Economy of Brazil

The Economy of Brazil is the world's ninth largest economy by nominal GDP and eighth largest by purchasing power parity. The Brazilian economy is characterized by a mixed economy that relies on import substitution to achieve economic growth. Brazil has an estimated US$21.8 trillion worth of natural resources which includes vast amounts of gold, uranium, iron, and timber.[18][19][20]

As of late 2010, Brazil's economy is the largest of Latin America[21] and the second largest in the Americas. From 2000 to 2012, Brazil was one of the fastest-growing major economies in the world, with an average annual GDP growth rate of over 5%, with its economy in 2012 surpassing that of the United Kingdom, temporarily making Brazil the world's sixth largest economy. However, Brazil's economy growth decelerated in 2013[22] and the country entered a recession in 2014. In 2017, however, the economy started to recover, with a 1% GDP growth in the first quarter. In the second quarter, the economy grew 0.3% compared to the same period of the previous year, officially exiting the recession.

Brazil's economy has a gross domestic product (GDP) of R$6.559 trillion, or US$2.080 trillion nominal, according to the estimates by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), being ranked as the 8th largest economy in the world. It is the second largest in the American continent, only behind the United States' economy. According to the report of the International Monetary Fund of 2017, Brazil is the 65th country in the world in the ranking of GDP per capita, with a value of US$10,019 per inhabitant.

According to the World Economic Forum, Brazil was the top country in upward evolution of competitiveness in 2009, gaining eight positions among other countries, overcoming Russia for the first time, and partially closing the competitiveness gap with India and China among the BRIC economies. Important steps taken since the 1990s toward fiscal sustainability, as well as measures taken to liberalize and open the economy, have significantly boosted the country's competitiveness fundamentals, providing a better environment for private-sector development.[23]

In 2016 Forbes ranked Brazil as having the 12th largest number of billionaires in the world.[24] Brazil is a member of diverse economic organizations, such as Mercosur, Unasul, G8+5, G20, WTO, Paris Club and the Cairns Group.

Economy of Brazil
MarginalPinheiros
CurrencyBrazilian real (BRL) = 0.258 USD
1 January – 31 December
Trade organizations
Unasul, WTO, Mercosur, G-20 and others
Statistics
GDPDecrease $1.868 trillion (nominal, 2018)[1]
Increase $3.365 trillion (PPP, 2018)[1]
GDP rank9th (nominal, 2018)
8th (PPP, 2018)
GDP growth
-3.3% (2016) 1.1% (2017)
1.2% (2018e) 2.2% (2019f) [2]
GDP per capita
Decrease $8,967 (nominal, 2018 est.)[1]
Increase $16,154 (PPP, 2018 est.)[1]
GDP per capita rank
73rd (nominal, 2018)
80th (PPP, 2017)
GDP by sector
services: 76%
industry: 18.5%
agriculture: 5.5% (2016 est.)[3]
3.563% (2019f est.)[1]
Positive decrease 3.75% (2018) [4]
Population below poverty line
Negative increase 11.18% (2018)[5]
Steady 0.52 high (2018 est.)[6]
Labor force
120 million (2017 est.)[7]
Labor force by occupation
Agriculture: 8%; Industry: 22%; Services: 70% (2017 est.)
UnemploymentPositive decrease 11.7% (November 2018) [8]
Main industries
Increase 109th (2019)[9]
External
Exports$217.7 billion (2017)[10]
Export goods
transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
Main export partners
 China 21.8%
 European Union 16%
 United States 12.3%
 Argentina 8%
 Japan 2.4%
Other 39% [10]
Imports$150.72 billion (2017)[10]
Import goods
machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
Main import partners
 European Union 21.2%
 China 18.1%
 United States 16.5%
 Argentina 6.2%
 South Korea 3.4%
Other 35% [10]
FDI stock
Increase $778.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[11]
Increase Abroad: $358.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[11]
Increase -$9.762 billion (2017 est.)[11]
$684.6 billion (January 2018)[12]
Public finances
Negative increase 84% of GDP (2017 est.)[11]
-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)[11]
Revenues733.7 billion (2017 est.)[11]
Expenses756.3 billion (2017 est.)[11]
Foreign reserves
$373.9 billion (2017 est.)[16][17]
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.
Bra world GNI percapita
GNI per capita in 2010:
  Brazil (9,390 $)
  Higher GNI per capita compared to Brazil
  Lower GNI per capita compared to Brazil

History

When the Portuguese explorers arrived in the 16th century, the native tribes of current-day Brazil totaled about 2.5  million people and had lived virtually unchanged since the Stone Age. From Portugal's colonization of Brazil (1500–1822) until the late 1930s, the Brazilian economy relied on the production of primary products for exports. In the Portuguese Empire, Brazil was a colony subjected to an imperial mercantile policy, which had three main large-scale economic production cycles – sugar, gold and from the early 19th century on, coffee. The economy of Brazil was heavily dependent on African slave labor until the late 19th century (about 3 million imported African slaves in total). In that period Brazil was also the colony with the largest amount of European settlers, most of them Portuguese (including Azoreans and Madeirans) but also some Dutch (see Dutch Brazil), Spaniards, English, French, Germans, Flemish, Danish, Scottish and Sephardic Jews.

