum of 75% percent of the previous earnings per day (which is based on 5 working days per week) for the duration of two months. After those two months the benefits amount to 70%. Part-time work is taken into account with a calculation of parts of the working hours. If this benefit is less than the minimum income, the unemployed has the possibility of supplementation through the Additional Allowances Act (Toeslagenwet) to sum up the amount. All jobs in the previous twelve months are counted in to the calculation of the benefits, if a change of work has taken place. To obtain the benefits for a continued time, the unemployed needs to be actively looking for work. Moreover, one needs to participate in e-coaching three and twelve months after the start of unemployment. After one year of unemployment one must register with an employment agency.
The Dutch labour market has relatively strict regulations for employers on firing employees, although by June 2014 the House of Representatives has agreed to loosen these regulations. Due to the costs of employees and costs of firing them, a big part of the working force (about 15% of the working force) is an independent one person company (ZZP). They are independent and get paid by delivery without higher social costs. Another big part of the workforce is hired as temporary workforce. State unemployment benefits in the form of a 70% benefit of the employee's last-earned salary for up to three years (with a maximum of roughly 2500 euros per month) are available for fired employees, provided that they have worked for a certain minimum time period, usually 26 weeks. Moreover, the self-employed individuals (zelfstandingen zonder personnel (ZZP)) are not automatically covered under the Werknemersverzekeringen, and are not obligated to enroll into unemployment, sickness or disabilities insurance. Self-employed individuals, hence, are required to enroll themselves with private insurance companies.
Every Dutch citizen gets the AOW, a state pension, from the age of 67. Married couples or those who live together receive 50% of minimum wage per person and a single person receives 70% of minimum wage. Most (about 70%) earn an extra pension from private pension funds. Employees are obliged to take part in the sector pension funds. In total the amount of pension funds are above 1400 billion in 2015 for less than 17 million people. Employees receive on average about 70% of their last salary. During the economic crisis and because of low interest rates, pensions funds have had difficulty keeping up with inflation. The Dutch pension system is regarded as one of the best in the world.
With a Gini coefficient of 25.1 (2013) the income inequality is relatively low in the Netherlands. However, the inequality when measured in distributions of household wealth is high, where the top 1% owns 24% of all net wealth, and the top 10% own 60%. Moreover, rather large wealth disparities persist in the Netherlands in relation to age, where those under 35 years-of-age own 10% as much as older workers. This is a consequence from the low taxation of home ownership and a generous mortgage interest deductibility, which benefit the wealthier households. Due to the generous pensions the pension-related savings are the most important part of wealth in the Netherlands, yet are not subject to capital income taxation, which increases the inequality.
The Netherlands was one of the few countries in the world where the interest paid on mortgages is almost fully deductible from income tax. Since 2013 big changes were made. The conditions allowing a borrowing of more that 116% of the value of the home ware reduced to 106% and are still continuously being reduced every year. The deduction is also capped to 50.5% and reducing every year. Together with the after-effects of the Financial crisis of 2007–2008 the result was a housing crisis, with a decrease of prices almost 25% percent in some areas. Recent years have shown a recovery of 10% to even 20% per year in the most popular cities.
The Service sector accounts for more than half of the national income, primarily in transportation, distribution and logistics, financial areas, software development and the creative industry. The breadth of service providers in financial services and a Protestant work ethic have contributed to the Netherlands achieving a DAW Index score of 5 in 2012. Industrial activity is dominated by the machinery, electronics/high tech industry, metalworking, oil refining, chemical, and food-processing industries. Construction amounts to about 6% of GDP. Agriculture and fishing, although visible and traditional Dutch activities, account for just 2%.
The Netherlands continues to be one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the five largest investors in the United States. The economy experienced a slowdown in 2005, but in 2006 recovered to the fastest pace in six years on the back of increased exports and strong investment. The pace of job growth reached 10-year highs in 2007. The Netherlands is the fifth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report.
