The Economy of the Czech Republic is a developed export-oriented social market economy based in services, manufacturing and innovation, that maintains a high-income welfare state and the "continental" type of the European social model. The Czech Republic participates in the European Single Market as a member of the European Union, and is therefore a part of the economy of the European Union, but uses its own currency, the Czech koruna, instead of the euro. It is a member of the OECD. The Czech Republic ranks 15th in inequality-adjusted human development and 14th in World Bank Human Capital Index ahead of countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom or France. It was described by The Guardian as "one of Europe’s most flourishing economies".
As of 2017, the Czech GDP per capita at purchasing power parity is $35,559 (similar to Israel, Italy or Slovenia) and $20,409 at nominal value. As of January 2019, the unemployment rate in the Czech Republic was the lowest in the EU at 1.9%, and the poverty rate is the second lowest of OECD members only behind Denmark. Czech Republic ranks 24th in both the Index of Economic Freedom (ranked behind Norway) and the Global Innovation Index (ranked behind Australia), 29th in the Global Competitiveness Report, 30th in the ease of doing business index and 25th in the Global Enabling Trade Report (ranked behind Canada). The largest trading partner for both export and import is Germany and other members of the EU in general.
The Czech Republic has a highly diverse economy that ranks 10th in the 2016 Economic Complexity Index. The industry sector accounts for 37.5% of the economy, while services for 60% and agriculture for 2.5%. The principal industries are high tech engineering, electronics, automotive, and machine-building, steel production, transportation equipment, chemical production and pharmaceuticals. The major services are research and development, ICT and software development, nanotechnology and life sciences among others. Its main agricultural products are cereals, vegetable oils and hops.
|Economy of Czech Republic|
Business district in Prague
|Currency||Czech koruna (CZK) = 1 Kč|
|EU, WTO (via EU membership) and OECD|
|GDP|| $242.052 billion (nominal, 2018 est.)|
$395.868 billion (PPP, 2018 est.)
|GDP rank||44th (nominal, 2018) 45th (PPP, 2018)|
|2.4% (2016) 4.3% (2017) 2.9% (2018e) 2.8% (2019e)|
GDP per capita
| $22,850 (nominal, 2018 est.)|
$37,370 PPP, 2018 est.)
GDP per capita rank
|38th (nominal, 2018) 35th (PPP, 2018)|
GDP by sector
|2.4% (March 2019)|
|1.75% (since 2 November 2018)|
Population below poverty line
|9.7% (2017 est.)|
|24.5 low (2017, Eurostat)|
|0.888 (very high, 2018; 27th)|
0.840 (IHDI, 2018; 15th)
|5.427 million (2016)|
Labour force by occupation
|Unemployment||1.9% (February 2019)|
Average gross salary
|CZK 33,840 / €1,321 / $1,481 per month (Q4 2018)|
|CZK 25,712 / €1,003 / $1,126 per month (Q4 2018)|
|Exports||$161.2 billion (2016)|
Main export partners
| EU 84.1% (2016) |
United Kingdom 5.2%
|Imports||$140.3 billion (2016)|
Main import partners
| EU 77.2% |
|$185.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) 35th Abroad: $54.39 billion (31 December 2017 est.)|
|$1.192 billion (2017 est.; 36th)|
Gross external debt
|$205.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.) 44th|
|-26.4 % of GDP (2017)|
|32.7% of GDP (2018) 148th|
|1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)|
|Revenues||87.37 billion (2017 est.)|
|Expenses||83.92 billion (2017 est.)|
AA+ (T&C Assessment)
(Standard & Poor's)
|US$151.69 billion (January 2018 est.; 17th)|
The Czech lands were among the first industrialized countries in continental Europe during the German Confederation era. The Czech industrial tradition dates back to the 19th century, when the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were the economic and industrial heartland of the Austrian Empire and later the Austrian side of Austria-Hungary. The Czech lands produced a majority (about 70%) of all industrial goods in the Empire, some of which were almost monopolistic. The Czechoslovak crown was introduced in April 1919. Introduced at a 1:1 ratio to the Austro-Hungarian currency, it became one of the most stable currencies in Europe. The First Republic became one of the 10 most developed countries of the world (behind the U.S., Canada, Australia, Switzerland, Argentina, Britain, France, Sweden and Belgium).
