The national economy of Taiwan (officially known as Republic of China), is the 7th largest economy in Asia, and is included in the advanced economies group  by the International Monetary Fund and gauged in the high-income economies group by the World Bank, and ranked 15th  in the world by the Global Competitiveness Report of World Economic Forum, has a developed capitalist economy that ranks as the 22nd-largest in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP), ranks as 18th in the world by gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity per capita (person), and 24th in nominal GDP of investment and foreign trade by the Republic of China (Taiwan) government, commonly referred to as Taiwan. As of 2018, telecommunication, financial services and utility services are three highest individuals paid sectors in Taiwan. The economy of Taiwan ranks the highest in Asia for 2015 Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEI) for specific strengths. Most large government-owned banks and industrial firms have been privatized, and now family owned businesses are the streamlined economic factors in Taiwan. With the technocracy-centered economic planning  under martial law until 1987, real growth in GDP has averaged about 8% during the past three decades. Exports have grown even faster and since World War II, have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. Inflation and unemployment are low; the trade surplus is substantial; and foreign reserves are the world's fourth largest. Agriculture contributes 3% to GDP, down from 35% in 1952, and the service sector makes up 73% of the economy. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being moved off-shore and replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive industries in the pre-mature stage of the manufacturing industry in the global economic competitions on labor cost (key performance indicator), automation (industry 4.0), product design realization (prototype), technology commercialization (innovation with knowledge/practical stickiness), scientific materialization (patent), scientific discovery (scientific findings from empirical scientific method), and growing from the over-reliance from the original equipment manufacturer and original design manufacturer models, in which there is no single University from Taiwan entering Reuter's Global Top Innovative 100 University ranking, and the economy of Taiwan may need international collaboration on University, Research and Industrial cooperation on spin-off opportunities. Economy of Taiwan is an indispensable partner in the Global Value Chains of Electronics Industry. Electronic components and personal computer are two areas of international strength of Taiwan's Information Technology industry, which means the economy of Taiwan has the competitive edge on having the learning curve from advanced foreign technologies with lower cost to be produced and sold abroad. Institute for Information Industry  with its international recognitions  is responsible for the development of IT industry and ICT industry in Taiwan. Industrial Technology Research Institute  with its global partners  is the advanced research center for applied technology for the economy of Taiwan. Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics  and Ministry of Economic Affairs  release major economic indicators of the economy of Taiwan. Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research provides economic forecast at the forefront for the economy of Taiwan  and authoritatively researches on the bilateral economic relations with ASEAN by The Taiwan ASEAN Studies Center (TASC). Taiwan Stock Exchange is the host to the listed companies of local industries in Taiwan with weighted financial exposures to the FTSE Taiwan Index and MSCI Taiwan Index.
International Trade is officially assisted by Taiwan External Trade Development Council. Taiwanese investors and businesses have become major investors in mainland China, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Malaysia. Because of the conservative and stable financial policy  by the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the entrepreneurial strengths, Taiwan suffered little from the financial crisis of 1997-1999 compared to many economies in the region. Two major banks in Taiwan are Bank of Taiwan and Mega International Commercial Bank, but financial industry is not the major international industry in Taiwan. Unlike the neighboring Japan and South Korea, small and medium-sized businesses make up a significant proportion of the businesses in Taiwan. Taiwan is characterized as one of the Newly industrialized economy in the wake of the Ten Major Construction Projects since 1970's. Since 1990's, the economy of Taiwan has adopted economic liberalization with the successive regulatory reforms. London Metal Exchange, the largest metal stock exchange in the world, approved Kaohsiung, Taiwan as a good delivery point for primary aluminium, aluminium alloy, copper, lead, nickel, tin and zinc and as the LME’s ninth location in Asia on 17 June 2013, for future contracts on metals and industrial production of the global integration of the economy of Taiwan. The economy of Taiwan has the world's highest modern convenience store concentration density. The Indirect tax system of the economy of Taiwan comprises Gross Business Receipts Tax (GBRT) (Gross receipts tax) and Value-added tax. The economy of Taiwan is ranked 15th overall in the Global Top 20 Top Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014) by the MasterCard 2014 Global Destination Cities Index. Bubble Tea originated in Taiwan.
Taiwan is a member of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). Taiwan is also an observer  at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) under the name of "Chinese Taipei", and a member of International Chamber of Commerce as "Chinese Taipei". Taiwan signed Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement with People's Republic of China on 29 June 2010. Taiwan also signed free trade pact with Singapore and New Zealand. Taiwan is seeking to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership no later than 2020 if economic requirements are met. The economy of Taiwan also applied for the membership in the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in 2015. Taiwan's top five trade partners in 2010 are China, Japan, USA, the European Union, and Hong Kong.