The discovery of the large Groningen natural gas field in 1959 and the massive windfalls accrued over subsequent decades, were believed to have led to a decline in the manufacturing sector in the Netherlands, leading to the theory of Dutch disease.
While its oil reserves in the North Sea are of little importance, in the Netherlands have an estimated 25% of natural gas reserves in the EU. Natural gas reserves of the Netherlands are estimated (as of 2014) to be about 600 billion cubic feet, or about 0.3% of the world total. In 2014–2015 the government decided to reduce the production of gas in the province Groningen significantly due to problems of sinking ground, differential settlement levels and tremors (small earth quakes) causing damages to properties, end 2018 the government decided to completely abandon the gas production in the province of Groningen by reducing the production slightly each year, the production is expected to be fully stopped in 2028Template:Source is in Dutch.
To reduce its greenhouse emissions, the government of the Netherlands is subsidizing a transition away from natural gas for all homes in the country by 2050.
Researchers in the Netherlands began studying nuclear energy in the 1930s and began construction of research reactor Dodewaard in 1955. Researchers’ goal was to introduce nuclear power technology by 1962 and replace fossil fuels. In 1968, a test nuclear reactor was attached to the power grid. This unit was shut down in 1997. In the 1970s, the Dutch chose a policy that required reprocessing all spent nuclear fuel. In 1984, the government decided to create a long-term (100 years) storage facility for all intermediate and low-level radioactive waste and research strategies for ultimate disposal. In September 2003, the Central Organization for Radioactive Waste created an interim storage facility for high-level waste. The Netherlands' only commercial nuclear reactor is Borssele, which became operational in 1973 and as of 2011 produces about 4% of the country's electricity. The older Dodewaard nuclear power plant was a test reactor that later got attached to the national grid but was closed in 1997. A 2MW research reactor is located in Delft, as part of the physics department of Delft University of Technology. This reactor is not meant for energy provision, but used as a neutron and positron source for research.
In 1994, the States General of the Netherlands voted to phase out nuclear power after a discussion of nuclear waste management. In 1997, the power station at Dodewaard was shut down and the government decided it was planning to end Borssele's operating license in 2003. This has since been postponed to 2034, if it complied with the highest safety standards. After the 2010 election, the new government was open to expanding nuclear power. Both of the companies that share ownership of Borssele are proposing to build new reactors. In January 2012, Delta announced it postpones any decision to start building a second nuclear power plant.
In 2011 the Netherlands was visited by 11.3 million foreign tourists. In 2012, the Dutch tourism industry contributed 5.4% in total to the country's GDP and 9.6% in total to its employment. With its global ranking of 147th and 83rd place for total contribution to respectively GDP and employment, tourism is a relatively small sector of the Dutch economy. North Holland was by far the most popular province for foreign tourists in 2011. Out of all 11.3 million tourists, 6 million visited North Holland. South Holland took the second place with 1.4 million. Germans, Britons and Belgians made up the majority of foreign tourists, respectively 3, 1.5 and 1.4 million. There are seven World Heritage Sites in the Netherlands. The Netherlands are well known for their art and rich historical heritage.