The consequences of the 1938 Munich Agreement and subsequent occupation were disastrous for the economy. After the occupation and forced subordination of the economy to German economic interests, the crown was officially pegged to the mark at a ratio of 1:10, even though the unofficial exchange rate was 1 to 6-7 and Germans immediately started buying Czech goods in large quantities.
In accordance with Stalin's development policy of planned interdependence, all the economies of the socialist countries were tightly linked to that of the Soviet Union. Czechoslovakia was the most prosperous country in the Eastern Bloc, however it continued to lag further behind the rest of the developed world. With the disintegration of the communist economic alliance in 1991, Czech manufacturers lost their traditional markets among former communist countries in the east.
The "Velvet Revolution" in 1989, offered a chance for profound and sustained political and economic reform. Signs of economic resurgence began to appear in the wake of the shock therapy that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) labelled the "big bang" of January 1991. Since then, consistent liberalization and astute economic management has led to the removal of 95% of all price controls, low unemployment, a positive balance of payments position, a stable exchange rate, a shift of exports from former communist economic bloc markets to Western Europe, and relatively low foreign debt. Inflation has been higher than in some other countries – mostly in the 10% range – and the government has run consistent modest budget deficits.
Two government priorities have been strict fiscal policies and creating a good climate for incoming investment in the republic. Following a series of currency devaluations, the crown has remained stable in relation to the US$. The Czech crown became fully convertible for most business purposes in late 1995.
In order to stimulate the economy and attract foreign partners, the government has revamped the legal and administrative structure governing investment. With the breakup of the Soviet Union, the country, till that point highly dependent on exports to the USSR, had to make a radical shift in economic outlook: away from the East, and towards the West. This necessitated the restructuring of existing banking and telecommunications facilities, as well as adjusting commercial laws and practices to fit Western standards. Further minimizing reliance on a single major partner, successive Czech governments have welcomed U.S. investment (amongst others) as a counterbalance to the strong economic influence of Western European partners, especially of their powerful neighbour, Germany. Although foreign direct investment (FDI) runs in uneven cycles, with a 12.9% share of total FDI between 1990 and March 1998, the U.S. was the third-largest foreign investor in the Czech economy, behind Germany and the Netherlands.
Progress toward creating a stable investment climate was recognized when the Czech Republic became the first post-communist country to receive an investment-grade credit rating by international credit institutions.
The country boasts a flourishing consumer production sector and has privatized most state-owned heavy industries through the voucher privatization system. Under the system, every citizen was given the opportunity to buy, for a moderate price, a book of vouchers that represents potential shares in any state-owned company. The voucher holders could then invest their vouchers, increasing the capital base of the chosen company, and creating a nation of citizen share-holders. This is in contrast to Russian privatization, which consisted of sales of communal assets to private companies rather than share-transfer to citizens. The effect of this policy has been dramatic. Under communism, state ownership of businesses was estimated to be 97%. Privatization through restitution of real estate to the former owners was largely completed in 1992. By 1998, more than 80% of enterprises were in private hands. Now completed, the program has made Czechs, who own shares of each of the Czech companies, one of the highest per-capita share owners in the world.
The country's economic transformation was far from complete. Political and financial crises in 1997, shattered the Czech Republic's image as one of the most stable and prosperous of post-Communist states. Delays in enterprise restructuring and failure to develop a well-functioning capital market played major roles in Czech economic troubles, which culminated in a currency crisis in May. The formerly pegged currency was forced into a floating system as investors sold their Korunas faster than the government could buy them. This followed a worldwide trend to divest from developing countries that year. Investors also worried the republic's economic transformation was far from complete. Another complicating factor was the current account deficit, which reached nearly 8% of GDP.
