Economic Cooperation Organization

The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1984 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey. It provides a platform to discuss ways to improve development and promote trade and investment opportunities. The ECO is an ad hoc organisation under the United Nations Charter.[3] The objective is to establish a single market for goods and services, much like the European Union.[4] The ECO's secretariat and cultural department are located in Iran, its economic bureau is in Turkey and its scientific bureau is situated in Pakistan.

The nature of the ECO is that it consists of predominantly Muslim-majority states as it is a trade bloc for the Central Asian states connected to the Mediterranean through Turkey, to the Persian Gulf via Iran, and to the Arabian sea via Pakistan. The current framework of the ECO expresses itself mostly in the form of bilateral agreements and arbitration mechanisms between individual and fully sovereign member states. This makes the ECO similar to ASEAN in that it is an organisation that has its own offices and bureaucracy for implementation of trade amongst sovereign member states.

This consists of the historically integrated agricultural region of the Ferghana Valley which allows for trade and common agricultural production in the border region of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Free trade agreements between the industrial nations of Iran and Turkey are due to be signed in 2017.[5] Likewise the Pakistan-Turkey Free Trade Agreement is due to be signed.[6] Pakistan has free trade agreements with both Afghanistan and Iran which are signed and are in the process of implementation, and currently most of Afghanistan trade is through Pakistan. And the Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement is designed to facilitate trade for goods and services for Central Asia via both Afghanistan and Pakistan.[7] This is in addition to the Ashgabat agreement which is a multi-modal transport agreement between the Central Asian states.[8]

Further cooperation amongst members is planned in the form of the Iran–Pakistan gas pipeline, as well as a Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan pipeline. Current pipelines include the Tabriz–Ankara pipeline in addition to the planned Persian Pipeline. This is in addition to the transportation of oil and gas from resource rich Central Asian states such as Kazakshtan and Turkmenistan of minerals and agriculture that complements the industrialisation underway in Iran, Pakistan and Turkey. Pakistan plans to diversify its source of oil and gas supplies towards the Central Asian states including petroleum import contracts with Azerbaijan.[9]

Logo of Economic Cooperation Organization Azerbaijani: İqtisadi Əməkdaşlıq Təşkilatı Dari: سازمان همکاری اقتصادی Kazakh: Экономикалық ынтымақтастық ұйымы Kyrgyz: Экономикалык Кызматташтык Уюму Pashto: د اقتصادي او همکاريو سازمان Persian: سازمان همکاری اقتصادی Russian: Организация экономического сотрудничества Tajik: Ташкилоти ҳамкории иқтисодӣ Turkish: Ekonomik İşbirliği Teşkilatı Turkmen: Ykdysady Hyzmatdaşlyk Guramasy Urdu: اقتصادی تعاون تنظیم Uzbek: Iqtisodiy Hamkorlik Tashkiloti Uzbek Cyrillic: Иқтисодий Ҳамкорлик Ташкилоти
Motto: "Sustainable socioeconomic development for the people of the region"
Member states of the ECO
Member states of the ECO
HeadquartersTehran, Iran
Official languagesEnglish
Member states
Dr. Hadi Soleimanpour [1]
• Total
7,937,197 km2 (3,064,569 sq mi) (6th)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
488,405,949 (3rd)
• Density
60/km2 (155.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
US $6.3 trillion[2] (4th)
• Per capita
US $13,000
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
US $1.8 trillion (10th)
• Per capita
US $4,000
Time zoneUTC+2 to +5
Calling code


The Economic Cooperation Organization was the successor organisation of what was the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD), founded in 1964, which ended activities in 1979. In 1985 Iran, Pakistan and Turkey joined to form the ECO. By the fall of 1992, the ECO expanded to include seven new members; Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The date of the expansion to its present strength, 28 November, is referred to as "ECO Day". The status and power of the ECO is growing. However, the organisation faces many challenges. Most importantly, the member states are lacking appropriate infrastructure and institutions which the Organization is primarily seeking to develop, to make full use of the available resources in the region and provide sustainable development for the member nations. The Economic Cooperation Organisation Trade Agreement (ECOTA) was signed on 17 July 2003 in Islamabad.[10] ECO Trade Promotion Organization (TPO) is a new organization for trade promotion among member states located in Iran (2009).[11] Under the agreement reached between ECO members, the common trade market should be established by 2015.[4]