Subsequently, Brazil experienced a period of strong economic and demographic growth accompanied by mass immigration from Europe, mainly from Portugal (including the Azores and Madeira), Italy, Spain, Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Switzerland, Austria and Russia. Smaller numbers of immigrants also came from the Netherlands, France, Finland, Iceland and the Scandinavian countries, Lithuania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Hungary, Greece, Latvia, England, Ireland, Scotland, Croatia, Czech Republic, Malta, North Macedonia and Luxembourg, the Middle East (mainly from Lebanon, Syria and Armenia), Japan, the United States and South Africa, until the 1930s. In the New World, the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Australia, Uruguay, New Zealand, Chile, Mexico, Cuba, Venezuela, Paraguay, Puerto Rico and Peru (in descending order) were the countries that received most immigrants. In Brazil's case, statistics showed that 4.5  million people emigrated to the country between 1882 and 1934.

In 2007, with a population of over 209 million and abundant natural resources, Brazil is one of the ten largest markets in the world, producing tens of millions of tons of steel, 26 million tons of cement, 3.5  million television sets, and 3  million refrigerators. In addition, about 70  million cubic meters of petroleum were being processed annually into fuels, lubricants, propane gas, and a wide range of hundreds of petrochemicals.[25][20]

Brazil has at least 161,500 kilometers of paved roads, more than 150 [26] Gigawatts of installed electric power capacity and its real per capita GDP surpassed US$9,800 in 2017.[27][20] Its industrial sector accounts for three-fifths of the Latin American economy's industrial production.[28] The country's scientific and technological development is argued to be attractive to foreign direct investment, which has averaged US$30  billion per year in recent years.[28] The agricultural sector, locally called the agronegócio (agro-business), has also been dynamic: for two decades this sector has kept Brazil among the most highly productive countries in areas related to the rural sector.[28] The agricultural sector and the mining sector also supported trade surpluses which allowed for massive currency gains (rebound) and external debt paydown. Due to a downturn in Western economies, Brazil found itself in 2010 trying to halt the appreciation of the real.[29]

Data from the Asian Development Bank and the Tax Justice Network show the untaxed "shadow" economy of Brazil is 39% of GDP.[30]

Data

The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017. Inflation under 5% is in green.[31]

Year GDP
(in Bil. US$ PPP)
GDP per capita
(in US$ PPP)
GDP growth
(real)
Inflation rate
(in Percent)
Unemployment
(in Percent)
Government debt
(in % of GDP)
1980 567.7 4,787 Increase9.2 % Negative increase90.2 % n/a n/a
1981 Increase593.4 Increase4,895 Decrease−4.4 % Negative increase101.7 % n/a n/a
1982 Increase633.9 Increase5,117 Increase0.6 % Negative increase100.6 % n/a n/a
1983 Increase636.5 Decrease5,029 Decrease−3.4 % Negative increase135.0 % n/a n/a
1984 Increase694.1 Increase5,369 Increase5.3 % Negative increase192.1 % n/a n/a
1985 Increase772.9 Increase5,856 Increase7.9 % Negative increase226.0 % n/a n/a
1986 Increase847.0 Increase6,298 Increase7.5 % Negative increase147.1 % n/a n/a
1987 Increase900.9 Increase6,563 Increase3.6 % Negative increase228.3 % n/a n/a
1988 Increase934.9 Increase6,686 Increase0.3 % Negative increase629.1 % n/a n/a
1989 Increase1,002.4 Increase7,044 Increase3.2 % Negative increase1,430.7 % n/a n/a
1990 Decrease996.1 Decrease6,795 Decrease−4.2 % Negative increase2,947.7 % n/a n/a
1991 Increase1,039.9 Increase6,975 Increase1.0 % Negative increase432.8 % 10.1 % n/a
1992 Increase1,057.7 Increase6,979 Decrease−0.6 % Negative increase952.0 % Negative increase11.6 % n/a
1993 Increase1,136.0 Increase7,377 Increase4.9 % Negative increase1,927.4 % Positive decrease11.0 % n/a
1994 Increase1,288.0 Increase7,850 Increase5.8 % Negative increase2,075.8 % Positive decrease10.5 % n/a
1995 Increase1,306.6 Increase8,224 Increase4.2 % Negative increase66.0 % Positive decrease9.9 % n/a
1996 Increase1,359.9 Increase8,304 Increase2.2 % Negative increase15.8 % Negative increase11.2 % n/a
1997 Increase1,430.2 Increase8,605 Increase3.4 % Negative increase6.9 % Negative increase11.6 % n/a
1998 Increase1,450.6 Decrease8,604 Increase0.3 % Increase3.2 % Negative increase14.7 % n/a
1999 Increase1,479.7 Increase8,651 Increase0.5 % Increase4.9 % Steady14.7 % n/a
2000 Increase1,579.8 Increase9,108 Increase4.4 % Negative increase7.0 % Positive decrease13.9 % 65.6 %
2001 Increase1,638.1 Increase9,313 Increase1.4 % Negative increase6.8 % Positive decrease12.5 % Negative increase70.1 %
2002 Increase1,714.0 Increase9,614 Increase3.1 % Negative increase8.5 % Negative increase13.0 % Negative increase78.9 %
2003 Increase1,768.2 Increase9,789 Increase1.1 % Negative increase14.7 % Negative increase13.7 % Positive decrease73.9 %
2004 Increase1,921.5 Increase10,505 Increase5.8 % Negative increase6.6 % Positive decrease12.9 % Positive decrease70.2 %
2005 Increase2,046.7 Increase11,055 Increase3.2 % Negative increase6.9 % Positive decrease11.4 % Positive decrease68.7 %
2006 Increase2,193.0 Increase11,707 Increase4.0 % Increase4.2 % Negative increase11.5 % Positive decrease65.9 %
2007 Increase2,387.8 Increase12,605 Increase6.1 % Increase3.6 % Positive decrease10.9 % Positive decrease63.8 %
2008 Increase2,558.7 Increase13,360 Increase5.1 % Negative increase5.7 % Positive decrease9.4 % Positive decrease61.9 %
2009 Increase2,574.8 Decrease13,304 Decrease−0.1 % Increase4.9 % Negative increase9.7 % Negative increase65.0 %
2010 Increase2,802.8 Increase14,338 Increase7.5 % Increase5.0 % Positive decrease8.5 % Positive decrease63.1 %
2011 Increase2,974.8 Increase15,070 Increase4.0 % Negative increase6.6 % Positive decrease7.8 % Positive decrease61.2 %
2012 Increase3,088.1 Increase15,499 Increase1.9 % Negative increase5.4 % Positive decrease7.4 % Negative increase62.2 %
2013 Increase3,232.4 Increase16,079 Increase3.0 % Negative increase6.2 % Positive decrease7.2 % Positive decrease60.2 %
2014 Increase3,307.2 Increase16,309 Increase0.5 % Negative increase6.3 % Positive decrease6.8 % Negative increase62.3 %
2015 Decrease3,224.3 Decrease15,769 Decrease−3.6 % Negative increase9.0 % Negative increase8.3 % Negative increase72.6 %
2016 Decrease3,152.2 Decrease15,295 Decrease−3.5 % Negative increase8.7 % Negative increase11.3 % Negative increase78.4 %
2017 Increase3,240.3 Increase15,602 Increase1.0 % Increase3.4 % Negative increase12.8 % Negative increase84.0 %

