Economy of Tajikistan

Since independence, Tajikistan gradually followed the path of transition economy, reforming its economic policies. With foreign revenue precariously dependent upon exports of cotton and aluminium, the economy is highly vulnerable to external shocks. Tajikistan's economy also incorporates a massive black market, primarily focused on the drug trade with Afghanistan, and heroin trafficking in Tajikistan is estimated to be equivalent 30-50% of national GDP as of 2012.[6] In fiscal year (FY) 2000, international assistance remained an essential source of support for rehabilitation programs that reintegrated former civil war combatants into the civilian economy, thus helping keep the peace. International assistance also was necessary to address the second year of severe drought that resulted in a continued shortfall of food production. Tajikistan's economy grew substantially after the war. The gross domestic product (GDP) of Tajikistan expanded at an average rate of 9.6% over the period of 2000-2007 according to the World Bank data. This improved Tajikistan's position among other Central Asian countries (namely Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), which have degraded economically ever since.[7] As of August 2009, an estimated 60% of Tajikistani citizens live below the poverty line.[8] The 2008 global financial crisis has hit Tajikistan hard, both domestically and internationally. Tajikistan has been hit harder than many countries because it already has a high poverty rate and because many of its citizens depend on remittances from expatriate Tajikistanis.

Economy of Tajikistan
Dushanbe 2010 06 Hotel Hyatt
Currency1 somoni (TJS) = 100 diram
calendar year
Trade organisations
IMF, World Bank, CIS, EURASEC, SCO, WTO
Statistics
GDPIncrease$8.508 billion (2013 est.) [1]
GDP growth
6.0% (2015), 6.9% (2016),
7.1% (2017e), 6.1% (2018f) [2]
GDP per capita
Increase$2,200 (2012 est.)
GDP by sector
agriculture: 23.3%, industry: 22.8%, services: 53.9% (2012 est.)
Increase5.0% (2013)
Population below poverty line
Decrease39.6% (December 2012 est.)
32.6 (2006)
Labour force
Steady2.1 million (2012)
Labour force by occupation
agriculture: 47.9%, industry: 10.9%, services: 41.2% (2012 est.)
UnemploymentIncrease2.5% (2012 est.)
Main industries
aluminum, cement, vegetable oil
123rd (2018)[3]
External
ExportsDecrease$1.359 billion (2012 est.)
Export goods
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Main export partners
 Turkey 19.7%
 Kazakhstan 17.6%
  Switzerland 13.7%
 Iran 8.7%
 Afghanistan 7.5%
 Russia 5.1%
 China 4.9%
 Italy 4.8% (2015)[4]
ImportsIncrease$3.778 billion (2012 est.)
Import goods
petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Main import partners
 China 42.3%
 Russia 17.9%
 Kazakhstan 13.1%
 Iran 4.7% (2015)[5]
Public finances
Decrease$2.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Revenues$2.046 billion (2012 est.)
Expenses$2.066 billion (2012 est.)
Economic aidrecipient: $67 million from US (2005)
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

Economic history

This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Tajikistan at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of ruling currency.

Year Gross Domestic Product US Dollar Exchange
1995 65,000 123.33 Tajikistani Rubles
2000 1,807 1.82 Somoni
2005 7,201 3.11 Somoni

For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US Dollar is exchanged at 0.82 Somoni only.

The Tajikistani economy has been gravely weakened by six years of civil conflict and loss of markets for its products. Tajikistan thus depends on international humanitarian assistance for much of its basic subsistence needs. Even if the peace agreement of June 1997 is honored, the country faces major problems in integrating refugees and former combatants into the economy. The future of Tajikistan's economy and the potential for attracting foreign investment depend upon stability and continued progress in the peace process.

In 2006 GDP per capita of Tajikistan was 85% of 1990s level.[9] While population has increased from 5.3 million in 1991 to 7.3 million in 2009.

Despite resistance from vested interests, the Government of Tajikistan continued to pursue macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform in FY 2000. In December 1999, the government announced that small-enterprise privatization had been successfully completed, and the privatization of medium-sized and large-owned enterprises (SOEs) continued incrementally. The continued privatization of medium-sized and large SOEs, land reform, and banking reform and restructuring remain top priorities. Shortly after the end of FY 2000, the Board of the International Monetary Fund gave its vote of confidence to the government's recent performance by approving the third annual Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility Loan for Tajikistan. Improved fiscal discipline by the Government of Tajikistan has supported the return to positive economic growth. The government budget was nearly in balance in 2001 and the government’s 2002 budget targets a fiscal deficit of 0.3% of GDP, including recent increases in social sector spending.

