Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits, it is thought that Uganda could feed all of Africa if it were commercially farmed. The economy of Uganda has great potential, and it appeared poised for rapid economic growth and development.
Chronic political instability and erratic economic management since the implementation of self-rule has produced a record of persistent economic decline that has left Uganda among the world's poorest and least-developed countries. The informal economy, which is predominantly female, is broadly defined as a group of vulnerable individuals without protections in regards to their work. Women face a plethora of barriers specific to gender when attempting to access the formal economy of Uganda, and research showing prejudice against lending to women in the informal sector. The national energy needs have historically been more than domestic energy generation, though large petroleum reserves have been found in the country's west.
After the turmoil of the Amin period, the country began a program of economic recovery in 1981 that received considerable foreign assistance. From mid-1984 onward, overly expansionist fiscal and monetary policies and the renewed outbreak of civil strife led to a setback in economic performance.
The economy has grown since the 1990s; real gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average of 6.7% annually during the period 1990–2015, whereas real GDP per capita grew at 3.3% per annum during the same period. During this period, the Ugandan economy experienced economic transformation: the share of agriculture value added in GDP declined from 56% in 1990 to 24% in 2015; the share of industry grew from 11% to 20% (with manufacturing increasing at a slower pace, from 6% to 9% of GDP); and the share of services went from 32% to 55%.
|Economy of Uganda|
|Currency||Ugandan shilling (UGX)|
|1 July – 30 June|
|EAC, COMESA, AU, WTO|
|GDP||$26.39 billion (2017 est.)|
|GDP rank||90th (nominal, 2017)|
|5.2% (2015), 4.7% (2016), |
4.0% (2017e), 5.5% (2018f) 
GDP by sector
Services: 23.7% (2017 est.)
|5.8% (2017 est.)|
|19.1% (31 December 2017 est.)|
Population below poverty line
|19.7% (2017 est.)|
|39.5 (2017 est.)|
|20.05 million (2017 est.)|
Labour force by occupation
|agriculture: 71.9% (2013 est.)|
|sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production|
|Exports||$3.172 billion (2017 est.) (123rd)|
Main export partners
| Kenya 20.9%|
DR Congo 8.9%
Italy 4.5% (2017)
|Imports||$4.592 billion (2017 est.)|
Main import partners
| China 17.9% |
South Africa 4.5%
Saudi Arabia 4.4% (2016)
|$10.909 billion (2016)|
|$-1.476 billion (2017 est.)|
Gross external debt
|$7.163 billion (31 December 2017 est.)|
|$11.2 billion ($3.8 billion, domestic) (2018)|
|Revenues||$3.98 billion (2017)|
|Expenses||$7.66 billion (2017)|
|Economic aid||$3.68 billion (2017)|
|Standard & Poor's: B|
|3.045 billion (31 December 2017 est.)|
Since assuming power in early 1986, Museveni's government has taken important steps toward economic rehabilitation. The country's infrastructure, notably its transport and communications systems which were destroyed by war and neglect, is being rebuilt. Recognizing the need for increased external support, Uganda negotiated a policy framework paper with the IMF and the World Bank in 1987. Uganda subsequently began implementing economic policies designed to restore price stability and sustainable balance of payments, improve capacity utilization, rehabilitate infrastructure, restore producer incentives through proper price policies, and improve resource mobilization and allocation in the public sector. These so-called Structural Adjustment Programs greatly improved the shape of the Ugandan economy, but did not lead to economic growth in the first decade after their implementation. Since 1995, Uganda has experienced rapid economic growth, but it is not clear to what extent this positive development can be attributed to Structural Adjustment. Uganda is a member of the World Trade Organization, since 1 January 1995 and a member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, from 25 October 1962.
Agricultural products supply a significant portion of Uganda's foreign exchange earnings, with coffee alone, of which Uganda is Africa's second largest producer after Ethiopia, accounting for about 17% of the country's exports in 2017 and earning the country US$545 million. Exports of apparel, hides, skins, vanilla, vegetables, fruits, cut flowers, and fish are growing, while cotton, tea, and tobacco continue to be mainstays.
As of 2017, Uganda had about 130,000 kilometres (80,778 mi) of roads, with approximately 5,300 kilometres (3,293 mi) (4 percent) paved. Most paved roads radiate from Kampala, the country's capital and largest city.