Components

The service sector is the largest component of the gross domestic product (GDP) at 67.0 percent, followed by the industrial sector at 27.5 percent. Agriculture represents 5.5 percent of GDP (2011).[32] The Brazilian labor force is estimated at 100.77 million of which 10 percent is occupied in agriculture, 19 percent in the industry sector and 71 percent in the service sector.

Agriculture and food production

Agriculture production
Arroz 097
Combine harvester on a plantation
Main products coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Labor force 15.7% of total labor force
GDP of sector 5.9% of total GDP
Brasil economia
Economic activity in Brazil (1977).

Agribusiness contributes to Brazil's trade balance, in spite of trade barriers and subsidizing policies adopted by the developed countries.[33]

In the space of fifty five years (1950 to 2005), the population of Brazil grew from 51 million to approximately 187 million inhabitants,[34] an increase of over 2 percent per year. Brazil created and expanded a complex agribusiness sector.[33] However, some of this is at the expense of the environment, including the Amazon.

The importance given to the rural producer takes place in the shape of the agricultural and cattle-raising plan and through another specific subsidy program geared towards family agriculture (Programa de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (Pronaf)), which guarantees financing for equipment and cultivation and encourages the use of new technology. With regards to family agriculture, over 800 thousand rural inhabitants are assisted by credit, research and extension programs. A special line of credit is available for women and young farmers.[33]

With The Land Reform Program, on the other hand, the country's objective is to provide suitable living and working conditions for over one million families who live in areas allotted by the State, an initiative capable of generating two million jobs. Through partnerships, public policies and international partnerships, the government is working towards guaranteeing infrastructure for the settlements, following the examples of schools and health outlets. The idea is that access to land represents just the first step towards the implementation of a quality land reform program.[33]

Over 600,000 km² of land are divided into approximately five thousand areas of rural property; an agricultural area currently with three borders: the Central-western region (savannah), the northern region (area of transition) and parts of the northeastern region (semi-arid). At the forefront of grain crops, which produce over 110 million tonnes/year, is the soybean, yielding 50 million tonnes.[33]

In the cattle-raising sector, the "green ox," which is raised in pastures, on a diet of hay and mineral salts, conquered markets in Asia, Europe and the Americas, particularly after the "mad cow disease" scare period. Brazil has the largest cattle herd in the world, with 198 million heads,[35] responsible for exports of more than US$1 billion/year.[33]

A pioneer and leader in the manufacture of short-fiber timber cellulose, Brazil has also achieved positive results within the packaging sector, in which it is the fifth largest world producer. In the foreign markets, it answers for 25 percent of global exports of raw cane and refined sugar; it is the world leader in soybean exports and is responsible for 80 percent of the planet's orange juice, and since 2003, has had the highest sales figures for beef and chicken.[33]

Industry

Industrial production
Untitled (Vibro Air) Embraer EMB-135BJ Legacy D-AVIB (5024079232)
Embraer Legacy 600 jet manufactured by Embraer
Main industries textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
Industrial growth rate −5% (2015 est.)
Labor force 13.3% of total labor force
GDP of sector 22.2% of total GDP

Brazil has the second-largest manufacturing sector in the Americas. Accounting for 28.5 percent of GDP, Brazil's industries range from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables. With increased economic stability provided by the Plano Real, Brazilian and multinational businesses have invested heavily in new equipment and technology, a large proportion of which has been purchased from US firms.