In response to the crisis, two austerity packages were introduced later in the spring (called vernacularly "The Packages"), which cut government spending by 2.5% of GDP. Growth dropped to 0.3% in 1997, −2.3% in 1998, and −0.5% in 1999. The government established a restructuring agency in 1999 and launched a revitalization program – to spur the sale of firms to foreign companies. Key priorities included accelerating legislative convergence with EU norms, restructuring enterprises, and privatising banks and utilities. The economy, fueled by increased export growth and investment, was expected to recover by 2000.
Growth in 2000–05 was supported by exports to the EU, primarily to Germany, and a strong recovery of foreign and domestic investment. Domestic demand is playing an ever more important role in underpinning growth as interest rates drop and the availability of credit cards and mortgages increases. Current account deficits of around 5% of GDP are beginning to decline as demand for Czech products in the European Union increases. Inflation is under control. Recent accession to the EU gives further impetus and direction to structural reform. In early 2004 the government passed increases in the Value Added Tax (VAT) and tightened eligibility for social benefits with the intention to bring the public finance gap down to 4% of GDP by 2006, but more difficult pension and healthcare reforms will have to wait until after the next elections. Privatization of the state-owned telecommunications firm Český Telecom took place in 2005. Intensified restructuring among large enterprises, improvements in the financial sector, and effective use of available EU funds should strengthen output growth.
Growth continued in the first years of the EU membership. The credit portion of the Financial crisis of 2007–2010 did not affect the Czech Republic much, mostly due to its stable banking sector which has learned its lessons during a smaller crisis in the late 1990s and became much more cautious. As a fraction of the GDP, the Czech public debt is among the smallest ones in Central and Eastern Europe. Moreover, unlike many other post-communist countries, an overwhelming majority of the household debt – over 99% – is denominated in the local Czech currency. That's why the country wasn't affected by the shrunken money supply in the U.S. dollars.
However, as a large exporter, the economy was sensitive to the decrease of the demand in Germany and other trading partners. In the middle of 2009, the annual drop of the GDP for 2009 was estimated around 3% or 4.3%, a relatively modest decrease. The impact of the economic crisis may have been limited by the existence of the national currency that temporarily weakened in H1 of 2009, simplifying the life of the exporters.
From the financial crisis of 2007–2010, Czech Republic is in stagnation or decreasing of GDP. Some commenters and economists criticising fiscally conservative policy of Petr Nečas' right-wing government, especially criticising ex-minister of finance, Miroslav Kalousek. Miroslav Kalousek in a 2008 interview, as minister of finance in the center-right government of Mirek Topolánek, said "Czech Republic will not suffer by financial crisis". In September 2008, Miroslav Kalousek formed state budget with projection of 5% GDP increase in 2009. In 2009 and 2010, Czech Republic suffered strong economical crisis and GDP decreased by 4,5%. From 2009 to 2012, Czech Republic suffered highest state budget deficits in history of independent Czech Republic. From 2008 to 2012, the public debt of Czech Republic increased by 18,9%. Most decrease of industrial output was in construction industry (-25% in 2009, -15,5% in 2013). From 4Q 2009 to 1Q 2013, GDP decreased by 7,8%.
In 2012, Czech government increased VAT. Basic VAT was increased from 20% in 2012 to 21% in 2013 and reduced VAT increased from 14% to 15% in 2013. Small enterprises sales decreased by 21% from 2012 to 2013 as result of increasing VAT. Patria.cz predicting sales stagnation and mild increase in 2013. Another problem is foreign trade. The Czech Republic is considered an export economy (the Czech Republic has strong machinery and automobile industries), however in 2013, foreign trade rapidly decreased which led to many other problems and increase of state budget deficit. In 2013, Czech National Bank, central bank, implemented controversial monetary step. To increase export and employment, CNB wilfully deflated Czech Crown (CZK), which inflation increased from 0.2% in November 2013, to 1.3% in 1Q 2014.