As of 2017, Uganda’s metre gauge railway network measures about 1,250 kilometres (777 mi) in length. Of this, about 56% (700 kilometres (435 mi)), is operational. A railroad originating at Mombasa on the Indian Ocean connects with Tororo, where it branches westward to Jinja, Kampala, and Kasese and northward to Mbale, Soroti, Lira, Gulu, and Pakwach. The only railway line still operating, however, is the one to Kampala.
Uganda's important link to the port of Mombasa is now mainly by road, which serves its transport needs and also those of neighboring Rwanda, Burundi, parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and South Sudan.
An international airport is at Entebbe on the northern shores of Lake Victoria, about 41 kilometres (25 mi) south of Kampala. In January 2018, the government of Uganda began the construction of Kabaale International Airport, in the Western Region of Uganda. This will be Uganda's second international airport, which is planned to facilitate the construction of an oil refinery and boost tourism.
The Uganda Communications Commission regulates communications, primarily "delivered through an enabled private sector." The companies it regulates include television networks, radio stations, mobile network operators, and fixed-line telephone companies.
Uganda's predominant mineral occurrences are gold, tungsten, tin, beryl, and tantalite in the south; tungsten, clay, and granite between latitude zero and two degrees north; and gold, mica, copper, limestone, and iron in the north.
In late 2012, the government of Uganda was taken to court over value added tax that it placed on goods and services purchased by Tullow Oil, a foreign oil company operating in the country at the time. The court case was heard at an international court based in the United States. The Ugandan government insisted that Tullow could not claim taxes on supplies as recoverable costs before oil production starts. Sources from within the government reveal that the main concern at present is the manner in which millions of dollars have been lost in the past decade, money that could allegedly have stayed in Uganda for investment in the public sector; a Global Financial Integrity report recently revealed that illicit money flows from Uganda between 2001 and 2012 totalled $680 million. Tullow Oil was represented in the court case by Kampala Associated Advocates, whose founder is Elly Kurahanga, the President of Tullow Uganda. A partner at Kampala Associated Advocates, Peter Kabatsi, was also Uganda’s solicitor general between 1990 and 2002, and he has denied claims that he negotiated contracts with foreign oil firms during his time in this role.
In June 2015, the Ugandan government and Tullow Oil settled a longstanding dispute regarding the amount of certain capital gains taxes that the company owed to the government. The government claimed that the company owed US$435 million. The claim, however, was settled for US $250 million.
In April 2018, the government signed agreements with Albertine Graben Refinery Consortium, an International consortium led by General Electric of the United States, to build a 60,000 barrels-per-day Uganda Oil Refinery in Western Uganda. The cost of the development is budgeted at about US$4 billion.
The agriculture sector of the Ugandan economy, which composes roughly 40% of the country's GDP, is largely fulfilled by women laborers, especially in managing products, marketing, and the crop sub-sector. 76% of women work in the agriculture sector and roughly 66% of men do, and women provide for 80% of food crops and 60% of traditional exports such as coffee or tea. In the formal, non-agricultural economy, men constitute 61% of the workforce, whereas women predominate the informal economy, and this can be attributed to the lack of equity between men and women in the country. The Uganda Bureau of Statistics reported, when looking at the urban workforce in 2015, 88.6% of women were employed informally, and 84.2% of men were. Women are unable to enter into certain sectors, especially in the formal economy, due to the inability to provide substantial initial funding, and remain in the trade and service sectors of the economy. Comparatively, men dominate the more profitable sectors, such as manufacturing. Women traders make up 70% of those in markets and 40% in shops in addition to dominating other sectors such as the service industry, crafts, and tailoring.
Women are often undervalued in data compilation, particularly when considering their role in their domestic home lives. For example, women commonly match the contribution of their husbands to their familial income, if not provide more, when taking into consideration the value of their labor and the profits made from selling excess food. Urban women on average earn between 50% and 70% of a household's income. Women are also discredited in data collection due to biases of data collectors resulting in inaccurate reports, as well as income being measured per house, rather than separating by gender. The barriers women face to further their entrepreneurial careers are different than men, inherent within the biased culture and institutions plaguing Uganda despite the passing of somewhat progressive policies, especially with the 1985 transition of government to the National Resistance Movement party.