The economy of Taiwan, compared with other major economies in the region, is "at a crossroads", and facing economic marginalization in the world economy, in addition to de-internationalization, low-paid salary to employees and uncertain outlook for personal promotion of staff, which results in human resource talents seeking career opportunities elsewhere in the Asia-Pacific region, and businesses in Taiwan suffer most from being the size of small and medium enterprises only with weaker-than-expected revenue of its hectic business operation for any consideration of further expansion, and overall impedes any attempts at economic transformation of Taiwan from the Taiwanese government. The World Trade Organization has also reviewed Chinese Taipei's economic outlook in 2010. The international industrial forecast of semiconductor manufacturing, which is the flagship industry of the economy of Taiwan, that faces immense competition ahead with its American counterparts. To conclude, facing the Market failure from Externality, the Taiwan government needs well-thought industrial policy urgently to adapt to the new economic landscape, and as an island economy with lack of natural resources and comparatively lower domestic aggregate demand, Taiwan's highly educated human resources  would contribute greatly to Value added Innovation management for expanding Taiwan's international trade.
|Economy of Taiwan|
|Currency||New Taiwan dollar|
1 NT$ = 0.032 USD
|WTO, APEC, ICC and others|
(as Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu)
|GDP||$1.250 trillion (PPP, 2018) $602.67 billion (Nominal, 2018)|
|0.8% (2015) 1.4% (2016) 2.9% (2017) 2.7% (2018f)|
GDP per capita
|$52,960 (PPP, 2018) $25,534 (nominal, 2018)|
GDP per capita rank
|19th (PPP, 2017) 34th (nominal, 2018)|
GDP by sector
|1.06% (2007–2017 average)|
Population below poverty line
|1.5% (2012 est.)|
|11.54 million (2014 est.)|
Labor force by occupation
|agriculture (5%), industry (36.1%), services (58.9%) (2014 est.)|
|Unemployment||4% (2014 est.)|
|Electronics, communications and information technology products, petroleum refining, armaments, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing, vehicles, consumer products, pharmaceuticals|
Agricultural: Rice, corn, vegetables, fruit, tea; pigs, poultry, beef, milk; fish
|Exports||$318 billion (2014 est.)|
|Electronics, flat panels, ships, petrochemicals, machinery; metals; textiles, plastics and chemicals (2014)|
Main export partners
| Mainland China 26.3%|
Hong Kong 13.7%
United States 12%
European Union 8.8% (2016 est.)
|Imports||$277.5 billion (2014 est.)|
|Electronics, machinery, crude petroleum, computers, coal, organic chemicals, metals (2014)|
Main import partners
| Mainland China 19.1%|
United States 12.5%
European Union 10.6%
South Korea 6.3% (2016 est.)
|$64.2 billion (at home; 31 December 2011 est.); $213.1 billion (abroad; 31 December 2011 est.)|
Gross external debt
|$146.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)|
|Revenues||$78.25 billion (2011 est.)|
|Expenses||$88.66 billion (2011 est.)|
|Standard & Poor's:|
AA+ (T&C Assessment)
Taiwan has transformed itself from a recipient of U.S. aid in the 1950s and early 1960s to an aid donor and major foreign investor, with investments primarily centered in Asia. Private Taiwanese investment in mainland China is estimated to total in excess of US$150 billion, and official tallies cite Taiwan as having invested a comparable amount in Southeast Asia.
Taiwan has historically benefited from the flight of many well-educated, wealthy Chinese to settle on the island: during early Qing Dynasty, the preceding Ming dynasty supporters survived for a brief period of time in exile in Taiwan, and in 1949, as the Chinese Communist Party gained control of mainland China, two million Kuomintang (KMT) supporters fled to the island.
The first step towards industrialization was land reforms, a crucial step in modernizing the economy, as it created a class of landowners with capital they can invest in future economic endeavors. US aid was also important to stabilize post-war Taiwan, and it constituted more than 30 percent of domestic investment from 1951 to 1962. These factors, together with government planning and universal education, brought huge advancement in industry and agriculture, and living standards. The economy shifted from an agriculture-based economy (32% of GDP in 1952) to an industry-oriented economy (47% of GDP in 1986). Between 1952 and 1961, the economy grew by an average of 9.21% each year.
Once again, the transformation of Taiwan's economy cannot be understood without reference to the larger geopolitical framework. Although aid was cut back in the 1970s, it was crucial in the formative years, spurring industrialization and security and economic links were maintained. Uncertainty about the US commitment accelerated the country’s shift from subsidized import-substitution in the 1950s to export-led growth. Development of foreign trade and exports helped absorb excess labor from the decreased importance of agriculture in the economy. Like Korea, Taiwan moved from cheap, labor-intensive manufactures, such as textiles and toys, into an expansion of heavy industry and infrastructure in the 1970s, and then to advanced electronics in the subsequent decade. By the 1980s, the economy was becoming increasingly open and the government moved towards privatization of government enterprises. Technological development led to the establishment of the Hsinchu Science Park in 1981. Investments in mainland China spurred cross-strait trade, decreasing Taiwan's dependence on the United States market. From 1981–1995, the economy grew at an annual rate of 7.52%, and the service sector became the largest sector at 51.67%, surpassing the industrial sector and becoming a major source of the economy's growth.
The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017. Inflation below 2 % is in green.