(in Bil. Euro)
|GDP per capita
(in % of GDP)
|1980||170.7||12,066||n/a||n/a||3.4 %||44.6 %|
|1981||179.0||12,566||−0.5 %||6.8 %||4.6 %||48.0 %|
|1982||186.3||13,015||−1.2 %||5.8 %||6.5 %||53.7 %|
|1983||193.5||13,471||1.8 %||2.9 %||8.3 %||59.8 %|
|1984||202.4||14,030||3.1 %||3.4 %||8.1 %||63.4 %|
|1985||211.5||14,593||2.7 %||2.3 %||7.3 %||68.7 %|
|1986||218.3||14,981||3.1 %||n/a||6.5 %||70.6 %|
|1987||221.7||15,114||1.9 %||−1.0 %||6.3 %||73.0 %|
|1988||231.2||15,661||4.6 %||0.5 %||6.2 %||75.5 %|
|1989||244.6||16,474||4.4 %||1.1 %||5.7 %||75.6 %|
|1990||258.8||17,311||4.2 %||2.5 %||5.1 %||76.9 %|
|1991||273.4||18,143||2.4 %||3.2 %||4.8 %||76.7 %|
|1992||285.0||18,771||1,7 %||1,8 %||4,9 %||77.4 %|
|1993||293.2||19,177||1.3 %||1.6 %||5.5 %||78.5 %|
|1994||308.1||20,030||3.0 %||2.1 %||6.2 %||75.3 %|
|1995||325.3||21,045||2.6 %||1.3 %||7.1 %||73.1 %|
|1996||341.0||21,955||3.6 %||1.4 %||6.4 %||71.2 %|
|1997||365.0||23,378||4.3 %||1.9 %||5.5 %||65.6 %|
|1998||389.3||24,786||4.5 %||1.8 %||4.3 %||62.5 %|
|1999||414.8||26,237||5.0 %||2.0 %||3.5 %||58.1 %|
|2000||448.1||28,134||4.3 %||2.3 %||3.1 %||51.4 %|
|2001||476.7||29,708||2.1 %||5.1 %||3.1 %||48.7 %|
|2002||494.5||30,621||0.1 %||3.9 %||3.7 %||48.1 %|
|2003||506.7||31,228||0.3 %||2.2 %||4.8 %||49.3 %|
|2004||523.9||32,179||2.0 %||1.4 %||5.7 %||49.6 %|
|2005||545.6||33,431||2.2 %||1.4 %||5.9 %||48.9 %|
|2006||579.2||35,434||3.5 %||1.6 %||5.0 %||44.5 %|
|2007||613.3||37,436||3.7 %||1.6 %||4.2 %||42.4 %|
|2008||639.2||38,864||1.7 %||2.2 %||3.7 %||54.5 %|
|2009||617.5||37,359||−3.8 %||1.0 %||4.3 %||56.5 %|
|2010||631.5||38,008||1.3 %||0.9 %||5.0 %||59.3 %|
|2011||642.9||38,515||1.6 %||2.5 %||5.0 %||61.6 %|
|2012||645.2||38,506||−1.0 %||2.8 %||5.8 %||66.3 %|
|2013||652.7||38,844||−0.1 %||2.6 %||7.3 %||67.8 %|
|2014||663.0||39,313||1.4 %||0.3 %||7.4 %||68.0 %|
|2015||683.5||40,353||2.0 %||0.2 %||6.9 %||64.6 %|
|2016||702.6||41,259||2.2 %||0.1 %||6.0 %||61.8 %|
|2017||737.0||43,001||2.9 %||1.3 %||4.9 %||56.7 %|
|2018||772.7||44,950||2.5 %||2.3 %||3.8 %||54.4 %|
The Netherlands is home to several large multinationals. Royal Dutch Shell is the largest company of the Netherlands by revenue and the largest in the world until 2009, but it has fallen since to 7th place. Other well-known multinationals are Heineken, Ahold, Philips, TomTom, Unilever, Randstad and ING, all of which have their headquarters in Amsterdam except Unilever which is located in Rotterdam. Thousands of companies of non-Dutch origin have their headquarters in the Netherlands, like EADS, LyondellBasell and IKEA, because of attractive Corporate tax levels.
The Netherlands' biggest companies as of 2011 are as following:
|1.||Royal Dutch Shell||The Hague||378,152||20,127||97,000|
|7.||Royal Philips Electronics||Amsterdam||33,667||1,915||119,001|
In the Netherlands 22,484 deals were conducted between 1985 and 2018. This sums to an overall value of 2,226.6 billion USD. The year with the most deals has been 2000 with 1,169 deals. However, the most value added up in 2007 with almost 394.9 followed by a drastic slump during the world financial crisis.