In 2014, GDP in the Czech Republic increased by 2% and is predicted to increase by 2.7% in 2015. In 2015, Czech Republic's economy grew by 4,2% and it's the fastest growing economy in the European Union. On 29 May 2015, it was announced that growth of the Czech economy has increased from calculated 3,9% to 4,2%.
On 9 November 2015, unemployment in the Czech Republic was at 5.9%, the lowest number since February 2009. In September 2016, the unemployment was at 4.0%. In 2016, for first time since 1995, Czech Republic had budget surplus 61 billion CZK.
In the year ending by Summer 2017, the Czech GDP grew by 4.7%, the third fastest in Europe, and unemployment was at 3% or 4% in the European or national conventions, by far the lowest rate in Europe.
Since its accession to the European Union in 2004, the Czech Republic has adopted the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union and it is bound to adopt the Euro currency in the future.
The Czech Republic also receives €24.2bn between 2014–20 from the European Structural and Investment Funds, however, this sum does not outweigh the amount of capital outflow of profits of foreign owned firms from the Czech Republic into other EU members, at which the funds are aimed to compensate for.
Most electricity is produced by coal (51.4%, 2015) and nuclear (32%, 2015) power plants; renewable power plants account for 11.2% (in 2015). The Czech Republic is a long-term net-exporter of electricity. 97% -98% of oil used in the Czech Republic is imported.
The government's 2015 energy policy designates nuclear power as main source of energy and its share is projected to rise to between 46% and 58% by 2040. Coal-powered energy is planned to fall to 21%, while renewables would rise to 25% and gas range from 5 to 15%.
The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017. Inflation under 2% is in green.
(in Bil. US$ PPP)
|GDP per capita
(in US$ PPP)
(in % of GDP)
|1996||152.6||14,783||4.5 %||8.8 %||3.9 %||11.6 %|
|1997||154.3||14,965||−0.6 %||8.6 %||4.8 %||12.3 %|
|1998||155.4||15,092||−0.3 %||10.7 %||6.5 %||14.0 %|
|1999||160.1||15,557||1.4 %||2.2 %||8.7 %||15.3 %|
|2000||170.7||16,608||4.3 %||3.8 %||8.8 %||17.0 %|
|2001||179.7||17,000||2.9 %||4.7 %||8.1 %||22.8 %|
|2002||185.4||18,179||1.7 %||1.9 %||7.3 %||25.9 %|
|2003||196.0||19,225||3.6 %||0.1 %||7.8 %||28.3 %|
|2004||211.2||20,717||4.9 %||2.7 %||8.3 %||28.5 %|
|2005||232.3||22,774||6.5 %||1.9 %||7.9 %||27.9 %|
|2006||255.8||25,022||6.8 %||2.5 %||7.1 %||27.7 %|
|2007||277.3||27,046||5.6 %||2.9 %||5.3 %||27.5 %|
|2008||290.4||28,072||2.7 %||6.3 %||4.4 %||28.3 %|
|2009||278.5||26,714||−4.8 %||1.0 %||6.7 %||33.6 %|
|2010||288.3||27,559||2.3 %||1.5 %||7.3 %||37.4 %|
|2011||299.5||28,561||1.8 %||1.9 %||6.7 %||39.8 %|
|2012||302.6||28,803||−0.8 %||3.3 %||7.0 %||44.5 %|
|2013||306.0||29,096||−0.5 %||1.5 %||6.9 %||44.9 %|
|2014||319.9||30,434||2.7 %||0.3 %||6.1 %||42.2 %|
|2015||340.6||32,318||5.3 %||0.3 %||5.0 %||40.0 %|
|2016||353.9||33,529||2.6 %||0.7 %||3.9 %||36.8 %|
|2017||375.7||35,512||4.3 %||2.4 %||2.9 %||34.7 %|
From the CIA World Factbook 2017 GDP (pp.): $353.9 billion (2016) GDP (nom.): $195.3 billion (2016) GDP Growth: 2.6% (2016) GDP per capita (pp.): $33,500 (2016) GDP per capita (nom.): $18,487 (2016) GDP by sector: Agriculture: 2.5% Industry: 37.5% Services: 60% (2016) Inflation: 0.7% (2016) Labour Force: 5.427 million (2017) Unemployment: 2,3% (September 2018)
Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2016)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: (2015)
Public Debt: 34.2% GDP (2018)
Exports: $136.1 billion Export goods: machinery and transport equipment, raw materials, fuel, chemicals (2018)
Imports: $122.8 billion Import goods: machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals (2018) Current Account balance: $2.216 billion (2018) Export partners: Germany 32.4%, Slovakia 8.4%, Poland 5.8%, UK 5.2%, France 5.2%, Italy 4.3%, Austria 4.2% (2016) Import partners: Germany 30.6%, Poland 9.6%, China 7.5%, Slovakia 6.3%, Netherlands 5.3%, Italy 4.1% (2016) Reserves: $85.73 billion (31 December 2016) Foreign Direct Investment: $139.6 billion (31 December 2016) Czech Investment Abroad: $43.09 billion (31 December 2016) External debt: $138 billion (31 December 2016) Value of Publicly Traded Shares: $44.5 billion (31 December 2016)
Households with access to fixed and mobile telephone access
Individuals with mobile telephone access
Broadband penetration rate
Individuals using computer and internet
The CME v. Czech Republic and Lauder v. Czech Republic were parallel cases decided by two different arbitral tribunals in 2001. The difference in the two cases' outcomes is a prime example of conflicting decisions in international arbitration and is the subject of many treatises, with some authors going as far as calling it "the ultimate fiasco in investment arbitration".In 1993, US national Ronald Steven Lauder invested in Czech private television broadcaster TV Nova through his German company (which was later succeeded by the Dutch company Central European Media (CME)). Some 20 suits started in front of the Czech courts and international tribunals, including UNCITRAL arbitrations CME v. Czech Republic and Lauder v. Czech Republic, after his business partner, Czech citizen Vladimír Železný, effectively deprived CME of its investment by breaking off the deal between Lauder's and Železný's companies. CME and Lauder respectively sought damages for the alleged interference of the Czech Media Council, a government entity granting broadcasting licences, into the business arrangements between Lauder's and Železný's companies, which supposedly eventually contributed to losses experienced by Lauder. Effectively dealing with the same facts
, the tribunals handed down two contradictory arbitral awards: one dismissed the claim by Lauder, while the other awarded CME damages of $270 million and 10% interest. Finally, Czech Republic paid $355 million.CzechInvest
CzechInvest is the Investment and Business Development Agency of the Czech Republic established in 1992 by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. The agency contributes to attracting foreign direct investment and developing domestic companies through its services and development programs. CzechInvest also promotes the Czech Republic abroad and acts as an intermediary between the EU and small and medium-sized enterprises in implementing Structural funds in the Czech Republic.Czech koruna
The koruna (sign: Kč; code: CZK) is the currency of the Czech Republic since 1993, and in English it is sometimes referred to as Czech crown or Czech krone. The koruna is one of European Union's 11 currencies, and the Czech Republic is legally bound to adopt the euro currency in the future.