Official names

The official working language of the Economic Cooperation Organization is English. The official names of the organization are:

  • Azeri: İqtisadi Əməkdaşlıq Təşkilatı
  • Kazakh: Ekonomıkalyq yntymaqtastyq Uıymy
  • Kyrgyz: Экономикалык Кызматташтык Уюму
  • Pashto:د اقتصادي همکاريو سازمان
  • Persian: سازمان همکاری اقتصادی
  • Russian: Организация экономического сотрудничества
  • Tajik: Созмони Ҳамкории Иқтисодӣ
  • Turkish: Ekonomik İşbirliği Teşkilatı
  • Urdu: اقتصادی تعاون تنظیم
  • Uzbek: Iqtisodiy Hamkorlik Tashkiloti

Objectives & Principles of Cooperation

  • Sustainable economic development of Member States;
  • Progressive removal of trade barriers and promotion of intraregional trade; the Greater role of ECO region in the growth of world trade; Gradual integration of the economies of the Member States with the world economy;
  • Development of transport & communications infrastructure linking the Member States with each other and with the outside world;
  • Economic liberalization and privatization;
  • Mobilization and utilization of ECO region's material resources;
  • Effective utilization of the agricultural and industrial potentials of ECO region.
  • Regional cooperation for drug abuse control, ecological and environmental protection and strengthening of historical and cultural ties among the peoples of the ECO region; and
  • Mutually beneficial cooperation with regional and international organizations.
  • Sovereign equality of the Member States and mutual advantage;
  • Linking of national economic, development plans with ECO's immediate and long-term objectives to the extent possible;
  • Joint efforts to gain freer access to markets outside the ECO region for the raw materials and finished products of the Member States;
  • Effective utilization of ECO institutions, agreements and cooperative arrangements with other regional and international organizations including multilateral financial institutions;
  • Common endeavors to develop a harmonized approach for participation in regional and global arrangements;
  • Realization of economic cooperation strategy; and Exchanges in educational, scientific, technical and cultural fields


Full members

Name Area (km²)[12] Population
(2018, millions)[13]
(2018, per km²)
(2018, nominal, US$ billions)[13]
GDP per capita
(2018, nominal, US$)[13]
(2018, PPP, Int$ billions)[13]
GDP per capita
(2018, PPP, Int$)[13]
Current account balance
(2018, US$ billions)[13]
 Afghanistan 652,230 36.020 55.23 20.367 565.426 72.697 2,018.228 1.048
 Azerbaijan 86,600 9.940 114.78 45.592 4,586.771 178.470 17,954.863 3.020
 Iran 1,648,195 82.360 49.97 430.082 5,221.974 1,652.888 20,069.073 5.792
 Kazakhstan 2,724,900 18.463 6.78 184.209 9,977.414 507.627 27,494.808 -0.281
 Kyrgyzstan 199,951 6.389 31.95 8.013 1,254.135 24.356 3,812.161 -0.983
 Pakistan 796,095 200.960 252.43 306.897 1,527.157 1,148.290 5,714.025 -18.171
 Tajikistan 144,100 9.107 63.20 7.350 807.050 30.547 3,354.156 -0.345
 Turkey 783,562 81.867 104.48 713.513 8,715.513 2,314.398 28,270.226 -40.687
 Turkmenistan 488,100 5.770 11.82 42.764 7,411.877 112.659 19,526.084 -3.498
 Uzbekistan 447,400 32.657 72.99 43.303 1,326.002 239.623 7,337.557 -0.217
Economic Cooperation Organization 7,971,133 483,533 60.66 1,802.090 3,726.922 6,281.555 12,990.954 -54.322



Council of Ministers

The Council of Ministers (COM) is the highest policy and decision-making body and is composed of the various Ministers of Foreign Affairs or such other representatives of the ministerial rank as may be designated by the respective governments. The COM meets at least once a year by rotation among the member states.