(in Bil. US$ PPP)
|GDP per capita
(in US$ PPP)
(in % of GDP)
|1980||61.9||3,463||8.0 %||19.0 %||1.2 %||n/a|
|1981||72.5||3,983||7.1 %||16.3 %||1.4 %||n/a|
|1982||80.6||4,356||4.8 %||3.0 %||2.1 %||n/a|
|1983||91.4||4,864||9.0 %||1.4 %||2.7 %||n/a|
|1984||104.2||5,463||10.0 %||0.0 %||2.5 %||n/a|
|1985||112.7||5,834||4.8 %||−0.2 %||2.9 %||n/a|
|1986||128.2||6,570||11.5 %||0.7 %||2.7 %||n/a|
|1987||148.1||7,511||12.7 %||0.5 %||2.0 %||n/a|
|1988||165.6||8,300||8.0 %||1.3 %||1.7 %||n/a|
|1989||187.1||9,283||8.7 %||4.4 %||1.6 %||n/a|
|1990||205.0||10,048||5.6 %||4.1 %||1.7 %||n/a|
|1991||229.5||11,139||8.4 %||3.6 %||1.5 %||n/a|
|1992||254.2||12,221||8.3 %||4.5 %||1.5 %||n/a|
|1993||278.0||13,240||6.8 %||2.9 %||1.5 %||n/a|
|1994||305.2||14,410||7.5 %||4.1 %||1.6 %||n/a|
|1995||331.8||15,535||6.5 %||3.7 %||1.8 %||n/a|
|1996||358.7||16,664||6.2 %||3.1 %||2.6 %||n/a|
|1997||387.2||17,806||6.1 %||0.9 %||2.7 %||24.9 %|
|1998||407.5||18,598||4.2 %||1.7 %||2.7 %||23.6 %|
|1999||441.9||20,002||6.7 %||0.2 %||2.9 %||23.7 %|
|2000||481.0||21,590||6.4 %||1.2 %||3.0 %||26.2 %|
|2001||485.7||21,679||−1.3 %||0.0 %||4.6 %||30.0 %|
|2002||520.7||23,119||5.6 %||−0.2 %||5.2 %||29.6 %|
|2003||552.9||24,462||4.1 %||−0.3 %||5.0 %||32.0 %|
|2004||605.1||26,670||6.5 %||1.6 %||4.4 %||33.3 %|
|2005||658.4||28,915||5.4 %||2.3 %||4.1 %||33.9 %|
|2006||716.8||31,333||5.6 %||0.6 %||3.9 %||33.1 %|
|2007||783.8||34,141||6.5 %||1.8 %||3.9 %||32.1 %|
|2008||804.8||34,936||0.7 %||3.5 %||4.1 %||33.3 %|
|2009||798.2||34,526||−1.6 %||−0.3 %||5.9 %||36.6 %|
|2010||893.9||38,593||10.6 %||1.0 %||5.2 %||36.7 %|
|2011||947.1||40,777||3.8 %||1.4 %||4.4 %||38.2 %|
|2012||984.4||42,220||2.1 %||1.9 %||4.2 %||39.2 %|
|2013||1,022.3||43,739||2.2 %||0.8 %||4.2 %||39.0 %|
|2014||1,082.5||46,195||4.0 %||1.2 %||4.0 %||37.8 %|
|2015||1,103.1||46,956||0.8 %||−0.3 %||3.8 %||36.6 %|
|2016||1,132.9||48,128||1.4 %||1.4 %||3.9 %||36.2 %|
|2017||1,185.5||50,294||2.8 %||0.6 %||3.8 %||35.2 %|
|-||Taipei-Keelung metropolitan area||830,788||25,754||54,982|
|-||Taipei-Keelung-Taoyuan metropolitan area||807,860||25,044||53,465|
Taiwan now faces many of the same economic issues as other developed economies. With the prospect of continued relocation of labor-intensive industries to economies with cheaper work forces, such as in mainland China and Vietnam, Taiwan's future development will have to rely on further transformation to a high technology and service-oriented economy. In recent years, Taiwan has successfully diversified its trade markets, cutting its share of exports to the United States from 49% in 1984 to 20% in 2002. Taiwan's dependence on the United States should continue to decrease as its exports to Southeast Asia and mainland China grow and its efforts to develop European markets produce results. Taiwan's accession to the WTO and its desire to become an Asia-Pacific "regional operations center" are spurring further economic liberalization.
Taiwan has recovered quickly from the global financial crisis of 2007–2010, and its economy has been growing steadily. Its economy faced a downturn in 2009 due to a heavy reliance on exports which in turn made it vulnerable to world markets. Unemployment reached levels not seen since 2003, and the economy fell 8.36% in the fourth quarter of 2008. In response, the government launched a US$5.6 billion economic stimulus package (3% of its GDP), provided financial incentives for businesses, and introduced tax breaks. The stimulus package focused on infrastructure development, small and medium-sized businesses, tax breaks for new investments, and low-income households. Boosting shipments to new overseas markets, such as Russia, Brazil, and the Middle East was also a main goal of the stimulus. The economy has since slowly recovered; by November 2010, Taiwan's unemployment rate had fallen to a two-year low of 4.73%, and continued dropping to a 40-month low of 4.18% by the end of 2011. The average salary has also been rising steadily for each month in 2010, up 1.92% from the same period in 2009. Industrial output for November 2010 reached another high, up 19.37% from a year earlier, indicating strong exports and a growing local economy. Private consumption is also increasing, with retail sales up 6.4% compared to 2009. After 10.5% economic growth in 2010, the World Bank expected growth to continue and reach 5% for 2011.