The official name in Czech is koruna česká (plural koruny české, though the zero-grade genitive plural form korun českých is used on banknotes and coins of value 5 Kč or higher). The ISO 4217 code is CZK and the local acronym is Kč, which is placed after the numeric value (e.g., "50 Kč") or sometimes before it (as is seen on the 10-koruna coin). One koruna equals 100 haléřů (abbreviated as "h", singular: haléř, nominative plural: haléře, genitive plural: haléřů – used with numbers higher or equal to 5 – e.g. 3 haléře, 8 haléřů), but haléře have been withdrawn, and the smallest unit of physical currency is 1 Kč.Czech technical standard
ČSN is a protected designation of Czech technical standards. ČSN was also the official name of the Czechoslovak state standards (since 1964), since 1991 the Czechoslovak standards (Czechoslovak technical standards). Creation and issuance of ČSN is currently provided by the Czech office for Standards, Metrology and Testing.Healthcare in the Czech Republic
The Czech health care system is based on a compulsory insurance model, with fee-for-service care funded by mandatory employment-related insurance plans since 1992. According to the 2016 Euro health consumer index, a comparison of healthcare in Europe, the Czech healthcare is 13th, ranked behind Sweden and two positions ahead of the United Kingdom.List of Czech Republic-related topics
The list should also contain various important Czech topics that are not yet covered.
The list is divided into categories, ordered alphabetically (initially inspired by List of United Kingdom-related topics). Make new categories, rename or update them. Place the entries that don't fit or deserve its own category into the 'Miscellaneous' at the bottom of the list.List of Czech automobiles
This page aims to list Czech (formerly Czechoslovak and Bohemian) automobile, in order of manufacturer.List of Czech regions by GDP
This is a list of Czech regions by GDP and GDP per capita. The equivalent countries which are comparable to the Czech regions in GDP per capita are chosen by Worldbank data for the same year.List of Czech regions by Human Development Index
This is a list of NUTS2 statistical regions of the Czech Regions by Human Development Index as of 2017.List of Czechs by net worth
List of Czechs by net worth is regularly compiled by various Czech media, like newsmagazine Týden or server motejlek.com. Slovaks are usually included in the lists, as Slovak businessmen often live or do business in the Czech Republic. The following list aggregates figures from multiple sources and doesn't include Slovaks who are doing business in Slovakia only.Moldauhafen
Moldauhafen (Vltava port) is a lot in the port of Hamburg, Germany, that Czechoslovakia acquired on a 99-year lease in 1929 pursuant to the Treaty of Versailles. In 1993, the Czech Republic succeeded to the rights of Czechoslovakia,. The lease will expire in 2028.
The lot is not an exclave as it is not sovereign Czech territory. Previously, a similar arrangement existed for the port of Stettin, now Szczecin, Poland.
The lot is one of three lots that the Czech Republic has rights over. The other two are Saalehafen and Peutehafen. Saalehafen comes under the Versailles Treaty but then-Czechoslovakia purchased Peutehafen in 1929. Both Moldauhafen and Saalehafen are part of the Hamburg free port, and sit on the embankment of Dresdner Ufer and Hallesches Ufer. The area comprises about 28,500 square metres (306,771 sq ft). The leased premises constitute a duty-free zone that were called the Czecho-Slovak rental zone for inland navigation in the free port of Hamburg.
Peutehafen comprises an area of about 13,500 square metres (145,313 sq ft). It lies on the narrow peninsula between the Peutekanal and the Peutehafen dock, and is just outside the Hamburg free port.PX Index
The PX Index (until March 2006 the PX 50) is a capitalization-weighted index of major stocks that trade on the Prague Stock Exchange. Selected as the starting exchange day (a benchmark date) for the Index PX 50 was 5 April 1994 and its opening value was fixed at 1,000 points. At this time the index included 50 companies traded on the Prague Stock Exchange, accordingly named PX 50.
In 2014 Prague Stock Exchange introduced total return index PX-TR, that share same base as PX Index, but unlike PX index take into account dividends.Prague Stock Exchange
Prague Stock Exchange (PSE) is the largest and oldest securities market organizer in the Czech Republic. After a 50-year hiatus brought about by World War II and the Communist regime, it was reopened in 1993. Thus PSE resumed the activities of the Prague Commodities and Stock Exchange founded in 1871. PSE was advised by a group of leading Central and Eastern European scholars including American financier, Raymond Staples.