Council of Permanent Representatives

The Council of Permanent Representatives (CPR) consists of the Permanent Representatives/Ambassadors of the member states accredited to the Islamic Republic of Iran as well as to the ECO and the Director-General for ECO Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Regional Planning Council

The Regional Planning Council (RPC) is composed of the Head of the Planning Organization of member states or such other representatives of corresponding authorities.

General Secretariat

The General Secretariat (GS) consists of six directorates under the supervision of the Secretary-General and his deputies. Two specialized agencies and six regional institutes are acting under the supervision of the GS.

  • ECO Directorate of Industry & Agriculture
  • ECO Directorate of Trade & Investment
  • ECO Directorate of Energy, Mineral & Environment
  • ECO Directorate of Transport & Communications
  • ECO Directorate of Economic Research & Statistics
  • ECO Directorate of Project Research & Development


Activities of ECO are conducted through directorates under the supervision of Secretary-General and his Deputies which considered and evolve projects and programs of mutual benefit in the fields of:

  • Trade and Investment
  • Transport and Telecommunications
  • Energy, Minerals and Environment
  • Agriculture, Industry and Tourism
  • Human Resources & Sustainable Development
  • Project & Economic Research and Statistics

Summits and General Secretaries

Heads of State summits

Meeting Date Country Location
1st 16-17 February 1992  Iran Tehran
2nd 6-7 May 1993  Turkey Istanbul
3rd 14-15 May 1995  Pakistan Islamabad
4th 14 May 1996  Turkmenistan Ashgabat
Extraordinary 14 May 1997  Turkmenistan Ashgabat
5th 11 May 1998  Kazakhstan Almaty
6th 10 June 2000  Iran Tehran
7th 14 October 2002  Turkey Istanbul
8th 14 September 2004  Tajikistan Dushanbe
9th 5 May 2006  Azerbaijan Baku
10th 11 March 2009  Iran Tehran
11th 23 December 2010  Turkey Istanbul
12th 16 October 2012  Azerbaijan Baku
13th 1 March 2017 [15][16]  Pakistan Islamabad

List of General Secretaries

# Name Nationality Period
1 Alireza Salari[17]  Iran August 1988 - July 1992
2 Shamshad Ahmad  PAK August 1992 - July 1996
3 Önder Özar  Turkey August 1996 - July 2000
4 Abdolrahim Gavahi  Iran August 2000 - July 2002
5 Seyed Mojtaba Arastou  Iran August 2002 - July 2003
6 Bekzhassar Narbayev  Kazakhstan August 2003 - January 2004
7 Askhat Orazbay  Uzbekistan February 2004 - July 2006
8 Khurshid Anwar  PAK August 2006 - July 2009
9 Yahya Maroofi  Afghanistan August 2009 - July 2012
10 Shamil Alaskerov  Azerbaijan August 2012 - July 2015
11 Halil Ibrahim Akca  Turkey August 2015 - July 2018
12 Hadi Soleimanpour  Iran August 2018 - present
source ECO Secretaries General

Regional Institutions & Agencies

Stamps of Azerbaijan, 2009-860
Azerbaijani stamp celebrating the 10th ECO summit in Azerbaijan.

ECO Chamber of Commerce and Industry

ECO-CCI was established on 10 June 1993. Its objectives are to contribute to enhancing economic cooperation and relations in trade, industry, agriculture, tourism, contracting, engineering and banking sectors as well as to realize joint investments among the Member States. National Chambers of Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Turkey are members of ECO-CCI. The 7th General Assembly Meeting of ECO Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ECO-CCI), held on 20 April 2004 in Kabul, Afghanistan. The participating member states offered some proposals for developing new mechanism and modalities for better interaction between member chambers and to re-activate ECO-CCI.