Foreign trade has been the engine of Taiwan's rapid growth during the past 40 years. Taiwan's economy remains export-oriented, thus it depends on an open world trade regime and remains vulnerable to downturns in the world economy. The total value of trade increased over fivefold in the 1960s, nearly tenfold in the 1970s, and doubled again in the 1980s. The 1990s saw a more modest, slightly less than twofold, growth. Export composition changed from predominantly agricultural commodities to industrial goods (now 98%). The electronics sector is Taiwan's most important industrial export sector and is the largest recipient of United States investment.
Taiwan, as an independent economy, became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (often shortened to "Chinese Taipei"-both names resulting from PRC interference on the WTO) in January 2002. In a 2011 report by Business Environment Risk Intelligence (BERI), Taiwan ranked third-best globally for its investment environment.
Taiwan is the world's largest supplier of contract computer chip manufacturing (foundry services) and is a leading LCD panel manufacturer, DRAM computer memory, networking equipment, and consumer electronics designer and manufacturer. Major hardware companies include Acer, Asus, HTC, Foxconn, TSMC and Pegatron. Textiles are another major industrial export sector, though of declining importance due to labor shortages, increasing overhead costs, land prices, and environmental protection.
Imports are dominated by raw materials and capital goods, which account for more than 90% of the total. Taiwan imports most of its energy needs. The United States is Taiwan's third largest trading partner, taking 11.4% of Taiwanese exports and supplying 10.0% of its imports. Mainland China has recently become Taiwan's largest import and export partner. In 2010, the mainland accounted for 28.0% of Taiwan's exports and 13.2% of imports. This figure is growing rapidly as both economies become ever more interdependent. Imports from mainland China consist mostly of agricultural and industrial raw materials. Exports to the United States are mainly electronics and consumer goods. As Taiwanese per capita income level has risen, demand for imported, high-quality consumer goods has increased. Taiwan's 2002 trade surplus with the United States was $8.70 billion.
The lack of formal diplomatic relations between the Republic of China (Taiwan) with Taiwan's trading partners appears not to have seriously hindered Taiwan's rapidly expanding commerce. The Republic of China maintains cultural and trade offices in more than 60 countries with which it does not have official relations to represent Taiwanese interest. In addition to the WTO, Taiwan is a member of the Asian Development Bank as "Taipei, China" (a name resulting from PRC influence on the bank) and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum as "Chinese Taipei" (for the same reason as above). These developments reflect Taiwan's economic importance and its desire to become further integrated into the global economy.
The Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) with the People's Republic of China was signed on 29 June 2010, in Chongqing. It could potentially widen the market for Taiwan's exports. However, the true benefits and impacts brought by ECFA to Taiwan's overall economy are still in dispute. The newly signed agreement will allow for more than 500 products made in Taiwan to enter mainland China at low or no tariffs. The government is also looking to establish trade agreements with Singapore and the United States.
Industrial output has gradually decreased from accounting for over half of Taiwan's GDP in 1986 to just 31% in 2002. Industries have gradually moved to capital and technology-intensive industries from more labor-intensive industries, with electronics and information technology accounting for 35% of the industrial structure. Industry in Taiwan primarily consists of many small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) with fewer large enterprises.
Taiwan's information technology industry has played an important role in the worldwide IT market over the last 20 years. In 1960, the electronics industry in Taiwan was virtually nonexistent. However, with the government's focus on development of expertise with high technology, along with marketing and management knowledge to establish its own industries, companies such as TSMC and UMC were established. The industry used its industrial resources and product management experience to cooperate closely with major international suppliers to become the research and development hub of the Asia-Pacific region. The structure of the industry in Taiwan includes a handful of companies at the top along with many small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) which account for 85% of industrial output. These SMEs usually produce products on an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or original design manufacturer (ODM) basis, resulting in less resources spent on research and development. Due to the emphasis of the OEM/ODM model, companies are usually unable to make in-depth assessments for investment, production, and marketing of new products, instead relying upon importation of key components and advanced technology from the United States and Japan. Twenty of the top information and communication technology (ICT) companies have International Procurement Offices set up in Taiwan. As a signer of the Information Technology Agreement, Taiwan phased out tariffs on IT products since 1 January 2002.
The "e-Taiwan" project launched by the government seeks to use US$1.83 billion to improve the information and communications infrastructure in Taiwan in five major areas: government, life, business, transport, and broadband. The program seeks to raise industry competitiveness, improve government efficiency, and improve the quality of life, and aims to increase the number of broadband users on the island to 6 million. In 2010, Taiwan's software market grew by 7.1% to reach a value of US$4 billion, accounting for 3.3% of the Asia-Pacific region market value. The digital content production industry grew by 15% in 2009, reaching US$14.03 billion. The optoelectronics industry (including flat panel displays and photovoltaics) totaled NT$2.2 trillion in 2010, a 40% jump from 2009, representing a fifth of the global market share.
The semiconductor industry, including IC manufacturing, design, and packing, forms a major part of Taiwan's IT industry. Due to its strong capabilities in OEM wafer manufacturing and a complete industry supply chain, Taiwan has been able to distinguish itself from its competitors. The sector output reached US$39 billion in 2009, ranking first in global market share in IC manufacturing, packaging, and testing, and second in IC design. Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) and United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC) are the two largest contract chipmakers in the world, while MediaTek is the fourth-largest fabless supplier globally. In 1987, TSMC pioneered the fabless foundry model, reshaping the global semiconductor industry. From ITRI's first 3-inch wafer fabrication plant built in 1977 and the founding of UMC in 1980, the industry has developed into a world leader with 40 fabs in operation by 2002. In 2007, the semiconductor industry overtook that of the United States, second only to Japan. Although the global financial crisis from 2007 to 2010 affected sales and exports, the industry has rebounded with companies posting record profits for 2010. Taiwan has the largest share of 300 nm, 90 nm, and 60 nm manufacturing capacities worldwide, and was expected to pass Japan in total IC fab capacity by mid-2011.