Here is a list of the most important deals in, into out of the Netherlands.
|Date Announced||Acquiror Name||Acquiror Mid Industry||Acquiror Nation||Target Name||Target Mid Industry||Target Nation||Value of Transaction ($mil)|
|25 April 2007||RFS Holdings BV||Other Financials||Netherlands||ABN-AMRO Holding NV||Banks||Netherlands||98,189.19|
|19 March 2007||Barclays PLC||Banks||United Kingdom||ABN-AMRO Holding NV||Banks||Netherlands||92,606.80|
|28 October 2004||Royal Dutch Petroleum Co||Oil & Gas||Netherlands||Shell Transport & Trading Co||Oil & Gas||United Kingdom||74,558.58|
|4 August 2015||Royal Dutch Shell PLC||Petrochemicals||Netherlands||BG Group PLC||Oil & Gas||United Kingdom||69,445.02|
|2 March 2016||CNAC Saturn (NL) BV||Chemicals||Netherlands||Syngenta AG||Chemicals||Switzerland||41,840.11|
|27 January 2006||Mittal Steel Co NV||Metals & Mining||Netherlands||Arcelor SA||Metals & Mining||Luxembourg||32,240.47|
|3 September 2017||PPG Industries Inc||Chemicals||United States||Akzo Nobel NV||Chemicals||Netherlands||26,560.76|
|4 August 2015||Royal Dutch Shell PLC||Petrochemicals||Netherlands||Royal Dutch Shell PLC||Petrochemicals||Netherlands||25,000.00|
|29 September 2008||The Netherlands||National Government||Netherlands||Fortis Bank Nederland(Holding)||Banks||Netherlands||23,137.31|
|10 April 2010||VimpelCom Ltd||Wireless||Netherlands||Weather Investments Srl||Telecommunications Services||Italy||22,382.31|
The issue of the basic income gained prominence on the political agenda in Netherlands between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s but it has disappeared from the political agenda over the last fifteen years.Budget Memorandum (Netherlands)
The Budget Memorandum (Dutch: Miljoenennota, literally "Millions Bill") is a general explanation by the Government of the Netherlands of the expected revenues and expenses in the National Budget for a year.
After the king has given the Speech from the throne on Prinsjesdag (every third Tuesday in September), the Finance Minister offers the suitcase with the National Budget and the Budget Memorandum to the president of the House of Representatives.Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten
The Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten (Dutch: Centrale Bank van Curaçao en Sint Maarten, previously the Bank of the Netherlands Antilles) is the central bank for the Netherlands Antillean guilder and administers the monetary policy of Curaçao and Sint Maarten. The bank dates to 1828 making it the oldest central bank in the Americas.Prior to the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in October 2010, the bank was responsible for monetary policy throughout the Netherlands Antilles. When the BES islands became subject to the central bank of the Netherlands, its present name was adopted.