ECO Reinsurance Company

In March 1995, Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey agreed to establish ECO Reinsurance Company. The purpose is to supplement the existing reinsurance services in the region, promote the growth of the national underwriting and retention capacities, minimize the outflow of foreign exchange from the region and to support economic development in the region. The three-member countries decided to form a Trilateral Interim Committee to pave the way for the establishment of this important institution. The Trilateral Interim Committee in its various meetings reviewed the relevant issues such as the development of the business plan and signing of the Articles of Agreement already finalized by a group of Experts from the three founding member countries.[18]

ECO Consultancy & Engineering Company

Governments of all the ECO Member States has established a central resource pool in the shape of ECO Consultancy and Engineering Company (Pvt.) Ltd., or ECO-CEC, to assist in the development projects sponsored by the ECO Member States or by its Trade and Development Bank. The founder States are the Islamic Republic of Iran, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, and Republic of Turkey which holds an equal share in ECO-CEC, Turkey being represented by two companies and Iran and Pakistan, by one each. The Iranian and Turkish Companies specialize mainly in oil and gas pipelines, refineries, petrochemical and industrial engineering, while the Pakistani partner in all other fields of development engineering, including communications, power, urban development public health, telecommunications, water resources development and agriculture. ECO-CEC provides its expertise in the entire range of consultancy operations, starting from conception, project planning and appraisal, through pre-feasibility, feasibility and financial studies, investigation and exploration, site selection to engineering design, material and equipment specifications, construction supervision, contract management, quality control and preparation of technical manuals for the operation and maintenance of the projects.

ECO Trade and Development Bank

The Economic Cooperation Organization Trade and Development Bank (ETDB) was established by the three founding members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) in 2005 which are the Islamic Republic of Iran, Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Republic of Turkey. The Republic of Azerbaijan, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Kyrgyz Republic became the member of the ETDB in 2013, 2014 and 2015 respectively.

As of 31 December 2015, paid in the share capital of the ETDB was SDR 310,870 thousand since Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, and Kyrgyzstan are in process of payment of their paid-in capital contributions.

The Bank has successfully started its operations in 2008. Its headquarters is in Istanbul (Turkey) and representative offices are in Karachi (Pakistan) and Tehran (Iran). The primary objective of the Bank is to provide financial resources for projects and programmes in member countries. The Bank offers a range of medium-to-long term products i.e. project finance, corporate finance, trade finance and loans to support small and medium-sized enterprises directly or through financial intermediaries to private and state-owned entities.

ECO Cultural Institute (ECI)

ECO Cultural Institute (ECI) is affiliated with ECO and aims at fostering understanding and the preservation of the rich cultural heritage of its members through common projects in the field of the media, literature, art, philosophy, sport and education.[19]


  • ECO Supreme Audit Institutions
  • ECO Cultural Institute
  • ECO Science Foundation
  • ECO Educational Institute
  • ECO Drug Control Coordination Unit
  • ECO Trade Promotion Unit
  • ECO Post
  • ECO Shipping Company

Relationship with other organizations

All the ECO states are also member-states of the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC), while ECO itself has observer status in the OIC since 1995.

Arab LeagueParliamentary Union of the OIC Member StatesOrganisation of Islamic CooperationArab Maghreb UnionAgadir AgreementCouncil of Arab Economic UnityGulf Cooperation CouncilWest African Economic and Monetary UnionEconomic Cooperation OrganizationTurkic CouncilLiptako-Gourma AuthorityLiptako-Gourma AuthorityEconomic Cooperation OrganizationAlbaniaMalaysiaAfghanistanLibyaAlgeriaTunisiaMoroccoLebanonEgyptSomaliaAzerbaijanBahrainBangladeshBeninBruneiBurkina FasoCameroonChadComorosDjiboutiGambiaGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaIndonesiaIranIraqIvory CoastJordanKazakhstanKuwaitKyrgyzstanMaldivesMaliMauritaniaMozambiqueNigerNigeriaOmanPakistanQatarSudanPalestineSurinameSyriaTajikistanTogoTurkeyTurkmenistanUgandaUnited Arab EmiratesUzbekistanYemenSenegalGabonSierra LeoneArab Maghreb UnionAgadir AgreementSaudi Arabia
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational organisations within the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (note that Syria is currently suspended from all organizations included in this diagram due to human rights abuses in the ongoing Syrian Civil War).v • d • e