Agriculture has served as a strong foundation for Taiwan's economic miracle. After retrocession from Japan in 1945, the government announced a long-term strategy of "developing industry through agriculture, and developing agriculture through industry". As such, agriculture became the foundation for Taiwan's economic development during early years and served as an anchor for growth in industry and commerce. Where as in 1951 agricultural production accounted for 35.8% of Taiwan's GDP, by 2013 it had been vastly surpassed and its NT$475.90 billion accounted for only 1.69% of the GDP. As of 2013, Taiwan's agriculture was a mixture of crops (47.88%), livestock (31.16%), fishery (20.87%) and forestry (0.09%). Since its accession into the World Trade Organization and the subsequent trade liberalization, the government has implemented new policies to develop the sector into a more competitive and modernized green industry.
Although only about one-quarter of Taiwan's land area is suitable for farming, virtually all farmland is intensely cultivated, with some areas suitable for two and even three crops a year. However, increases in agricultural production have been much slower than industrial growth. Agricultural modernization has been inhibited by the small size of farms and the lack of investment in better facilities and training to develop more profitable businesses. Taiwan's agricultural population has steadily decreased from 1974 to 2002, prompting the Council of Agriculture to introduce modern farm management, provide technical training, and offer counseling for better production and distribution systems. Promotion of farm mechanization has helped to alleviate labor shortages while increasing productivity; both rice and sugar cane production are completely mechanized. Taiwan's main crops are rice, sugar cane, fruits (many of them tropical), and vegetables. Although self-sufficient in rice production, Taiwan imports large amounts of wheat, mostly from the United States. Meat production and consumption has risen sharply, reflecting a high standard of living. Taiwan has exported large amounts of frozen pork, although this was affected by an outbreak of hoof and mouth disease in 1997. Other agricultural exports include fish, aquaculture and sea products, canned and frozen vegetables, and grain products. Imports of agriculture products are expected to increase due to the WTO accession, which is opening previously protected agricultural markets.
Due to the lack of natural resources on the island, Taiwan is forced to import many of its energy needs (currently at 98%). Imported energy totaled US$11.52 billion in 2002, accounting for 4.1% of its GDP. Although the industrial sector has traditionally been Taiwan's largest energy consumer, its share has dropped in recent years from 62% in 1986 to 58% in 2002. Taiwan's energy consumption is dominated by crude oil & petroleum products (48.52%), followed by coal (29.2%), natural gas (12.23%), nuclear power (8.33%), and hydroelectric power (0.28%). The island is also heavily dependent on imported oil, with 72% of its crude oil coming from the Middle East in 2002. Although the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), state-owned enterprise, is in charge of providing electricity for the Taiwan area, a 1994 measure has allowed independent power producers (IPPs) to provide up to 20% of the island's energy needs. Indonesia and Malaysia supply most of Taiwan's natural gas needs. It currently has three operational nuclear power plants. A fourth plant under construction was mothballed in 2014.
Although Taiwan's per capita energy use is on par with neighboring Asian countries, in July 2005 the Ministry of Economic Affairs announced plans to cut 170 million-tons of carbon dioxide emissions by 2025. In 2010, carbon dioxide emissions have been reduced by 5.14 million metric tons. In order to further reduce emissions, the government also plans to increase energy efficiency by 2% each year through 2020. In addition, by 2015 emissions are planned to be reduced by 7% compared to 2005 levels.
Taiwan is the world's 4th largest producer of solar-powered batteries and largest LED manufacturer by volume. In 2010, Taiwan had over 1.66 million square meters of solar heat collectors installed, with an installation density that ranks it as third in the world. The government has already built 155 sets of wind turbines capable of producing 281.6 MW of energy, and additional projects are planned or under construction. Renewable energy accounts for 6.8% of Taiwan's energy usage as of 2010. In 2010, the green energy sector generated US$10.97 billion in production value. The government also announced plans to invest US$838 million for renewable energy promotion and an additional US$635 million for research and development.
The Labor Union Laws, legislated by the Kuomintang (KMT) on the mainland, gave Taiwan workers the right to unionize. However, prior to the democratization of Taiwan, the functions of unions were limited under strict regulation and state corporatism. Under the Labor Union Laws, workers were only allowed to be organized at the companies, which means industry level unions were forbidden. Also, only one union can exist within each company or geographical area. Special occupational groups such as teachers were not allowed to unionize. The right to strike and collective bargaining were also hamstrung by law. The Collective Bargaining Agreement in 1930 stipulated that collective bargains were not legally valid without government approval. The democratization in 1986 brought dramatic changes to union participation and policies. Between 1986 and 1992, unionized workers increased by 13%. A number of autonomous, non-official trade unions emerged, including the Taiwan Confederation of Trade Unions (TCTU) which acquired legal recognition in 2000. The amendments to the Labor Union Laws and Collective Bargaining Agreement both became effective in the early 21st century. The amended Labor Union Law lifted the limitations on special occupational groups from collective representation. The Collective Bargaining Agreement Act in 2008 guaranteed trade unions the power to negotiate with employers.