The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1997–2017.[10]

Year 1993 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
GDP in $
(PPP)
6.61 bn. 4.73 bn. 5.92 bn. 10.41 bn. 11.48 bn. 12.70 bn. 13.97 bn. 14.62 bn. 15.77 bn. 17.29 bn. 18.93 bn. 20.65 bn. 22.43 bn. 24.04 bn. 26.02 bn. 28.38 bn.
GDP per capita in $
(PPP)
1,186 836 945 1,504 1,625 1,760 1,895 1,943 2,070 2,216 2,376 2,540 2,702 2,836 3,008 3,212
GDP growth
(real)
−11.1 % −12.5 % 8.3 % 6.7 % 7.0 % 7.8 % 7.9 % 3.9 % 6.5 % 7.4 % 7.5 % 7.4 % 6.7 % 6.0 % 6.9 % 7.1 %
Inflation
(in Percent)
2,000.6 % 612.5 % 32.9 % 7.3 % 10.0 % 13.2 % 20.4 % 6.4 % 6.4 % 12.4 % 5.8 % 5.0 % 6.1 % 5.8 % 5.9 % 7.3 %
Gov. debt
(Percentage of GDP)
... ... 111 % 46 % 37 % 34 % 30 % 37 % 37 % 36 % 32 % 29 % 28 % 34 % 42 % 48 %

Gross domestic product

In 2005 Tajikistan’s GDP grew by 6.7%, to about US$1.89 billion, and growth for 2006 was about 8%, marking the fifth consecutive year of annual growth exceeding 6%. The official forecast for GDP growth in 2007 is 7.5%. Per capita GDP in 2005 was US$258, lowest among the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union. In 2005 services contributed 48%, agriculture 23.4%, and industry 28.6% to GDP.[11] The recent global recession has reduced Tajikistan's GDP growth rate to 2.8% in the first half of 2009. Remittances from expatriate Tajikistanis is estimated to account for 30-50% of Tajikistan's GDP.

Industries

Agriculture

Although the government has announced an expedited land reform program, many Soviet-era state farms still existed in 2006, and the state retains control of production and harvesting on privatized farms. Privatization of cotton farms has been especially slow, and unresolved debts of cotton farmers remained a problem in 2006. In the early 2000s, the major crops were cotton (which occupied one-third of arable land in 2004 but decreased after that date), cereals (mainly wheat), potatoes, vegetables (mainly onions and tomatoes), fruits, and rice. Cotton makes an important contribution to both the agricultural sector and the national economy. Cotton accounts for 60 percent of agricultural output, supports 75 percent of the rural population, and uses 45 percent of irrigated arable land.[12] More than 80% of the 8,800 square kilometers of land in use for agriculture depends on irrigation. Tajikistan must import grain from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.[11]

Forestry

3% of Tajikistan is forested, mainly at elevations between 1,000 and 3,000 meters. No forest region is classified as commercially usable; most are under state protection. Wood production is negligible, but local inhabitants harvest non-wood forest products.[11] [13]

Fishing

Streams and lakes produce a limited amount of fish, and some fish is produced by aquaculture. In 2003 some 158 tons of fish were caught and 167 tons raised on fish farms.[11]

Mining and Minerals

Tajikistan has rich deposits of gold, silver, and antimony. The largest silver deposits are in Sughd Province, where Tajikistan’s largest gold mining operation also is located. Russia’s Norilsk nickel company has explored a large new silver deposit at Bolshoy Kanimansur. Tajikistan also produces strontium, salt, lead, zinc, fluorspar, and mercury. Uranium, an important mineral in the Soviet era, remains in some quantity but no longer is extracted. Fossil fuel deposits are limited to coal, of which about 30,000 tons are mined annually. Tajikistan’s extensive aluminium processing industry depends entirely on imported ore.[11]