Leaders of ECO member states, as of 2019

See also


  1. ^ ".:The Secretariat of Economic Cooperation Organization:". Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  2. ^
  3. ^ United Nations Charter (Chapter VIII).
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^
  6. ^ "Pakistan-Turkey sixth round of talks on FTA next week".
  7. ^ Center, Asia Regional Integration. "Pakistan-Turkey Preferential Trade Agreement Free Trade Agreement".
  8. ^ "Pakistan announces to join Ashgabat Agreement, Lapis Lazuli Corridor - Pakistan - Dunya News".
  9. ^ "Away from Gulf, Pakistan set to import oil, gas from Central Asia - The Express Tribune". 4 February 2017.
  10. ^ "ECOTA" (PDF). Retrieved 9 February 2012.
  11. ^ [1] Archived 2 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "Country Comparison - Area". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 8 February 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund. 9 February 2019. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  14. ^ ECO Secretariat ECO Secretary General Meets the Representatives of Turkish Cyprus State in Tehran
  15. ^ Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ "Pakistan to host 13th ECO Summit in Islamabad next week". Dawn. 25 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  17. ^ "ECO Secretary Generals". Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
  18. ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 11 February 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
  19. ^ "ECO Cultural Institute's Medals". Retrieved 31 October 2014.

External links

12th ECO Summit

The 2012 ECO summit was the twelfth Economic Cooperation Organization summit, held on 16 October 2012 in Baku, Azerbaijan.

13th ECO Summit

The 2017 ECO summit was the 13th summit of the Economic Cooperation Organization, held on 1 March 2017 in Islamabad, Pakistan.The Summit was preceded by the 22nd Meeting of the ECO Council of Foreign Ministers (COM) on 28 February 2017 in Islamabad. Senior Officials from Member States met on 27 February 2017 in Islamabad and stayed for the duration of the summit.

The summit highlighted the state of affairs of ECO in the light of the new and emerging global and regional circumstances and agreed on expanding regional economic cooperation among its member states. The new ECO Vision 2025 was expanded upon and several key guidelines have been taken into account. Pakistan plans to integrate the ECO Summit members with the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor.

1st ECO Summit

The 1992 ECO summit was the first Economic Cooperation Organization summit, held between 16–17 February in Tehran, Iran. The summit welcomed the admission of new members Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan as well as allowing limited participation in economic, cultural and technical activities of Northern Cyprus.

2nd ECO Summit

The 1993 ECO summit was the second Economic Cooperation Organization summit, held between 6–7 May in Istanbul, Turkey. Afghanistan was welcomed as the 10th member state of the ECO during the summit.

3rd ECO Summit

The 1995 ECO summit was the third Economic Cooperation Organization summit, held between 14–15 May 1995 in Islamabad, Pakistan.

4th ECO Summit

The 1996 ECO summit was the fourth Economic Cooperation Organization summit, held between 14–15 May 1996 in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.

Albania–Russia relations

Albanian–Russian relations are foreign relations between the Republic of Albania and the Russian Federation. The establishment of diplomatic relations between Albania and the Soviet Union happened on April 7, 1924. Both countries were also allies in the Warsaw Pact.

Albania has an embassy in Moscow. Russia has an embassy in Tirana.

Both countries are full members of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (Albania is a member, while Russia is an observer state), and the Council of Europe.

Canada–Chile relations

Canada–Chile relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Canada and Chile. Both nations are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Organization of American States and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.


The ECO Cup was a football competition for members of Economic Cooperation Organization. Previously it was known as RCD Cup, RCD abbreviates Regional Corporation for Development and was an economic cooperation between Iran, Pakistan and Turkey from 1964 to 1979. A new organisation, ECO, was set up in 1985. In 1992, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan joined ECO.

The countries that competed in one or more tournaments are Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. Afghanistan and Uzbekistan never participated. Also Turkey did not participate in 1993 Tournament. 1993 was the last time this tournament was held.