Brazil has a diverse and sophisticated services industry as well. During the early 1990s, the banking sector accounted for as much as 16 percent of the GDP. Although undergoing a major overhaul, Brazil's financial services industry provides local businesses with a wide range of products and is attracting numerous new entrants, including U.S. financial firms. On 8 May 2008, the São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bovespa) and the São Paulo-based Brazilian Mercantile and Futures Exchange (BM&F) merged, creating BM&F Bovespa, one of the largest stock exchanges in the world. Also, the previously monopolistic reinsurance sector is being opened up to third party companies.[36]

As of 31 December 2007, there were an estimated 21,304,000 broadband lines in Brazil. Over 75 percent of the broadband lines were via DSL and 10 percent via cable modems.

Proven mineral resources are extensive. Large iron and manganese reserves are important sources of industrial raw materials and export earnings. Deposits of nickel, tin, chromite, uranium, bauxite, beryllium, copper, lead, tungsten, zinc, gold, and other minerals are exploited. High-quality coking-grade coal required in the steel industry is in short supply.

Largest companies

In 2017, 20 Brazilian companies were listed in the Forbes Global 2000 list – an annual ranking of the top 2000 public companies in the world by Forbes magazine based on a combination of sales, assets, profit, and market value.[37] The 20 companies listed were:

World Rank Company Industry Revenue
(billion $)
Profits
(billion $)
Assets
(billion $)
Market Value
(billion $)
Headquarters
38 Itaú Unibanco Banking 61.3 6.7 419.9 79.2 São Paulo
62 Banco Bradesco Banking 70.2 4.3 362.4 53.5 Osasco, SP
132 Banco do Brasil Banking 57.3 2.3 430.6 29 Brasilia
156 Vale Mining 27.1 3.8 99.1 45.4 Rio de Janeiro
399 Petrobras Oil & Gas 81.1 - 4.3 247.3 61.3 Rio de Janeiro
610 Eletrobras Utilities 17.4 0.983 52.4 7.2 Rio de Janeiro
791 Itaúsa Conglomerate 1.3 2.4 18.1 23 São Paulo
895 JBS Food Processing 48.9 0.108 31.6 8.2 São Paulo
981 Ultrapar Conglomerate 22.2 0.448 7.4 12.5 São Paulo
1103 Cielo Financial services 3.5 1.1 9.4 20.9 Barueri, SP
1233 Braskem Chemicals 13.8 - 0.136 15.9 7.9 São Paulo
1325 BRF Food processing 9.7 - 0.107 13.8 9.3 Itajaí, SC
1436 Sabesp Waste Management 4 0.846 11.6 7.4 São Paulo
1503 Oi Telecommunications 7.5 - 2 25.2 0.952 Rio de Janeiro
1515 Gerdau Iron & Steel 10.8 - 0.395 16.8 1.4 Porto Alegre, RS
1545 CBD Retail 12 0.139 13.9 5.9 São Paulo
1572 CCR Transportation 2.9 0.429 7.5 11.5 São Paulo
1597 Bovespa Stock Exchange 0.666 0.415 9.7 12.8 São Paulo
1735 CPFL Energia Electricity 5.4 0.258 13 8.4 Campinas, SP
1895 Kroton Educacional Higher Education 1.5 0.535 5.4 7.1 Belo Horizonte, MG

Energy

The Brazilian government has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce dependence on imported petroleum. Imports previously accounted for more than 70% of the country's oil needs but Brazil became self-sufficient in oil in 2006–2007. Brazil is one of the world's leading producers of hydroelectric power, with a current capacity of about 260,000 megawatts. Existing hydroelectric power provides 90% of the nation's electricity. Two large hydroelectric projects, the 19,900 megawatt Itaipu Dam on the Paraná River (the world's largest dam) and the Tucurui Dam in Pará in northern Brazil, are in operation. Brazil's first commercial nuclear reactor, Angra I, located near Rio de Janeiro, has been in operation for more than 10 years. Angra II was completed in 2002 and is in operation too. An Angra III had a planned inauguration scheduled for 2014. The three reactors would have a combined capacity of 9,000 megawatts when completed. The government also plans to build 19 more nuclear plants by the year 2020.

Economic status

Statistical Table
Inflation (IPCA)
2002 12.53%
2003 9.30%
2004 7.60%
2005 5.69%
2006 3.14%
2007 4.46%
2008 5.91%
2009 4.31%
2010 5.90%
2011 6.50%
2012 5.84%
2013 5.91%
2014 6.41%
2015 10.67%
2016 6.29%
2017 2.95%
2018 3.75%
Source:[38]
Average GDP growth rate 1950–2013
1950–59 7.1%
1960–69 6.1%
1970–79 8.9%
1980–89 3.0%
1990–99 1.7%
2000–09 3.3%
2010–17 1.4%
Source:[39]

Sustainable growth

Portuguese explorers arrived in 1500, but it was only in 1808 that Brazil obtained a permit from the Portuguese colonial government to set up its first factories and manufacturers. In the 21st century, Brazil became the eighth largest economy in the world. Originally, its exports were basic raw and primary goods, such as sugar, rubber and gold. Today, 84% of exports are of manufactured and semi-manufactured products.