Taiwan's labor rights and employment protections increased with its democratization progress in the 1980s, and it still has relatively high level of employment protection comparing to other East Asia countries. Implemented in August 1984, Labor Standards Law was the first comprehensive employment protection law for Taiwan workers. Prior to the its implementation, the Factory Act was the primary law governing labor affairs, but was ineffective in practice because of its narrow coverage of businesses and issues and absence of penalties for violation. In contrast, Labor Standards Law covered a broader range of businesses and labor affairs, and detailed penalties for its violation. It regulated a period of notice before firing employees, and also required a higher level of severance payment. Other labor issues were also regulated by the law, including contract, wage, overtime payment, compensations for occupational accidents, etc. Penalties for employer violation were also clear in the law, stating fines and criminal liabilities. Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) was set up on 1 August 1987 to help with labor inspection and the enforcement of the Labor Standards Law.
Active labor market policies were carried out in Taiwan in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, as a result of economic structural changes caused by globalization and deindustrialization. Unemployment increased and reached approximately 5% in 2002 and 2009. A set of policies were adopted to help the unemployed and provide jobs. The Employment Insurance Act in 2002 grants income security during unemployment, but at the same time requires beneficiaries to use all available resources to find jobs. The Multi-Faceted Job Creation Program, first introduced in 1999, creates job in the third sector groups, especially in nonprofit organizations. It subsidizes those companies to provide vocational trainings and job opportunities. The Public Sector Temporary Employment Creation Program directly addressed the 2008 financial crisis. Unlike the Multi-Faceted Job Creation Programs, the Public Sector Temporary Employment Creation Program creates jobs in the government itself. From 2008 to 2009, the government was estimated to create 102,000 job opportunities by that program. A job creation project was also implemented to help young people by subsidizing the hiring of young people in universities and private companies.
In order to promote industrial research and development, the government began establishing science parks, economic zones which provide rent and utility breaks, tax incentives and specialized lending rates to attract investment. The first of these, the Hsinchu Science Park was established in 1980 by the National Science Council with a focus on research and development in information technology and biotechnology. It has been called Taiwan's "Silicon Valley" and has expanded to six campuses covering an area of 1,140 hectares (11.4 km2). Over 430 companies (including many listed on TAIEX) employing over 130,000 people are located within the park, and paid in capital totaled US$36.10 billion in 2008. Both Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company and United Microelectronics Corporation, the world's largest and second largest contract chipmakers, are headquartered within the park. Since 1980, the government has invested over US$1 billion in the park's infrastructure, and further expansion for more specialized parks have been pursued. The Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), headquartered within the park, is the largest nonprofit research organization in Taiwan and has worked to develop applied technological research for industry, including for many of Taiwan's traditional industries (such as textiles).
Following the success of the first park, the Southern Taiwan Science Park (STSP), consisting of the Tainan Science Park and the Kaohsiung Science Park, was established in 1996. In addition to companies, several research institutes (including Academia Sinica) and universities have set up branches within the park with a focus on integrated circuits (ICs), optoelectronics, and biotechnology. The Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) was established more recently in 2003. While the CTSP is still under development, many firms (including AU Optronics) have already moved into the park and begun manufacturing operations. Like the other parks, CTSP also focuses on ICs, optoelectronics, and biotechnology, with the optoelectronics industry accounting for 78% of its revenue in 2008. These three science parks alone have attracted over NT$4 trillion (US$137 billion) worth of capital inflow, and in 2010 total revenue within the parks reached NT$2.16 trillion (US$72.8 billion).
The Linhai Industrial Park, established in Kaohsiung in 1960, is a well-developed industrial zone with over 490 companies focusing on other industries including base metals, machinery and repairs, nonmetallic mineral products, chemical products, and food and beverage manufacturing. The Changhua Coastal Industrial Park, located in Changhua County, is a newer industrial cluster with many different industries such as food production, glass, textiles, and plastics.
In 1949 Chiang Kai-shek had transferred to Taiwan the government, gold reserve, and some of the army of his Republic of China.
Certified Project Management Professional (CPMP) is a certification created by the National Project Management Association (NPMA) in Taiwan, R.O.C.Chianan Irrigation
Chianan Irrigation (Chinese and Japanese: 嘉南大圳; pinyin: Jianán Dàzùn; rōmaji: Kanan Taishū; "Chianan Great Ditch"), also known as the Kanan Irrigation System, was built for promoting the agricultural productions of Chianan Plain of Taiwan. The name "chia-nan" was derived from two place names among its surrounding area called Chiayi and Tainan. Although it includes some assistant facilities, such as the Wusanto Reservoir, the term "Chianan Canal", in a narrow sense, would only mean the canals of this system.