|GDP in $
|4.69 bil.||6.71 bil.||10.08 bil.||15.36 bil.||22.16 bil.||35.82 bil.||39.53 bil.||43.85 bil.||49.38 bil.||53.77 bil.||58.59 bil.||63.88 bil.||66.52 bil.||70.78 bil.||75.33 bil.||80.46 bil.||83.39 bil.||88.67 bil.|
|GDP per capita in $
|−3.9 %||−3.0 %||6.5 %||9.2 %||3.9 %||10.0 %||7.0 %||8.1 %||10.4 %||8.1 %||7.7 %||6.8 %||2.2 %||4.7 %||4.6 %||5.7 %||2.3 %||4.5 %|
(% of GDP)
|...||...||...||...||63 %||55 %||36 %||22 %||20 %||19 %||22 %||23 %||25 %||28 %||31 %||33 %||37 %||39 %|
The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organization composed of six countries in the African Great Lakes region in eastern Africa: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. Paul Kagame, the president of Rwanda, is the EAC's chairman. The organisation was founded in 1967, collapsed in 1977, and was revived on 7 July 2000. In 2008, after negotiations with the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the EAC agreed to an expanded free trade area including the member states of all three organizations. The EAC is an integral part of the African Economic Community.
The EAC is a potential precursor to the establishment of the East African Federation, a proposed federation of its members into a single sovereign state. In 2010, the EAC launched its own common market for goods, labour, and capital within the region, with the goal of creating a common currency and eventually a full political federation. In 2013, a protocol was signed outlining their plans for launching a monetary union within 10 years. In September 2018 a committee was formed to begin the process of drafting a regional constitution.List of Ugandans by net worth
The per capita income in Uganda in 2013 was approximately US$600 annually. In 2013, an estimated 19.5 percent of the 35 million Ugandans lived on less than US$1.00 per day.Compiled here is a list of individuals in Uganda whose accumulated assets are known to be markedly above the rest of the individuals in the country. The list is not exhaustive, and net worth values are hard to determine.The names are arranged alphabetically, using the first name to select rank.List of regions of Uganda by Human Development Index
This is a list of regions of Uganda by Human Development Index as of 2017.Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development (Uganda)
The Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development (MoFPED) is a cabinet-level government ministry of Uganda. Its mandate is to formulate sound economic and fiscal policies, mobilize resources for the implementation of government programmes, disburse public resources as appropriated by Parliament, and account for their use in accordance with national laws and international best practices. The cabinet minister of finance is Matia Kasaija. MoFPED was created by the 1995 Constitution of Uganda and derives its power from the Constitution and related acts of parliament, including the 2001 Budget Act and the 2003 Public Finance and Accountability Act.Ministry of Trade, Industry and Cooperatives (Uganda)
The Ministry of Trade, Industry and Cooperatives (MTIC) is a cabinet level ministry of the government of Uganda. The mission of the ministry is to "develop and promote a competitive and export-driven private sector through the acceleration of industrial development", with the ultimate objective being the growth of the Ugandan economy. The ministry is headed by Minister Amelia Kyambadde, who was appointed by the president.NC Bank Uganda
NC Bank Uganda (NCBU), whose complete name is NC Bank Uganda Limited, is a commercial bank in Uganda. It is one of the commercial banks licensed by the Bank of Uganda, the country's central bank and national banking regulator.Port Bell
Port Bell is a small industrial centre in the greater metropolitan Kampala area, in Uganda. Port Bell has a rail link and a railroad ferry wharf used for International traffic across Lake Victoria to Tanzania and Kenya.Revenue stamps of Uganda
Uganda issued revenue stamps from around 1896 to the 1990s. There were numerous types of revenue stamps for a variety of taxes and fees.Uganda Airlines
Uganda Airlines was the flag carrier of Uganda. The airline was established in May 1976 (1976-05), and started operations in 1977. It was headquartered in Entebbe, Wakiso District, Uganda, and operated from its hub in Entebbe International Airport.Attempts were made by the Government of Uganda to privatise the company, but all potential bidders pulled out, eventually leading to the liquidation of Uganda Airlines Corporation in May 2001 (2001-05). In 2013 there were plans from the government to revive the carrier. Following the Ugandan Civil Aviation Authority revoking Air Uganda's AOC over safety concerns in June 2014 (2014-06), discussions restarted in late 2014.Uganda Bureau of Statistics
The Uganda Bureau of Statistics ("UBOS") is an agency of the Ugandan government. Formed by an Act of Parliament in 1998, the agency is mandated to "coordinate, monitor and supervise Uganda's National Statistical System".Uganda Coffee Development Authority