Industry and manufacturing

The output of most industries declined sharply during the mid-1990s; despite widespread privatization, in the early 2000s industry rallied very slowly. In 2006 an estimated one-third of Tajikistan’s 700 major industrial enterprises were completely idle, and the remainder were operating at 20 or 25% of capacity. The causes are outmoded equipment, low investment levels, and lack of markets. To revitalize the sector, in 2006 the government was considering renationalizing some enterprises. Tajikistan’s only major heavy industries are aluminum processing and chemical production. The former, which provided 40% of industrial production in 2005, is centered at the Tursunzoda processing plant, the latter in Dushanbe, Qurghonteppa, and Yavan. Aluminum production increased by 6% in 2005. Some small light industrial plants produce textiles and processed foods, using mainly domestic agricultural products. The textile industry processes about 20% of domestically grown cotton. The expansion of light industry output contributed significantly to GDP growth in 2005. The construction industry, about half of which is state-owned, has suffered from low investment in capital projects and from shoddy workmanship that has discouraged international contracts. However, new infrastructure projects and increased housing construction brought a 60% increase in output from 2004 to 2005.[11] As of 2009, one third of industrial plants and factories are inactive, according to Tajikistan's Institute of Economic Studies. Industrial output has fallen by 13% in the first six months of 2009, leading to a fall in export revenues of 48%.

Energy

The rivers of Tajikistan, such as the Vakhsh and the Panj, have great hydropower potential, and the government has focused on attracting investment for projects for internal use and electricity exports. Tajikistan is home to the hydroelectric power station Nurek, the second highest dam in the world.[14] Sangtuda 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant of 670 megawatts (MW) capacity, operated by Russian Inter RAO UES, commenced operations on 18 January 2008 and was officially commissioned on 31 July 2009.[15][16][17][18] Other projects at the development stage include Sangduta 2 by Iran, Zerafshan by Chinese SinoHydro and Rogun power plant, which, at 335 metres (1,099 ft), is projected to supersede the Nurek Dam as tallest in the world if completed. The Rogun Dam was originally planned to be built by Russia's Inter RAO UES, but following disagreements, Russia pulled out. In 2010, production resumed with Iranian investment and Chinese assistance.[19][20][21] Besides hydropower, other energy resources include sizable coal deposits and smaller reserves of natural gas and petroleum. In December 2010, Russian Gazprom announced discovery of significant natural gas reserves in Sarykamish field with 60 bcm of natural gas, enough for 50 years of Tajikistan's domestic consumption. The national power company is Barqi Tojik.[22]

Tajikistan is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme, which has four key topics: enhancing energy security, convergence of member state energy markets on the basis of EU internal energy market principles, supporting sustainable energy development, and attracting investment for energy projects of common and regional interest.[23]

Services

Throughout the early 2000s, the overall output of the services sector has increased steadily. The banking system has improved significantly because of strengthened oversight by the National Bank of Tajikistan, relaxed restrictions on participation by foreign institutions, and regulatory reform. The system includes 16 commercial banks and the central bank, or National Bank. The state controls the system, although in principle most banks have been privatized. An internationally assisted restructuring program was completed in 2003. Banks provide a narrow range of services, concentrating on providing credit to state-owned enterprises. Only an estimated 10% of the capital in Tajikistan moves through the banking system, and small businesses rarely borrow from banks.

Abdujabbor Shirinov, Chairman of the National Bank of Tajikistan announced 142 credit organizations, including 16 banks and 299 their branches, two non-bank financial institutions and 124 microfinance organizations functioned in Tajikistan at the first of 2013.[24]

Tourism

The tourism industry of Tajikistan was eliminated by the civil war, but has begun to re-establish itself in recent years. In 2018, the British Backpacker Society ranked Tajikistan as the 7th best adventure travel destination on earth.[25] The Tajik Committee on Tourism Development responded to this accolade by stating that "the inclusion of Tajikistan in the British Backpacker Society’s top 20 adventure travel destinations testifies the development of tourism in [the] country."[26]

Labor

In 2003 Tajikistan’s active labor force was estimated at 3.4 million, of whom 64% were employed in agriculture, 24% in services, and 10% in industry and construction. After declining in the early 2000s, the real wages of state employees were raised in 2004 and 2005. Because of the continued dominance of state farms, the majority of workers are government employees, although only a small number rely completely on wages. Driven by high unemployment, in 2006 an estimated 700,000 workers found seasonal or permanent employment in Russia and other countries. Their remittances, estimated at US$600 million in 2005, are an important economic resource in Tajikistan; in 2004 an estimated 15% of households depended mainly on those payments. In May 2009 remittances to Tajiks had fallen to $525 million, a 34% decline from the previous year. Immediately before the 2008 financial crisis there were an estimated 1.5 million foreign workers sending remittances back to Tajikistan. In 2006 the average wage was US$27 per month. The national unemployment rate was estimated unofficially as high as 40% in 2006, but in rural areas unemployment has exceeded 60%. Unemployment has been higher in the southern Khatlon Province than in the northern Soghd Province.[11] Mean wages were $0.66 per man-hour in 2009.
Tajikistan's informal employment sector has been reported to use both child labor and forced labor in the country's cotton industry according to the U.S. Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor.