The bank is expected to replace the Netherlands Antillean guilder with the Caribbean guilder in the coming years.Commemorative coins of the Netherlands
The list of the coins included are for those issued by the Royal Dutch Mint from 1970 to 2001
1970 .720 silver 38 mm. 25th year of the end of the Second World War and liberation, 1945–1970
1973 .720 silver 38 mm. 25th year of reign, Queen Juliana, 1948–1973
1994 .925 silver 33 mm. 50th anniversary of the BE NE LUX trade accord, 1944–1994
1995 .925 silver 33 mm. 350th anniversary, death of Hugo the Great, 1583–1645
1996 .925 silver 33 mm. Jan Steen
1997 .925 silver 33 mm. 50th anniversary of the Marshall plan and reconstruction50 Gulden
1982 .925 silver 38 mm. 200th anniversary, Dutch - American friendship
1984 .925 silver 38 mm. William of Orange
1987 .925 silver 38 mm. 50th wedding anniversary, Princess (Queen) Juliana & Prince Bernhard
1989 .925 silver 38 mm. 300th anniversary, crowning of William of Orange and Mary of England
1990 .925 silver 38 mm. 100 years of Queens Regnant in the Netherlands
1991 .925 silver 38 mm. 25th Wedding Anniversary of Queen Beatrix & Prince Claus
1994 .925 silver 38 mm. Ratification of Maastricht Treaty
1995 .925 silver 38 mm. 50th Anniv. Liberation W.W.II
1998 .925 silver 38 mm. 350th Anniv. Peace of Munster 1648-1998Economy of the Netherlands Antilles
The Netherlands Antilles was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which was formally dissolved in 2010.Economy of the Netherlands from 1500–1700
The history of the Dutch economy has faced several ups and downs throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. It has undergone moments of prosperity and was once noted as one of the most dominant world powers in the 17th Century. It was heavily involved in the Atlantic Trade that had a large impact on its economy and growth. There is no clear definition for the Atlantic Trade, but researchers have concluded it may be referred to as: Trade with the New World, and trade with Asia through the Atlantic including, but not limited to, imperialism and slavery based undertakings. Among the most important of these traders were the Dutch and the British. It is noted that these two nations experienced a more rapid growth than most due to their non-absolutist political institutions. This is only one of many benefactors that played a large role in the shaping in the growth and economic change within the Netherlands that occurred throughout the 16th and 17th Centuries.Food Valley
Food Valley is a region in the Netherlands where international food companies, research institutes, and Wageningen University and Research Centre are concentrated. The Food Valley area is the home of a large number of food multinationals and within the Food Valley about 15,000 professionals are active in food related sciences and technological development. Far more are involved in the manufacturing of food products. Food Valley, with the city of Wageningen as its center, is intended to form a dynamic heart of knowledge for the international food industry.Within this region, the Food Valley Organisation is intended to create conditions so that food manufacturers and knowledge institutes can work together in developing new and innovating food concepts. The Food Valley Organisation has joined the Food Innovation Network Europe.Kamer van Koophandel
The Kamer van Koophandel (KvK) is the Chamber of Commerce in the Netherlands. It is operated as a quango, guided by the Wet op de kamers van koophandel en fabrieken (Chambers of commerce and factories law) 1997 and the Handelsregisterwet (Trade registry law) 2007.
It is a member of the European Business Register.List of Dutch by net worth
As of 2016, there are nine billionaires in the country of the Netherlands, according to Forbes.List of provinces of the Netherlands by Human Development Index
This is a list of Dutch provinces by Human Development Index as of 2017.List of the largest trading partners of the Netherlands
This is a list of the largest trading partners of the Netherlands based on data from The Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC).Netherlands Antillean guilder
The Netherlands Antillean guilder (Dutch: gulden) is the currency of Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which until 2010 formed the Netherlands Antilles along with Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius. It is subdivided into 100 cents (Dutch plural form: centen). The guilder was replaced by the United States dollar on 1 January 2011 on Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius. On Curaçao and Sint Maarten, the Netherlands Antillean guilder was proposed to be replaced by a new currency, the Caribbean guilder, but this has been stalled indefinitely by negotiations over the establishment of a separate central bank for Curaçao.Polder model
The polder model (Dutch: poldermodel) is consensus decision-making, based on the acclaimed Dutch version of consensus-based economic and social policy making in the 1980s and 1990s.The polder model has been described as "a pragmatic recognition of pluriformity" and "cooperation despite differences". It is thought that the Dutch politician Ina Brouwer was the first to use the term poldermodel, in her 1990 article "Het socialisme als poldermodel?" (Socialism as polder model?), although it is uncertain whether she coined the term or simply seems to have been the first to write it down.Social and Economic Council
The Social and Economic Council (Dutch: Sociaal-Economische Raad, SER) is a major economic advisory council to the cabinet of the Netherlands. Formally it heads a system of sector-based regulatory organisations. It represents the social partners trade unions and employers' organisations. It forms the core organisation of the corporatist and social market economy known as the polder model and the main platform for social dialogue.Statistics Netherlands
Statistics Netherlands, founded in 1899, is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands. In Dutch it is known as the Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Central Agency for Statistics), often abbreviated to CBS. It is located in The Hague and Heerlen. Since 3 January 2004, Statistics Netherlands has been a self-standing organisation, or quango. Its independent status in law guarantees the reliable collection and dissemination of information supporting public debate, policy development and decision-making.