The period of great economic transformation and growth occurred between 1875 and 1975.[40]

In the last decade, domestic production increased by 32.3%. Agribusiness (agriculture and cattle-raising), which grew by 47% or 3.6% per year, was the most dynamic sector – even after having weathered international crises that demanded constant adjustments to the Brazilian economy.[41] The Brazilian government also launched a program for economic development acceleration called Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento, aiming to spur growth.[42]

Brazil's transparency rank in the international world is 75th according to Transparency International.[43]

Control and reform

Among measures recently adopted to balance the economy, Brazil carried out reforms to its social security (state and retirement pensions) and tax systems. These changes brought with them a noteworthy addition: a Law of Fiscal Responsibility which controls public expenditure by the executive branches at federal, state and municipal levels. At the same time, investments were made towards administration efficiency and policies were created to encourage exports, industry and trade, thus creating "windows of opportunity" for local and international investors and producers.

With these alterations in place, Brazil has reduced its vulnerability: it doesn't import the oil it consumes; it has halved its domestic debt through exchange rate-linked certificates and has seen exports grow, on average, by 20% a year. The exchange rate does not put pressure on the industrial sector or inflation (at 4% a year), and does away with the possibility of a liquidity crisis. As a result, the country, after 12 years, has achieved a positive balance in the accounts which measure exports/imports, plus interest payments, services and overseas payment. Thus, respected economists say that the country won't be deeply affected by the current world economic crisis.[44]

In 2017, President Michel Temer refused to make public the list of companies accused of "modern slavery". The list, made public yearly since the presidency of Lula Da Silva in 2003, was intended to persuade companies to settle their fines and conform to labor regulations, in a country where corruption of the political class risked compromising respect for the law. The relations of the president-in-office with the "landowner lobby" were denounced by dismissed president Dilma Rousseff on this occasion.[45]

CentroRJ
Central business district of Rio de Janeiro.

Consistent policies

Support for the productive sector has been simplified at all levels; active and independent, Congress and the Judiciary Branch carry out the evaluation of rules and regulations. Among the main measures taken to stimulate the economy are the reduction of up to 30 percent on manufactured products tax (IPI), and the investment of $8 billion on road cargo transportation fleets, thus improving distribution logistics. Further resources guarantee the propagation of business and information telecenters.

The policy for industry, technology and foreign trade, at the forefront of this sector, for its part, invests $19.5 billion in specific sectors, following the example of the software and semiconductor, pharmaceutical and medicine product, and capital goods sectors.[46]

Mergers and acquisitions

Between 1985 and 2017, 11,563 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of US$1,185 billion with the involvement of Brazilian firms were announced.[47] The year 2010 was a new record in terms of value with $115 billion of transactions. It is worth noticing, that in the top 100 deals by value there are only four cases of Brazilian companies acquiring a foreign company. This reflects the strong interest in the country from a direct investment perspective.

Here is a list of the largest deals where Brazilian companies took on either the role of the acquiror or the target:

Date Announced Acquiror Name Acquiror Mid Industry Acquiror Nation Target Name Target Mid Industry Target Nation Value of Transaction ($mil)
09/01/2010 Petrobras Oil & Gas Brazil Brazil-Oil & Gas Blocks Oil & Gas Brazil 42,877.03
02/20/2017 Vale SA Metals & Mining Brazil Valepar SA Metals & Mining Brazil 20,956.66
08/11/2006 Cia Vale do Rio Doce SA Metals & Mining Brazil Inco Ltd Metals & Mining Canada 17,150.30
02/20/2008 BM&F Brokerage Brazil Bovespa Holding SA Brokerage Brazil 10,309.09
01/13/2000 Telefónica SA Telecommunications Services Spain Telecommunicacoes de São Paulo Telecommunications Services Brazil 10,213.31
07/31/2014 Telefónica Brasil SA Telecommunications Services Brazil GVT Participacoes SA Telecommunications Services Brazil 9,823.31
05/10/2010 Telefónica SA Telecommunications Services Spain Brasilcel NV Telecommunications Services Brazil 9,742.79
11/03/2008 Banco Itaú Holding Financeira Banks Brazil Unibanco Holdings SA Other Financials Brazil 8,464.77
03/03/2004 Ambev Food and Beverage Brazil John Labatt Ltd Food and Beverage Canada 7,758.01
10/01/2010 China Petrochemical Corporation Oil & Gas China Repsol YPF Brasil SA Oil & Gas Brazil 7,111.00
02/07/2012 Banestado Participacoes Other Financials Brazil Redecard SA Computers & Peripherals Brazil 6,821.71

Entrepreneurship

According to a search of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor in 2011 Brazil had 27 million adults aged between 18 and 64 either starting or owning a business, meaning that more than one in four Brazilian adults were entrepreneurs. In comparison to the other 54 countries studied, Brazil was the third-highest in total number of entrepreneurs. The Institute of Applied Economic Research (Ipea), a government agency, found that 37 million jobs in Brazil were associated with businesses with less than 10 employees.[48]

Even though Brazil ranks internationally as one of the hardest countries in the region to do business due to its complicated bureaucracy, there is a healthy number of entrepreneurs, thanks to the huge internal consumer market and various government programs.