Currency, exchange rate, and inflation

The somoni was introduced in 2000 to replace the Tajikistani ruble, which had been the currency since 1991. In December 2015, some 7 somoni equaled US$1.[11]

Throughout the post-Soviet era, inflation has been a serious obstacle to economic growth and improvement of the standard of living. For the years 2001–3, Tajikistan’s inflation rates were 33%, 12.2%, and 16.3%, respectively, but in 2004 the rate fell to 6.8%, and the rate for 2005 was 7.1%. In late 2006, inflation approached the 10% level. The official forecast for 2007 is 7%.[11]

Government budget

The year 2004 was the first year of budget deficit after three consecutive years of budget surpluses, which in turn had followed four years of deficits between 1997 and 2000. In 2005 revenues totaled US$442 million (aided by improvements in tax collection), and expenditures were US$542 million, a deficit of US$100 million. The approved 2007 state budget calls for revenues of US$926 million and expenditures of US$954 million, leaving a deficit of US$28 million.[11]

Foreign economic relations

2006Tajikistani exports
Tajikistani exports in 2006

In the post-Soviet era, Tajikistan has substantially shifted its markets away from the former Soviet republics; in 2005 more than 80% of total exports went to customers outside the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), including more than 70% to countries of the European Union (EU) and Turkey. However, because most of Tajikistan’s food and energy are imported from CIS countries, in 2005 only about 53% of total trade activity was outside the CIS. In 2005 the top overall buyers of Tajikistan’s exports, in order of value, were the Netherlands, Turkey, Russia, Uzbekistan, Latvia, and Iran. Besides aluminum, which accounts for more than half of export value, the main export commodities are cotton, electric power, fruits, vegetable oils, and textiles. In 2005 the largest suppliers of Tajikistan’s imports, in order of value, were Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, China, and Ukraine. Those import rankings are determined largely by the high value of fuels and electric power that Tajikistan buys from its neighbors. Another significant import is alumina (aluminum oxide) to supply the aluminum industry. The major suppliers of alumina are Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine.[11]

Tajikistan has suffered trade deficits throughout the post-Soviet era. In 2003 the deficit was US$97 million, based on exports of US$705 million and imports of US$802 million. In 2004 exports were worth US$736 million and imports, US$958 billion, creating a trade deficit of US$222 million. The deficit increased again in 2005, to US$339 million, mainly because cotton exports decreased and domestic demand for goods increased.[11]

In 2005 the current account deficit was US$86 million, having shown a general downward trend since the late 1990s. The estimated current account deficit for both 2006 and 2007 is 4.5% of GDP, or about US$90 million in 2006. In 2005 the overall balance of payments was US$14 million. The estimated overall balance of payments for 2006 is US$8 million.[11]

At the end of 2006, Tajikistan’s external debt was estimated at US$830 million, most of which was long-term international debt. This amount grew steadily through the 1990s and early 2000s because of state borrowing policy. In 2004 Tajikistan eliminated about 20% of its external debt by exchanging debt to Russia for Russian ownership of the Nurek space tracking station, and by 2006 rescheduling negotiations had reduced the debt by about two-thirds as a percentage of gross domestic product.[11]