PSE is by law a joint-stock company. Its largest shareholder is CEESEG Aktiengesellschaft, with a 92.739% ownership interest. The General Meeting of Shareholders is the supreme executive body, the Exchange Chamber is the statutory body managing the Stock Exchange’s operations, and the Supervisory Board oversees its operations and overall functioning. The Company is managed by the Chief Executive Officer, who is appointed and recalled by the Exchange Chamber.
Trading is conducted through licensed traders who are also members of the Exchange. Exchange trading results and other data are published at www.pse.cz and also are disseminated via information agencies and the media.
PSE and its subsidiaries comprise the PX group. In addition to the Stock Exchange, the most important members in the group are POWER EXCHANGE CENTRAL EUROPE, a.s. (PXE) and Central Securities Depository Prague (CSD Prague). PXE was founded in 2007 and is a trading platform for dealing in electricity for the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. CSD Prague has the principal position in the settlement of securities trades on the Czech capital market, maintains the central register for dematerialized securities issued in the Czech Republic, and assigns international securities identification numbers (ISIN) to investment instruments.
PSE is a member of the CEE Stock Exchange Group (CEESEG), which also includes the Vienna Stock Exchange (Wiener Börse).Prague interbank offered rate
The Prague Inter Bank Offered Rate (PRIBOR) is the average rate at which banks are willing to lend liquidity on the Czech inter bank money market and as such, reflects the price of money on the market.
PRIBOR belongs to the family of IBORs (InterBank Offered Rates) together with other financial benchmarks, e.g. LIBOR in London or EURIBOR in continental Europe.Red Hat Czech
Red Hat Czech s.r.o. is a research and development arm of Red Hat in Brno, Czech Republic. The subsidiary was formed in 2006 and has 1,180 employees.Supreme Audit Office (Czech Republic)
The Supreme Audit Office of the Czech Republic (Czech: Nejvyšší kontrolní úřad) – alternately known in English as the Supreme Control Office of the Czech Republic – is a "unique, independent constitutional entity to supervise the management of the state property and the state budget."
It was a part of the original form of the Constitution of the Czech Republic, created by Article 97 of that document on 1 January 1993. However, because the constitution left all of the details of the operation of the office up to future legislation, it was not until Act 166/1993 came into effect on 1 July 1993 that the office could in practice be formed.Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile Czech
Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile Czech s.r.o. (TPCA) is an automobile manufacturing company in Kolín, Czech Republic. It is a joint venture between Toyota Motor Corporation and Groupe PSA (previously PSA Peugeot Citroën). It manufactures Toyota, Peugeot and Citroën models in the Czech Republic for sale in Europe. TPCA produces small cars mainly for the European market. Production started in February 2005, though the official opening ceremony was not until June.
TPCA is the company former French president Nicolas Sarkozy had in mind in his televised attack on free trade.Upper Silesian Coal Basin
The Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Polish: Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe, GZW, Czech: Hornoslezská uhelná pánev) is a coal basin in Silesia, in Poland and the Czech Republic.The Basin also contains a number of other minable resources, such as methane, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc. Coal depth is approximately 1000 meters, and contains about 70 billion tons, with excellent extraction potential.
Industrial areas within the Upper Silesian Coal Basin:
Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Polish: Górnośląski Okręg Przemysłowy, GOP)
Rybnik Coal Area (Polish: Rybnicki Okręg Węglowy, ROW)
Ostrava-Karviná Coal Area (Czech: Ostravsko-karvinská uhelná pánev)The Upper Silesian Coal Basin lies in the provinces of Upper Silesia and Zagłębie Dąbrowskie in southern Poland, in a highland located between the upper Vistula and the upper Oder rivers, as well as extending into the Moravian-Silesian Region in the Czech Republic. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin includes the Silesian metropolitan area and has a population of 5,294,000 (with 4,311,000 in Poland and 983,000 in the Czech Republic). Area: 5,400 km² (in Poland - 4,500 km², in Czech Republic - 900 km²).
Czech Republic articles
|States with limited|