Economic Cooperation Organization Secretariat

The Economic Cooperation Organization Secretariat is located in the Kamranieh neighborhood of Tehran, the capital city of Iran.The headquarters coordinates and monitors implementation of activities, prepares for and services meetings, and serves as a channel of communication between the Association and its Member States as well as other regional organisations. The ECO Secretariat consists of six directorates under the supervision of the Secretary General and deputies. Two specialized agencies and six regional institutes are acting under the supervision of the General Secretariat.

Economic Cooperation Organization Trade Agreement

The Economic Cooperation Organization Free Trade Agreement or ECOTA was an agreement reached on 17 July 2003 at the ECO summit in Islamabad whereby a free trade region was formed between the countries of Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. As of 2008, the ECOTA is in effect.

Halil İbrahim Akça

Halil İbrahim Akça is a Turkish diplomat and the 11th Secretary General of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).

Iran–Uzbekistan relations

Iran–Uzbekistan relations refers to the diplomatic relations between the two countries, Uzbekistan and Iran, which have deep cultural and historical ties between them. Both countries are members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).

List of regional organizations by population

The following is a list of regional organizations by population in 2018.

Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation

The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization focusing on multilateral political and economic initiatives aimed at fostering cooperation, peace, stability and prosperity in the Black Sea region. It traces its origin to 25 June 1992, when Turkish President Turgut Özal and leaders of ten other countries gathered in Istanbul and signed the Summit Declaration and the "Bosphorus Statement". BSEC Headquarters – the Permanent International Secretariat of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC PERMIS) – was established in March 1994, also in Istanbul.With the entry into force of its Charter on 1 May 1999, BSEC acquired international legal identity and was transformed into a full-fledged regional economic organization: Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. With the accession of Serbia (then Serbia and Montenegro) in April 2004, the Organization’s Member States increased to twelve.An important aspect of the activities of BSEC is the development of SME and entrepreneurship in the member countries. Concerning these issues, a series of workshops have been organized in cooperation with Konrad Adenauer Foundation and ERENET.

Regional Cooperation for Development

Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) or Organization for Regional Cooperation and Development (ORCD) was a multi-governmental organization which was originally established on the 21st of July 1964 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, regional members of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), to allow socio-economic development of the member states. In 1979, this organization was dissolved. It was replaced by Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) in 1985.

Seven new members were added: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan.

Shamshad Ahmad

Shamshad Ahmad (Urdu: شمشاد احمد‎) (born 10 December 1941) is a veteran Pakistani diplomat, international relations expert and an author who served as the Foreign Secretary of Pakistan from 1997 to 2000. He also served as the Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the United Nations between 2000 till 2002. Shamshad Ahmad also was the Pakistan's ambassador to South Korea and Iran.He currently writes a weekly column for English daily The News International (newspaper). Before that, he was a regular contributor to The Nation (Pakistan) (newspaper). He also writes occasionally for the Dawn (newspaper) and The Express Tribune (newspaper) – all of them Pakistani newspapers.

Turkey–Turkmenistan relations

Turkey–Turkmenistan relations are foreign relations between Turkey and Turkmenistan. Turkey was the first country in the world to recognize the independence of Turkmenistan during the period of dissolution of the Soviet Union and first country that opened embassy in the newly independent country. Turkmenistan has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul. Both countries are full members of the Economic Cooperation Organization, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, International Organization of Turkic Culture and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The two countries share close cultural connections. Both have a majority Sunni Muslim population, and both are predominantly inhabited by Turkic people; both the Turkish and Turkmen languages belong to the Oghuz group of Turkic languages. Turkey is one of the 47 countries in the world that holders of a Turkmen passport can visit without visa.

Yahya Maroofi

Mohammad Yahya Maroofi (or Maroufi) (born March 5, 1939 in Kabul), is an ethnic Pashtun from the Barakzai tribe. His family is from District Maroof Kandahar, Afghanistan.

Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
Central Asian regional organizations
Applied fields
Schools (history)
of economic thought
Notable economists
and thinkers
within economics

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.