In the early 2000s, foreign direct investment has remained low because of political and economic instability, corruption, the poor domestic financial system, and Tajikistan’s geographic isolation. The establishment of businesses nearly always requires bribing officials and often encounters resistance from entrepreneurs with government connections. To attract foreign investment and technology, Tajikistan has offered to establish free economic zones in which firms receive advantages on taxes, fees, and customs. In 2004, the parliament passed a law on free economic zones [27] and in 2008 passed a decree creating two zones: the Panj Free Economic Zone and the Sughd Free Economic Zone.[28] In 2003 foreign direct investment totaled US$41 million; it increased to US$272 million in 2004 because of the debt-reduction transaction with Russia. In the first half of 2005, the figure was US$16 million. Beginning in 2005, the Russian Rusal aluminum company resumed operations to complete the hydroelectric station at Rogun on the Vakhsh River and expand aluminum production at the Tursunzade plant. That plant was scheduled for possible sale to Rusal in 2007. Also in 2005, Russia and Iran resumed work on the Vakhsh River Sangtuda hydroelectric project. Gazprom, the Russian natural gas monopoly, allocated US$12 million for oil and gas exploration in Tajikistan in 2007 after spending US$7 million in 2006. In 2005 the Russian telecommunications company VimpelCom bought a controlling share of Tajikistan’s Tacom mobile telephone company. As of 2006, Turkey tentatively planned to invest in a luxury hotel and a cotton processing plant.[11]

WTO

Tajikistan joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 2 March 2013, becoming the 159th country to join the organization. The Working Party on the accession of Tajikistan was established by the General Council on 18 July 2001. Tajikistan completed its membership negotiations on 26 October 2012, when the Working Party adopted the accession package. The General Council approved the accession on 10 December 2012. The Working Party held its sixth meeting in July 2011 to continue the examination of Tajikistan’s foreign trade regime. As part of bilateral market access negotiations, Tajikistan agreed to lower tariffs on cooking equipment, refrigerators, ovens and water heaters in discussions to gain Thailand's backing. Earlier, the government of Tajikistan confirmed that it had concluded negotiations with Japan, and had received support from the nation for its accession in an agreement signed on July 31, 2012.[29]

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

  1. ^ "Tajikistan GDP". The World Bank. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  2. ^ "World Bank forecasts for Tajikistan, June 2018 (p. 151)" (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  3. ^ "Ease of Doing Business in Tajikistan". Doingbusiness.org. Retrieved 2017-11-24.
  4. ^ "Export Partners of Tajikistan". CIA World Factbook. 2015. Retrieved 2016-08-04.
  5. ^ "Import Partners of Tajikistan". CIA World Factbook. 2015. Retrieved 2016-08-04.
  6. ^ "Addicted". the Economist. 2012-04-21. Retrieved 2016-10-17.
  7. ^ "BBC's Guide to Central Asia". BBC News. 2005-06-20. Retrieved 2006-11-01.
  8. ^ President attempts to give Tajikistan a cultural makeover EurasiaNet
  9. ^ "GDP per capita in current US dollars per person". EarthTrends. Archived from the original on 2008-01-31. Retrieved 2006-11-01.
  10. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. Retrieved 2018-09-08.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tajikistan country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (January 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  12. ^ "Tajikistan: Over 392.5 thousand tons of cotton picked in Tajikistan". BS-AGRO. December 12, 2013. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013.
  13. ^ "Forestry Sector Analysis of the Republic of Tajikistan" (PDF). Naturalresources-centralasia.org. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  14. ^ "Highest Dams (World and U.S.)". ICOLD World Register of Dams. 1998. Archived from the original on 2008-04-05. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
  15. ^ "Первая очередь Сангтудинской ГЭС в Таджикистане будет запущена 18 января (First stage of the Sangtuda HPS launched on 18 January)" (in Russian). Vesti. 2007-12-25. Archived from the original on 2008-04-05. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
  16. ^ "Sangtuda-1 HPS launched on January 18, 2008". Today Energy. 2008-01-05. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
  17. ^ Roman Kozhevnikov, Anastasia Onegina (2009-07-31). "Russia boosts C.Asia ties, opens plant in Tajikistan". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
  18. ^ "In Tajikistan, started Sangtuda HPP-1". Market Analysis. 2009-07-31. Archived from the original on 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
  19. ^ "Iran participates in power plant project in Tajikistan". IRNA. 2007-04-24. Archived from the original on 2013-04-28. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
  20. ^ "Chinese To Build Tajik Hydroelectric Plant". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. 2007-01-18. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
  21. ^ "РАО "ЕЭС России" построит "Рогунскую ГЭС" в Таджикистане (RAO UES to construct Rogun HPS in Tajikistan)" (in Russian). EnergyLand.info. 2007-09-14. Archived from the original on 2008-04-29. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
  22. ^ "Asia Times Online". Atimes.com. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  23. ^ "INOGATE". Inogate.org. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  24. ^ "Tajikistan ready for coming of new foreign banks, says Tajik central bank head - Tajikistan News ASIA-Plus". News.tj. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  25. ^ Planet, Lonely. "Pakistan rated top destination by the British Backpacker Society". Lonelyplanet.com. Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  26. ^ "Tajikistan ranked 7th place in the top 20 adventure travel destinations of the world". AzerNews.az. 2018-01-04. Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  27. ^ Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on free economic zones, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2010-11-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) (in Russian)
  28. ^ Decree on creating free economic zones "Panj" and "Sughd", "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-14. Retrieved 2010-11-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) (in Russian)
  29. ^ "WTO - Tajikistan - Member information". Wto.org. Retrieved 2 October 2018.