The main designer of the Chianan Canal is Yoichi Hatta, a civil engineer of the Japanese government. Its main streams pass through today's Tainan, Chiayi and Yunlin, formerly parts of Tainan Prefecture. The architectural work of canal was launched in 1920 and completed in 1930, during Japanese rule. The canal improved the plantable area for rice from 5000 to 150,000 hectares, and made the rice crops in its irrigated area able to be harvested three times annually.Consumer Protection Committee
The Consumer Protection Committee (CPC; Chinese: 行政院消費者保護會; pinyin: Xíngzhèngyuàn Xiāofèizhě Bǎohùhuì) is the operative unit of the Department of Consumer Protection of the Executive Yuan of the Taiwan (ROC) which is responsible for consultation, discussion, and review of important consumer protection policies, laws and regulations, mechanisms, and enforcement outcomes, as well as cross-agency coordination in Taiwan.Economic history of Taiwan
The recordkeeping and development of the economic history of Taiwan started in the Age of Discovery. In the 17th century, the Europeans realized that Taiwan is located on the strategic cusp between the Far East and Southeast Asia. Two main European empires that competed to colonize it were the Dutch and Spanish Empires. Taiwan also became an intermediate destination for trade between Western European empires and East Asia states. The history of Taiwan as a colony of the Dutch Empire, Kingdom of Tungning, Qing China, and Empire of Japan between 1630 and 1945 was based heavily on economics.
In the 1950s, the Republic of China (ROC) government, retreated to Taiwan after losing the Chinese Civil War, carried out land reform policies such as the 375 Rent Reduction. In the 1960s, the agrarian economy was replaced with light industry as small and medium enterprises started to form. From 1966 to 1980, Taiwan's economy was gradually stabilized as the Ten Major Construction Projects laid a foundation in further economic developments. After the 1980s, the role of government in the economy gradually lessened as many government-owned corporations were privatized.Economic history of the Republic of China
Economic history of the Republic of China is covered in the following articles:
Economic history of China (1912–49), the economic history of the Republic of China during the period when it controlled Chinese mainland from 1912 to 1949.
Economic history of Taiwan#Modern history, the economic history of the Republic of China during the period when it only controls Taiwan area after 1949.Four Asian Tigers
The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, are the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s. By the early 21st century, all four had developed into high-income economies, specializing in areas of competitive advantage. Hong Kong and Singapore have become world-leading international financial centres, whereas South Korea and Taiwan are world leaders in manufacturing electronic components and devices. Their economic success stories have served as role models for many developing countries, especially the Tiger Cub Economies of southeast Asia.A controversial World Bank report (The East Asian Miracle 1993) credited neoliberal policies with the responsibility for the boom, including maintenance of export-oriented policies, low taxes, and minimal welfare states; institutional analysis also states some state intervention was involved. However, others argued that industrial policy and state intervention had a much greater influence than the World Bank report suggested.List of Taiwanese people by net worth
This is a list of Taiwanese billionaires based on an annual assessment of wealth and assets compiled and published by Forbes magazine in 2017.List of banks in Taiwan
This is a list of banks in Taiwan, including the government-owned banks of the Taiwan (ROC).List of companies of Taiwan
Taiwan is a country in East Asia. Neighbors include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous non-UN state and the largest economy outside the UN.
Taiwan maintains a stable industrial economy as a result of rapid economic growth and industrialization, which has been dubbed the Taiwan Miracle. Taiwan is one of the Four Asian Tigers and a member of both the World Trade Organization and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. The 21st-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. Taiwan is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, health care, public education, economic freedom, and human development.Made in Taiwan
The Made in Taiwan (traditional Chinese: 臺灣製造; simplified Chinese: 台湾制造; pinyin: Táiwān zhìzào) is the country of origin label affixed to products to indicate that the said product is made in Taiwan. As the economy of Taiwan increased production, the Made in Taiwan label was applied to products ranging from textiles, plastic toys, and bikes in the 1980s to laptops and computer chips in the 1990s; over 80% of the world's notebook computer design is made in Taiwan.In 2010, there was a push by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to promote certified made-in-Taiwan products in Taiwan, including stocking participating items at major chain stores.Old Taiwan dollar
The Old Taiwan dollar was in use from 1946 to 1949, beginning shortly after Taiwan's handover from Japan to the Republic of China. The currency was issued by the Bank of Taiwan. Hyperinflation prompted the introduction of the New Taiwan dollar in June 1949, shortly before the Nationalist evacuation from mainland China in December.One Town One Product (Republic of China)
One Town One Product (OTOP) is a project begun in 1989 and supervised by the Small and Medium Enterprise Administration (SMEA) of the Ministry of Economic Affairs of the Republic of China (ROC) to promote products from the territories in the ROC jurisdiction.Strawberry generation
Strawberry generation (Chinese: 草莓族; pinyin: Cǎoméi zú; or 草莓世代; cǎoméi shìdài) is a Chinese-language neologism for Taiwanese people born in 1982 and beyond who "bruise easily" like strawberries – meaning they cannot withstand social pressure or work hard like their parents' generation; the term refers to people who are insubordinate, spoiled, selfish, arrogant, and sluggish in work.The term arises from the perception that members of this generation have grown up being overprotected by their parents and in an environment of economic prosperity, in a similar manner to how strawberries are grown in protected greenhouses and command a higher price compared to other fruits.