The most recent research of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor revealed in 2013 that 50.4% of Brazilian new entrepreneurs are men, 33.8% are in the 35–44 age group, 36.9% completed high school and 47.9% earn 3–6 times the Brazilian minimum wage. In contrast, 49.6% of entrepreneurs are female, only 7% are in the 55–64 age group, 1% have postgraduate education and 1.7% earn more than 9 times the minimum wage.[49]

Credit rating

Brazil's credit rating was downgraded by Standard & Poor's to BBB in March 2014, just one notch above junk.[50]

See also

References

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  50. ^ Rousseff Losing Bond Investors as Downgrade to Junk Looms – Bloomberg Bloomberg

External links

Banco 24 Horas

Banco 24 Horas (Portuguese for "24-hour banking") is the largest interbank network in Brazil, with a market share of 38% in the country. Operated by Tecban (Tecnologia Bancária S.A), Banco 24 Horas offers 11,600 ATMs in more than 400 Brazilian cities.

Bradespar

Bradespar is a Brazilian holding company headquartered in São Paulo. The company was formed in 2000 by Banco Bradesco in order to allow the bank to spin off some of its industrial investments.In 2005, the company began to hold large holdings in mining company Vale and Utility company CPFL, which is one of the largest companies in the Brazilian electric sector. Bradespar's stock is traded in São Paulo and Madrid stock exchanges, and it is part of the São Paulo's Ibovespa index. Currently the single investiment of the company is in the mining multinational company Vale, being one of the largest shareholders.

Brazilian cruzado

The cruzado was the currency of Brazil from 1986 to 1989. It replaced the second cruzeiro (at first called the "cruzeiro novo") in 1986, at a rate of 1 cruzado = 1000 cruzeiros (novos) and was replaced in 1989 by the cruzado novo at a rate of 1000 cruzados = 1 cruzado novo.

This currency was subdivided in 100 centavos and it had the symbol and the ISO 4217 code BRC.

Central Bank of Brazil

The Central Bank of Brazil (Portuguese: Banco Central do Brasil) is Brazil's central bank. It was established on December 31, 1964.

The Central Bank is linked with the Ministry of the Economy. Like other central banks, the Brazilian central bank is the principal monetary authority of the country. It received this authority when it was founded by three different institutions: the Bureau of Currency and Credit (SUMOC), the Bank of Brazil (BB), and the National Treasury.

One of the main instruments of Brazil's monetary policy is the Banco Central do Brasil's overnight rate, called the SELIC rate. It is managed by Monetary Policy Committee (COPOM) of the bank.The bank is active in promoting financial inclusion policy and is a leading member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion. It is also one of the original 17 regulatory institutions to make specific national commitments to financial inclusion under the Maya Declaration. during the 2011 Global Policy Forum in Mexico.

Coconut production in Brazil

Coconut production contributes to the national economy of Brazil. According to figures published in December 2009 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, it is the world's fourth-largest producer of coconuts, producing 2,759,044 tonnes in 2009.

Francisco de Sales Torres Homem, Viscount of Inhomirim

Francisco de Sales Torres Homem, Viscount of Inhomirim (January 29, 1812 – June 3, 1876), was a physician, lawyer, journalist, romantic writer, deputy, senator, top officer of the National Treasury, president of the Bank of Brazil and Minister of Treasury. The only afrobrazilian ever to have been in charge of the economy of Brazil throughout its history.

History of Rondônia

Before the Portuguese discovery of Brazil, the region where the present state of Rondônia is situated was populated by indigenous peoples, who are known to have included the following:

pt:Aruás (Aruá language);

Cinta Larga (language branch: Monde);

Gavião (language branch: Monde);

pt:Jabutis (language branch: Jaboti);

Kanoê (language branch: Kanoê);

Karipuna, Amondauas (language branch: Tupi-Guarani);

Caritianas (language branch: Arikem);

Araras-caros (language branch: Ramarama);

Kaxarari (language branch: Pano);

Kwazá (language branch: Kwazá);

pt:Macurap, pt:Sakurabiat (language branch: Tupari);

Nambikwara (language branch: Nambikwara);

pt:Oro-uins (language branch: Txapakura);

Paiter (language branch: Monde);

Tuparis (language branch: Tupari)

Immigration to Brazil

Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign persons to reside permanently. It should not be confused with the colonisation of the country by the Portuguese, or with the forcible bringing of people from Africa as slaves.

Throughout its history, Brazil has always been a recipient of immigrants, but this began to gain importance in the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century when the country received massive immigration from Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, which left lasting marks on demography, culture, language and the economy of Brazil.

In general, it is considered that people who entered Brazil up to 1822, the year of independence, were colonizers. Since then, those who entered the independent nation were immigrants.

Before 1871, the number of immigrants rarely exceeded two or three thousand people a year. Immigration increased pressure from the first end of the international slave trade to Brazil, after the expansion of the economy, especially in the period of large coffee plantations in the state of São Paulo.

Immigration has been a very important demographic factor in the composition, structure and history of human population in Brazil, with all its attending factors and consequences in culture, economy, education, racial issues, etc. Brazil has received one of the largest numbers of immigrants in the Western Hemisphere, along with the United States, Argentina and Canada.Counting from 1872 (year of the first census) by the year 2000, Brazil received about 6 million immigrants.

Index of Brazil-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil).

Irineu Evangelista de Sousa, Viscount of Mauá

Irineu Evangelista de Sousa (Portuguese pronunciation: [iɾiˈnew ivɐ̃ʒeˈliʃtɐ dʒi ˈsowzɐ]), the Viscount of Mauá ([viʃˈkõdʒi dʒi mɐwˈa], 1813–1889) was a Brazilian entrepreneur, industrialist, banker and politician. Born to a family of small estancieiros (ranchers), Mauá became one of the world's richest men; by 1867, his wealth was larger than the annual budget of the Brazilian Empire. He was called the Rothschild of the South American continent by the New York Times in 1871. He received the titles of baron (1854) and visconde com grandeza (viscount with greatness) (1874) of Mauá. A pioneer in several areas of the economy of Brazil, one of his greatest achievements was to start the construction of the Mauá Railroad, the first railroad in Brazil.