External links

Constitution of Tajikistan

The Constitution of Tajikistan (Tajik: Конститутсияи Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон) was adopted on 6 November 1994 and amended two times, in September 26, 1999 and June 22, 2003. The Constitution has the highest legal power, direct application (Article 10) and supremacy on the whole territory of Tajikistan. The Constitution proclaims the establishment of a democratic, legal, secular and unitary State (Article 1), where the State power is based on the principle of separation of powers (Article 9). As the fundamental law of the State, the Constitution defines the structure of the government, basic rights, liberties and responsibilities of its citizens, as well as the powers of the legislative, executive and judicial branches.

The bicameral Supreme Assembly (the parliament) adopts constitutional laws (Article 61), laws (Article 60) and resolutions (Articles 56-57), while the President adopts decrees and orders (Article 70) and the Cabinet of Ministers (the highest body of the executive branch) adopts resolutions and orders (Article 74).

Corruption in Tajikistan

Corruption in Tajikistan is a widespread phenomenon that is found in all spheres of Tajik society. The situation is essentially similar to that in the other former Soviet republics of Central Asia. Reliable specifics about corruption can be difficult to come by, however, as can hard information about the effectiveness of supposed anti-corruption initiatives.Corruption, according to a 2015 article in The Diplomat, is present in every aspect of Tajikistan's culture. Examples include students paying bribes for better grades, bribes for the release of prisoners, and “smugglers tipping border guards to look the other way” as well as many others. Freedom House said much the same thing in 2016, calling corruption a problem affecting every aspect of Tajik society.According to Transparency International, citizens of Tajikistan consider government bureaucrats and services to be the most corrupt institutions, with police, customs, and tax-collection authorities at the top of the list, followed by college and hospital administrators. In a 2010 survey, Tajikistanis said they were most likely to be confronted with bribery during dealings with the traffic police (53.6%), followed closely by land purchases (53.3%) and dealings with universities (45.4%). Almost two-thirds believed that the level of corruption in the country was high and unlikely to change soon; about half thought that most officials take bribes; and about half viewed corruption negatively.Transparency International's 2017 Corruption Perception Index ranks the country 161st place out of 180 countries

Economic Cooperation Organization

The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1984 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey. It provides a platform to discuss ways to improve development and promote trade and investment opportunities. The ECO is an ad hoc organisation under the United Nations Charter. The objective is to establish a single market for goods and services, much like the European Union. The ECO's secretariat and cultural department are located in Iran, its economic bureau is in Turkey and its scientific bureau is situated in Pakistan.

The nature of the ECO is that it consists of predominantly Muslim-majority states as it is a trade bloc for the Central Asian states connected to the Mediterranean through Turkey, to the Persian Gulf via Iran, and to the Arabian sea via Pakistan. The current framework of the ECO expresses itself mostly in the form of bilateral agreements and arbitration mechanisms between individual and fully sovereign member states. This makes the ECO similar to ASEAN in that it is an organisation that has its own offices and bureaucracy for implementation of trade amongst sovereign member states.

This consists of the historically integrated agricultural region of the Ferghana Valley which allows for trade and common agricultural production in the border region of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Free trade agreements between the industrial nations of Iran and Turkey are due to be signed in 2017. Likewise the Pakistan-Turkey Free Trade Agreement is due to be signed. Pakistan has free trade agreements with both Afghanistan and Iran which are signed and are in the process of implementation, and currently most of Afghanistan trade is through Pakistan. And the Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement is designed to facilitate trade for goods and services for Central Asia via both Afghanistan and Pakistan. This is in addition to the Ashgabat agreement which is a multi-modal transport agreement between the Central Asian states.Further cooperation amongst members is planned in the form of the Iran–Pakistan gas pipeline, as well as a Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan pipeline. Current pipelines include the Tabriz–Ankara pipeline in addition to the planned Persian Pipeline. This is in addition to the transportation of oil and gas from resource rich Central Asian states such as Kazakshtan and Turkmenistan of minerals and agriculture that complements the industrialisation underway in Iran, Pakistan and Turkey. Pakistan plans to diversify its source of oil and gas supplies towards the Central Asian states including petroleum import contracts with Azerbaijan.