The Uganda Coffee Development Authority (UCDA) is a government agency mandated to "promote and oversee the coffee industry by supporting research, promoting production, controlling the quality and improving the marketing of coffee" in the country.Uganda Development Corporation
The Uganda Development Corporation (UDC) is an agency of the government of Uganda. It promotes and facilitates the industrial and economic development of Uganda. Formed in 1952, it had some success in promoting local industrial development and was swelled with the addition of newly nationalised industries in the early 1970s. These, however, proved too much for the corporation, and it went into a slow decline before being completely phased out in 1998. The organisation was reconstituted with similar aims in 2008.Uganda National Oil Company
The Uganda National Oil Company (UNOC), also known as the National Oil Company of Uganda, is a limited liability petroleum company in Uganda and owned by the Ugandan government. The 2013 Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Act of Uganda provides for the establishment of the national oil company. UNOC's board of directors was inaugurated on 23 October 2015 by the president of Uganda.The board is chaired by Emmanuel Katongole, an economist and businessman. He is a co-founder of Cipla Quality Chemical Industries Limited, a pharmaceutical company in eastern Africa and the major supplier of anti-retroviral medications in Uganda.The board members include Francis Nagimesi, a former chief executive officer of the defunct Coffee Marketing Board of Uganda; Francis Twinamatsiko, a principal economist in the Ugandan Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development; Grace Tubwita Bagaya Bukenya, a physical planner; Pauline Irene Batebe, a chemical/refinery engineer in the Petroleum Directorate of Uganda; Godfrey Andama, a senior geoscientist; and Stella-Marie Biwaga, a lawyer working with FIDA, Uganda.In June 2016, Josephine Wapakhabulo, an electric and electronics engineer, was appointed managing director and chief executive officer of UNOC, being the first person to serve in that position.Uganda National Pipeline Company
Uganda National Pipeline Company (UNPC), whose official name is National Pipeline Company Uganda Limited (NPCUL), is a Ugandan private limited liability company that is a 100 percent subsidiary of the Uganda National Oil Company (UNOC). UNPC was incorporated under the Companies Act of 2012, with the main objective being to hold the Uganda Government's interest in the crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas pipelines together with storage facilities and associated infrastructure, within the country's nascent petroleum industry.Uganda Refinery Holding Company
Uganda Refinery Holding Company (URHC), is a government of Uganda-owned parastatal company, that is a 100 percent subsidiary of the Uganda National Oil Company, whose purpose is to hold the shareholding in the Uganda Oil Refinery and related infrastructure, that is assigned to the Ugandan government. The company was incorporated as a private limited liability company, under the Companies Act of 2012.Uganda Registration Services Bureau
The Uganda Registration Services Bureau (URSB) is a semi-autonomous government agency, established by Act of Parliament in 1998 in Uganda. URSB is responsible for civil registrations (including marriages and divorces but not including births, adoptions, or deaths), business registrations (setups and liquidations), registration of patents and intellectual property rights, and any other registrations required by law.Uganda Retirement Benefits Regulatory Authority
The Uganda Retirement Benefits Regulatory Authority (URBRA) is a government-owned, semi-autonomous agency responsible for regulating, licensing, supervising, and controlling the retirement sector in Uganda, the third-largest economy in the East African Community. The authority is also responsible for issuing guidelines to allow the liberalization of the retirement sector in the country.Uganda Revenue Authority
For the Kampala soccer team please see Uganda Revenue Authority SC.The Uganda Revenue Authority (URA) is a government revenue collection agency established by the Parliament of Uganda. Operating under the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, the URA is responsible for enforcing, assessing, collecting, and accounting for the various taxes imposed in Uganda.Whitaker scandal
The Whitaker scandal is a corruption scandal in Uganda that surfaced in 2005. The scandal revolves around the Whitaker Group, the lobbying firm of Rosa Whitaker, a former assistant U.S. trade representative for Africa in the Bush administration and payments she received from the Ugandan government. Supporters of the work done on behalf of Uganda by the Whitaker Group, however, have pointed out that the criticisms are politically motivated and not based on an understanding of the full spectrum of work undertaken in the United States by the Whitaker Group
States with limited