At his peak, Mauá controlled eight of the country's ten largest companies (the remaining two were state-owned); his banking interests stretched over to Britain, France, the United States and Argentina. Mauá also founded the first bank in Uruguay (Banco Mauá Y Cia).

Mauá, who established the modern Banco do Brasil, is credited with financing much of the Brazilian economy activity in the 19th century, particularly in coffee plantation, and with the construction of the first railroads, shipyard and cast iron metalwork in the country. Mauá commissioned the first telegraphic submarine cable connecting South America to Europe, developed commercial transportation via steamboats on rivers Amazon and Guaíba, and installed the first gas-fueled street lights in the city of Rio de Janeiro, then Brazil's capital. His fortunes turned around with the decay of the Empire after the Paraguayan War, however, and, by the time he died, Mauá had lost most of his wealth.

LGBT tourism in Brazil

LGBT tourism in Brazil is a form of niche tourism marketed to gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people who come to Brazil. The city of Rio de Janeiro was elected the best LGBT destination of the world, according to the U.S. Logo channel, owned by Viacom's MTV Networks. Rio de Janeiro also was elected the most sexy city of the world to LGBT people, according to the U.S. Logo channel and TripOutGayTravel. In 2014, Brazil and the United States were the two countries more wanted by international LGBT tourists, according to the World Travel Market.About 26% of visitors to São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Florianópolis, Salvador and Fortaleza are LGBT people. Brazil has more than 6,000 gay-friendly hotels and hostels registered in travel agencies and mainly specialized in the gay-oriented sites, which are the major source of information for travelers. The establishments receives a sticker with a rainbow, a global symbol of the gay movement.During the carnival of Rio de Janeiro in 2014, 30.75% of tourism revenue was of LGBT people. The total was R$1.5 billion, and 461 million of gays and lesbians. The majority of tourists in Brazil were from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, and from other countries were the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada.The Brazilian LGBT prides move millions in cash every year. Only the São Paulo Gay Pride Parade, with 3.5 million participants, attracts 400,000 LGBT tourists, that will yield to the coffers of the state, about $70 million euros or $160 million reais.With highly educated, and willing to consume refined products, the gay community has become a priority for business of tourism and hotel sector in Brazil. Estimates suggest that this niche is responsible for annually inject nearly R$200 billion in the economy of Brazil. On October 21, 2010, was signed an agreement in the city of Rio de Janeiro, to encourage LGBT tourists coming to Brazil and increase the supply of destinations for this public in the domestic sector. The agreement was attended by Tourism Minister, the president of Embratur, and the president of the Association of gay tourism. The agreement, signed at the Fair of the Americas Abav (Brazilian Association of Travel Agents), provides incentives to qualified professionals working in the tourist service, actions to support marketing of products, services and destinations of the LGBT Tourism.According to Out Now Consulting, in 2010, LGBT consumers residing in Argentina have spent a total of US$4 billion in leisure travel. In Mexico, LGBT consumers spent US$8 billion in leisure travel, while LGBT Brazilians spend more than US$20 billion in leisure travel, the largest in Latin America. Of LGBT tourist, Brazil receives mainly U.S. citizens, British, Germans, French, and Dutch. According to the LGBT app Grindr, the city of Rio de Janeiro has the best gay beach of the world, and the city of São Paulo has the best gay parade of the world.

Mercosur

Mercosur (in Spanish), or Mercosul (in Portuguese), officially Southern Common Market is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994. Its full members are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Venezuela is a full member but has been suspended since December 1, 2016. Associate countries are Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Suriname. Observer countries are New Zealand and Mexico.Mercosur's purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency. It currently confines itself to a customs union, in which there is free intra-zone trade and a common trade policy between member countries. The official languages are Spanish, Portuguese, and Guarani. Since its foundation, Mercosur's functions have been updated, amended, and changed many times: it is now a full customs union and a trading bloc.

Rio de Janeiro (state)

Rio de Janeiro (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈʁi.u dʒi ʒɐˈnejɾu] River of January) is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil. It has the second largest economy of Brazil, with the largest being that of the state of São Paulo.The state of Rio de Janeiro is located within the Brazilian geopolitical region classified as the Southeast (assigned by IBGE). Rio de Janeiro shares borders with all the other states in the same Southeast macroregion: Minas Gerais (N and NW), Espírito Santo (NE) and São Paulo (SW). It is bounded on the east and south by the South Atlantic Ocean. Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653 km2 (16,855 sq mi). Its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro, which was the capital of the Portuguese Colony of Brazil from 1763 to 1815, of the following United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1815 to 1822, and of later independent Brazil as a kingdom and republic from 1822 to 1960.