Economic Cooperation Organization Trade Agreement

The Economic Cooperation Organization Free Trade Agreement or ECOTA was an agreement reached on 17 July 2003 at the ECO summit in Islamabad whereby a free trade region was formed between the countries of Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. As of 2008, the ECOTA is in effect.

Flag of Tajikistan

The national flag of Tajikistan (Tajik: Парчами Тоҷикистон / Parcami Toçikiston, Persian: پرچم تاجیکستان‎) was adopted in November 1992, replacing the flag of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic of 1953. The flag of Tajikistan is a horizontal tricolor of red, white and green with a width ratio of 2:3:2, charged with a crown surmounted by an arc of seven stars at the centre.Tajikistan's flag uses a similar color scheme to the flag of Iran as the Tajik people are ethno-linguistically Iranian. These colors have been officially used to represent Iranian peoples since the 19th century. The tricolor preserves the choice of colors in the former Tajik Soviet flag, as well as the 1:2 proportions.

The flag day is celebrated on November 24, which is the day it was officially adopted.

Geography of Tajikistan

Tajikistan is nestled between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan to the north and west, China to the east, and Afghanistan to the south. Mountains cover 93 percent of Tajikistan's surface area. The two principal ranges, the Pamir Mountains and the Alay Mountains, give rise to many glacier-fed streams and rivers, which have been used to irrigate farmlands since ancient times. Central Asia's other major mountain range, the Tian Shan, skirts northern Tajikistan. Mountainous terrain separates Tajikistan's two population centers, which are in the lowlands of the southern (Panj River) and northern (Fergana Valley) sections of the country. Especially in areas of intensive agricultural and industrial activity, the Soviet Union's natural resource utilization policies left independent Tajikistan with a legacy of environmental problems.

List of banks in Tajikistan

This is a list of banks in Tajikistan. In addition to the central bank, there are 17 licensed commercial banks as of September 30, 2018, including branches of foreign banks. Other deposit-taking and credit extending institutions in the country consist of 25 microcredit deposit organizations, 6 microcredit organizations and 31 microcredit funds.

List of regions of Tajikistan by Human Development Index

This is a list of Tajik regions and the capital city of Dushanbe by Human Development Index as of 2018 with data for the year 2017.

Mining in Tajikistan

Tajikistan has rich deposits of gold, silver, and antimony. The largest silver deposits are in Sughd Province, where Tajikistan’s largest gold mining operation also is located. Russia’s Norilsk nickel company has explored a large new silver deposit at Bolshoy Kanimansur. More than 400 mineral deposits of some 70 different minerals have been discovered in Tajikistan, including strontium, tungsten, molybdenum, bismuth, salt, lead, zinc, fluorspar, and mercury. These minerals have been found suitable for mining. Uranium, an important mineral in the Soviet era, remains in some quantity but is no longer extracted. The Tajikistan Aluminium Company (TALCO), an aluminium smelter, is the country's only large-scale production enterprise in the mining sector. Tajikistan hosts the annual Mining World Tajikistan, an international exhibition on mining in Dushanbe.

National Bank of Tajikistan

The National Bank of Tajikistan (Tajik: Бонки миллии Тоҷикистон) is the central bank of Tajikistan.

The Bank is engaged in developing policies to promote financial inclusion and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion. Deposits in the National Bank of Tajikistan during the first half of 2013 were $1.09 million, an increase of more than 17% compared to the same period in 2012.

Outline of Tajikistan

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tajikistan:

Tajikistan – mountainous, landlocked, sovereign country located in Central Asia. Tajikistan borders Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Tajik ethnic group, who share culture and history with the Persian peoples and speak the Tajik language, a modern variety of Persian. Once part of the Samanid Empire, Tajikistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in the 20th century, known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR).

After independence, Tajikistan suffered from a devastating civil war which lasted from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Its natural resources such as cotton and aluminium have contributed greatly to this steady improvement, although observers have characterized the country as having few natural resources besides hydroelectric power and its strategic location.