The CBS collects statistical information about, amongst others:
Count of the population
Income of persons and households
ReligionThe CBS carries out a program that needs to be ratified by the Central Commission for Statistics. This commission was replaced in 2016 by an Advisory Board. This independent board must guard the impartiality, independence, quality, relevance, and continuity of the CBS, according to the Law on the CBS of 1996 (Wet op het Centraal bureau en de Centrale commissie voor de statistiek) and 2003.
Not to be mistaken with CBS Corporation.Transport in the Netherlands
The Netherlands is both a very densely populated and a highly developed country, in which transport is a key factor of the economy. Correspondingly it has a very dense and modern infrastructure, facilitating transport with road, rail, air and water networks. In its Global Competitiveness Report for 2014-2015, the World Economic Forum ranked the Dutch transport infrastructure fourth in the world.With a total road network of 139,000 km, including 3,530 km of expressways, the Netherlands has one of the densest road networks in the world; much denser than Germany and France, but still not as dense as Belgium. The Dutch also have a well developed railway network, that connects most major towns and cities, as well as a comprehensive dedicated cycling infrastructure, featuring some 35,000 km of track physically segregated from motorised traffic.
The port of Rotterdam is the world's largest seaport outside East Asia, and by far the largest port of Europe. It connects with its hinterland in Germany, Switzerland and France through rivers Rhine and Meuse. Two thirds of all inland water freight shipping within the EU, and 40% of containers, pass through the Netherlands.Mobility in the Netherlands is considerable. On the roads it has grown continuously since the 1950s and now exceeds 200 billion km travelled per year, three quarters of which are done by car. Around half of all trips in the Netherlands are made by car, 25% by bicycle, 20% walking, and 5% by public transport. Additionally, Dutch airports handled at least 70 million passengers in 2016. Excluding air travel, the Dutch journey more than 30 km a day on average, which takes them just over an hour.
In 2010, 1.65 billion tons of goods traffic was registered, half of which moved by sea and inland shipping, and 40% by road transport. The remainder was mostly by pipelines; rail transport only handles 2% of freight movements through the Netherlands.VNO-NCW
VNO-NCW (known in English as the "Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers") is a Dutch employers' federation founded in 1996 as a merger of the Christian-democratic Nederlands Christelijk Werkgeversverbond (NCW), which was founded as fusion of the Protestant PCW and the Catholic NKW, and the liberal Verbond van Nederlandse Ondernemingen (VNO). Both organizations had strong ties with the Protestant and liberal pillar, respectively.
The federation chose not to adopt a new name, but instead use the well-known acronyms of its constituent organizations.Whaling in the Netherlands
Whaling in the Netherlands was a centuries-long tradition. The history of Dutch whaling begins with 17th-century exploration of Arctic fishing grounds; and the profitability of whaling in the 18th century drove further growth. Increased competition and political upheavals in Europe affected the stability of this maritime industry in the 19th century; and a combination of these factors cut short any further growth of Dutch whaling in the Antarctic.
Modern, post-war whaling in the southern oceans was developed intensely, but continued growth of Dutch whaling was abbreviated as a result of multi-national treaties which similarly impacted other
national whaling enterprises.The current Dutch government supports a moratorium on all whaling worldwide.
Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
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