The archaic demonym meaning for the Rio de Janeiro State is "fluminense", taken from the Latin word flumen, meaning "river". Despite the fact "carioca" is a most ancient demonym of Rio de Janeiro's inhabitants (known since 1502), it was replaced by "fluminense" in 1783, when it was sanctioned as the official demonym of the Royal Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro (later Province of Rio de Janeiro), a few years after the City of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro has become the capital city of the Brazilian colonies. From 1783 and during the Imperial Regime, "carioca" remained only as a nickname by which other Brazilians called the inhabitants of Rio (city and province). During the first years of the Brazilian Republic, "carioca" was the name given to those who lived in the slums or a pejorative way to refer the bureaucratic elite of the Federal District. Only when the City of Rio lost its status as Federal District and became a Brazilian State (Guanabara State) when the capital was moved to Brasília earlier in 1960, "carioca" was made a co-official demonym with "guanabarino". In 1975, the Guanabara State was ended and extinct by President Ernesto Geisel (under the military dictatorship) becoming the present City of Rio de Janeiro and "carioca" was made the demonym of its municipality. Although "carioca" is not recognized as an official demonym of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazilians call the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro in general (State and city) as "cariocas", and most of its inhabitants claim to be "cariocas". Nowadays, social movements like "Somos Todos Cariocas" ("We are all Cariocas") have tried to achieve the official recognition of "carioca" as a co-official demonym of the Rio de Janeiro State.The state's 22 largest cities are Rio de Janeiro, São Gonçalo, Duque de Caxias, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Campos dos Goytacazes, Belford Roxo, São João de Meriti, Petrópolis, Volta Redonda, Magé, Macaé, Itaboraí, Cabo Frio, Armação dos Búzios, Angra dos Reis, Nova Friburgo, Barra Mansa, Barra do Piraí, Teresópolis, Mesquita and Nilópolis.

Rio de Janeiro is the smallest state in the Southeast macroregion and one of the smallest in Brazil. It is, however, the third most populous Brazilian state, with a population of 16 million of people in 2011 (making it the most densely populated state in Brazil) and has the third longest coastline in the country (after those of the states of Bahia and Maranhão).

In the Brazilian flag, the state is represented by Mimosa, the beta star in the Southern Cross (β Cru).

SESI Citizenship

SESI Citizenship is a Brazilian program that aims to bring education, sports, leisure and culture to all pacified communities in the state of Rio de Janeiro, i.e., those that already have the Pacifying Police Units (UPPs). Created in August 2010, the program has already held about a million attendances in dozens of communities and was awarded the prize "Citizenship Personality 2013", granted to individuals and institutions who "contribute to the defense of civil rights, the strengthening of social promotion policies and the ethical values."

Samba effect

The samba effect was the nearly 35% drop in the value of the Brazilian real that occurred in 1999. The effect was caused by the 1997 Asian financial crisis which led Brazil to increase interest rates and to institute spending cuts and tax increases in an attempt to maintain the value of its currency. These measures failed to produce the intended effect and the Brazilian government floated its currency against the US dollar, which led to the dramatic decrease in its value. The devaluation also precipitated fears that the ongoing economic crisis in Asia would spread to South America, as many South American countries were heavily dependent on industrial exports from Brazil. These fears resulted in the Brazilian government adopting an austerity program in order to receive a $41.5 billion aid package from the International Monetary Fund and other world lenders. By the end of 1999 the effect was waning and the Brazilian economy was beginning to recover. However, unemployment was only slightly lower than before the effect, and remained more than twice as high as it was during the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Serviço Federal de Processamento de Dados

Serviço Federal de Processamento de Dados (Federal Data Processing Service), or Serpro, is the biggest government-owned corporation of IT services of Brazil. It was created by Law n. 4.516, of December 1, 1964 to modernize and give agility to strategic sectors of public administration. It's a company linked to the Ministry of the Economy of Brazil and it grown developing software and services to let more control and transparency about government revenue and government spending.

Timeline of Brazilian economic stabilization plans

The following is a timeline of the Brazilian economic stabilization plans in the "new Republic" (post-military dictatorship) era, a period characterized by intense inflation of the local currency, exceeding 2,700% in the period of 1989 to 1990.

This period was marked by intense economic experimentation (including many forms of economic heterodox shocks) and, as a whole, comprises a unique case study on macroeconomics.

February 28, 1986: Plano Cruzado (president: José Sarney, finance minister: Dilson Funaro)

November 21, 1986: Plano Cruzado II (president: José Sarney, finance minister: Dilson Funaro)

June 12, 1987: Plano Bresser (president: José Sarney, finance minister: Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira)

January 6, 1988: Política Feijão com Arroz (president: José Sarney, finance minister: Maílson da Nóbrega)

January 15, 1989: Plano Verão (president: José Sarney, finance minister: Maílson da Nóbrega)

March 15, 1990: Plano Collor, a.k.a. "Plano Brasil Novo" and Plano Collor II (president: Fernando Collor de Mello, finance minister: Zélia Cardoso de Mello)

July 1, 1994: Plano Real (president: Itamar Franco, finance minister: Fernando Henrique Cardoso)

Troller Veículos Especiais

Troller Veículos Especiais S/A (Troller) is a Brazilian off-road vehicles manufacturer. Founded in 1995 in Horizonte, Ceará, it became a subsidiary of Ford in 2007.

Troller's flagship vehicle is the Troller T4 SUV, which has featured successfully in several rally races around the world, including the Dakar Rally.

Unemployment in Brazil

The rate of unemployment in Brazil is determined by the Monthly Employment Survey, coordinated by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). This research examines the economically active population (PEA) of the six largest metropolitan areas (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Salvador and Recife).

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