Panj Free Economic Zone

Panj Free Economic Zone is a free economic zone in Khatlon Province in Tajikistan.

Sughd Free Economic Zone

Sughd free economic zone (Sughd FEZ) is an industrial-innovative type, which was established in 2009 according to the Decree of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan dated May 2, 2008.

Sughd FEZ is located on the Southwest Industrial Area of Khujand with a total area of 320 hectares. Geological and geodetic surveys were made in this area as well as the design work was carried out. In this part of the city there is a possibility to expand the territory of Sughd FEZ for up to 2,000 hectares of land at the expense of free space in the future.

Choosing a location Sughd FEZ was due to the presence of the industrial and communications infrastructure in this area relatively close proximity of residential areas of Khujand city, the presence of new bridge over Syr-Darya River, and construction of a branch railway to Sughd FEZ in the future.

One of the most important criteria in choosing a site to start a business is the geographical location. Sughd FEZ provides with a favorable site for export-oriented enterprises. Developed transport network system of Khujand provides with a wide range of opportunities for export and trade with near- and far abroad countries.

Tajik National University

Tajik National University (Tajik: Донишгоҳи Миллии Тоҷикистон, Russian: Таджикский Национальный Университет) is the first and largest prestigious university in Tajikistan with a total of 23 thousand students trained per year on 17 to 56 special faculty (15% in absentia).

TNU was formed in 21 March 1947 and the head office of the university is located in the capital city of Tajikistan, Dushanbe Rudaki Avenue near Vatan cinema.

Tajik National University prepares a very extensive human resources for sectors of the economy of Tajikistan, from journalists to ordinary finance professionals and managers. In TNU studied such famous leaders of the country and as the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon and former chairman of the National Bank of Tajikistan Murodali Alimardon.

University at itself in the submission as a publishing, research library, botanical garden, hostel, military chair and high school, including 114 departments (107 special departments). For the industrial and practical training of students in the establishment of functioning of educational and production bases: Takob, Ziddi and Javoni.

The University has 154 doctors, professors and 509 candidates of sciences. The Tajik National University are 8 dissertation councils for 10 areas on which every year are protected around 100 master’s and doctoral theses.

Tuition at the Tajik National University for legal and economic fields ranges from US$2,000 to US$2,800. This is among the highest tuition costs in Tajikistan.

Tajik language

Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī [zaˈbɔni tɔdʒiˈki]), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī, [fɔrˈsiji tɔdʒiˈki]), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and it is closely related to Dari Persian. Since the beginning of the twentieth century and independence of Tajikistan from Soviet Union, Tajik has been considered by a number of writers and researchers to be a variety of Persian (Halimov 1974: 30–31, Oafforov 1979: 33). The popularity of this conception of Tajik as a variety of Persian was such that, during the period in which Tajik intellectuals were trying to establish Tajik as a language separate from Persian language, Sadriddin Ayni, who was a prominent intellectual and educator, made a statement that Tajik was not a bastardized dialect of Persian. The issue of whether Tajik and Persian are to be considered two dialects of a single language or two discrete languages has political sides to it (see Perry 1996).Tajik is the official language of Tajikistan. In Afghanistan (where the Tajik people minority forms the principal part of the wider Persophone population), this language is less influenced by Turkic languages, is regarded as a form of Dari, and as such has co-official language status. The Tajik of Tajikistan has diverged from Persian as spoken in Afghanistan and Iran due to political borders, geographical isolation, the standardization process, and the influence of Russian and neighboring Turkic languages. The standard language is based on the northwestern dialects of Tajik (region of old major city of Samarqand), which have been somewhat influenced by the neighboring Uzbek language as a result of geographical proximity. Tajik also retains numerous archaic elements in its vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar that have been lost elsewhere in the Persophone world, in part due to its relative isolation in the mountains of Central Asia.

Tajikistani ruble

The rouble or ruble (Tajik: рубл) was the currency of Tajikistan between May 10, 1995 and October 29, 2000. It was subdivided into 100 tanga, although no coins or banknotes were issued denominated in tanga.

Tajikistani samani

The Samani (Tajik: cомонӣ, Persian: سامانی/ Samani‎, ISO 4217 code: TJS) is the currency of Tajikistan. It is subdivided into 100 diram (Tajik: дирам). The currency is named after the father of the Tajik nation, Ismail Samani (also spelled Ismoil Somoni).

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