The term is starting to gain prominence in the East Asian press, as it could be a way to designate a rising demographic or psychographic in terms of consumer behavior. The Strawberry Generation, like the Post-80s of China, could be the Asian counterpart of the Millennials or the so-called Snowflake generation in the Western world.Taiwan Stock Exchange
The Taiwan Stock Exchange Corporation (TWSE; Chinese: 臺灣證券交易所; pinyin: Táiwān Zhèngquàn Jiāoyì Suǒ) is a financial institution, located in Taipei 101, in Taipei, Taiwan. The TWSE was established in 1961 and began operating as a stock exchange on 9 February 1962. It is regulated by the Financial Supervisory Commission.
As of 31 December 2013, the Taiwan Stock Exchange had 809 listed companies with a combined market capitalization of NT$ 24,519,622 million.The exchange broadcasts before-hour information from 7:40 to 8:40. Then it has normal trading sessions from 09:00 to 13:45 and fixed price post-market sessions from 14:00 to 15:00 on all days of the week except Saturdays, Sundays and holidays declared by the exchange in advance.Taiwan Trade Shows
Taiwan Trade Shows (known as "Taipei Trade Shows" before 2012) is a series of trade exhibitions organized by TAITRA in Taipei, Taiwan. It is based on the Taiwan Clothes Export Mart Exhibition first held in September 1974. Currently, TAITRA holds a number of annual "Taiwan Trade Show" exhibitions including COMPUTEX, Taipei Cycle, and TAITRONICS at the Taipei World Trade Center.Taoyuan Aerotropolis
Taoyuan Aerotropolis (Chinese: 桃園航空城; pinyin: Táoyuán Hángkōng Chéng) is a large urban planning development at the Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in Taoyuan City, Taiwan.The development is supported by the Taoyuan City government. It is to be zoned. The development requires a total of 3,200 hectares land acquisition and over 40,000 people have to be relocated. Once the Aerotropolis has been completed, the Taoyuan International Airport will be expanded to 1,800 hectares from the current 1,200 hectares, and the third runway will also be built.Ten Major Construction Projects
The Ten Major Construction Projects (Chinese: 十大建設; pinyin: Shí Dà jiànshè) were the national infrastructure projects during the 1970s in Taiwan. The government of Republic of China believed that the country lacked key utilities such as highways, seaports, airports and power plants. Moreover, Taiwan was experiencing significant effects from the 1973 oil crisis. Therefore, to upgrade the industry and the development of the country, the government planned to take on ten massive building projects. They were proposed by the Premier Chiang Ching-kuo, beginning in 1974, with a planned completion by 1979. There were six transportation projects, three industrial projects, and one power-plant construction project, which ultimately cost over NT$300 billion in total.Tourism in Taiwan
Tourism in Taiwan is one of the major industries and contributor to the economy of Taiwan. In 2015, Taiwan received roughly 10 million international visitors. Tourism affairs are managed by the Tourism Bureau of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications of Taiwan.Uniform Invoice lottery
The Uniform Invoice or Unified Invoice, better known as the Taiwan receipt lottery (traditional Chinese: 統一發票; simplified Chinese: 统一发票; pinyin: Tǒngyī fāpiào), is a form of state lottery managed by the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of China.
The lottery was conceptualized by the first Kuomintang (KMT) finance chief, Jen Hsien-qun (traditional Chinese: 任顯群; simplified Chinese: 任显群; pinyin: Rèn xiǎnqún), to boost tax revenues in the early days of the KMT government. The introduction of this lottery on January 1, 1951 encouraged locals to obtain receipts for every purchase made with businesses with a monthly turnover of NT$200,000 (US$6,200) and above. As a result, the Finance Ministry collected NT$51 million (US$1.6 million) that year, representing a 75% increase from the NT$29 million (US$900,000) collected in 1950.The lottery drawing in Taiwan falls on the 25th of every odd-numbered month, i.e., January, March, May, July, September and November. Six sets of eight-digit numbers are drawn and announced in a 'live' televised ceremony presented by an emcee, during which four models roll out the winning numbers from hand-turned lottery machines. Six prizes are announced during the ceremony. As of 2011, the “Special Prize” has been increased from NT$2 million (US$63,000) to NT$10 million (US$342,000). “First Prize” of NT$200,000 (USD $6,200) are offered to customers with the receipts matching the 8-digit numbers drawn. Subsequent prizes valued at NT$40,000 (US$1,300), NT$10,000 (US$313), NT$4,000 (US$136), NT$1,000 (US$31) and NT$200 (US$7) are available to receipt holders who match the final 7, 6, 5, 4 and 3 digits, respectively, on their invoices. In keeping with Taiwan's "convenience store culture", some major convenience store chains will redeem receipts for the smallest (NT$200) prize by allowing customers to buy that amount of products with a winning receipt; larger prizes must be redeemed at a government tax ministry office.
In conjunction to the 60th anniversary of the invoice lottery, the Finance Ministry announced a 33% increase in the total prize value to NT$7 billion (US$20 million) in 2011.The Ministry started an e-invoice initiative in 2006 with the intention of facilitating e-commerce and reducing the number of receipts that need to be physically printed (currently about 11.5 billion every year). Lee Sush-der of the Ministry of Finance indicated that if 8 billion paper receipts could be replaced with e-invoices, 80,000 trees could be saved. The intermediate goal is to reduce the invoice process cost by NT$7.4 billion by 2013, with an expected total savings of NT$120 billion once comprehensive e-invoicing becomes the norm. E-receipts set for trial run.
Economy of Taiwan
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