Economic Community of Central African States

The Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS; French: Communauté Économique des États de l'Afrique Centrale, CEEAC; Spanish: Comunidad Económica de los Estados de África Central, CEEAC; Portuguese: Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Central, CEEAC) is an Economic Community of the African Union for promotion of regional economic co-operation in Central Africa. It "aims to achieve collective autonomy, raise the standard of living of its populations and maintain economic stability through harmonious cooperation".

Economic Community of
Central African States

  • Communauté économique des États
    de l'Afrique Centrale
      (French)
  • Comunidade Económica dos Estados
    da África Central
      (Portuguese)
  • Comunidad Económica de los Estados
    de África Central
      (Spanish)
Logo of the Economic Community of Central African States
Logo
ECCAS and CEMAC membership in Africa.   ECCAS and CEMAC   ECCAS only
ECCAS and CEMAC membership in Africa.
  ECCAS and CEMAC
  ECCAS only
Administrative centerGabon Libreville, Gabon
Working languages
TypePillar of the African Economic Community
Membership
Leaders
• Secretary-General
Ahmad Allam-Mi

History

Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa

The Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (or UDEAC from its name in French, Union Douanière et Économique de l’Afrique Centrale), (in Spanish: Unión Aduanera y Económica de África Central, UAEAC), (in Portuguese: União Aduaneira e Económica da África Central, UAEAC), established by the Brazzaville Treaty in 1964,[1] formed a customs union with free trade between members and a common external tariff for imports from other countries. The treaty became effective in 1966 after it was ratified by the then five member countries—Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of Congo, and Gabon. Equatorial Guinea joined the Union on 19 December 1983.[2][3] UDEAC signed a treaty for the establishment of an Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) to promote the entire process of sub-regional integration through the forming of monetary union with the Central Africa CFA franc as a common currency; it was officially superseded by CEMAC in June 1999 (through agreement from 1994). CEMAC currently operates a customs union and monetary union. The common market is in place, but many exceptions to the tariff free regime still exist.

Foundation

At a summit meeting in December 1981, the leaders of the UDEAC agreed in principle to form a wider economic community of Central African states. ECCAS was established on 18 October 1983 by the UDEAC members, São Tomé and Príncipe and the members of the Economic Community of the Great Lakes States (CEPGL established in 1976 by the DR Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). Angola remained an observer until 1999, when it became a full member.

ECCAS began functioning in 1985, but was inactive for several years because of financial difficulties (non-payment of membership fees by the member states) and the conflict in the Great Lakes area. The war in the DR Congo was particularly divisive, as Rwanda and Angola fought on opposing sides. ECCAS has been designated a pillar of the African Economic Community (AEC), but formal contact between the AEC and ECCAS was only established in October 1999 due to the inactivity of ECCAS since 1992 (ECCAS signed the Protocol on Relations between the AEC and the regional blocs (RECs) in October 1999). The AEC again confirmed the importance of ECCAS as the major economic community in Central Africa at the third preparatory meeting of its Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in June 1999.

Presided over by President Pierre Buyoya of Burundi, the summit was held in Libreville on 6 February 1998. The Heads of State and Government present at the summit committed themselves to the resurrection of the organisation. The Prime Minister of Angola also indicated that his country would become a fully fledged member. The summit approved a budget of 10 million French francs for 1998 and requested the Secretariat to:

  • Obtain assistance from UNECA to evaluate the operational activities of the secretariat; to evaluate the contributions due by member states; and the salaries and salary structures of employees of the secretariat
  • Convene an extraordinary meeting of the Council of Ministers as soon as possible to evaluate the recommendations of UNECA; the Council should then draw up proposals for a new administrative structure for the secretariat and revised contributions due by each member state.

The summit also requested countries in the region to find lasting and peaceful solutions to their political problems. The chairman also appealed to member countries to support the complete lifting of the embargo placed on his country. During the inauguration of President Bongo of Gabon on 21 January 1999, a mini-summit of ECCAS leaders was held. The leaders discussed problems concerning the functioning of ECCAS and the creation of a third Deputy Secretary-General post, designated for Angola. Angola formally joined the Community during this summit.[4]

Recent events

The 10th Ordinary Session of Heads of State and Government took place in Malabo in June 2002. This Summit decided to adopt a protocol on the establishment of a Network of Parliamentarians of Central Africa (REPAC) and to adopt the standing orders of the Council for Peace and Security in Central Africa (COPAX), including the Defence and Security Commission (CDC), Multinational Force of Central Africa (FOMAC) and the Early Warning Mechanism of Central Africa (MARAC). Rwanda was also officially welcomed upon its return as a full member of ECCAS.

On January 24, 2003, the European Union (EU) concluded a financial agreement with ECCAS and CEMAC, conditional on ECCAS and CEMAC merging into one organization, with ECCAS taking responsibility for the peace and security of the sub-region through its security pact COPAX. CEMAC is not one of the pillars of the African Economic Community, but its members are associated with it through Economic Community of Central African States. The EU had multiple peacekeeping missions in the DR Congo: Operation Artemis (June to September 2003), EUPOL Kinshasa (from October 2003) and EUSEC DR Congo (from May 2005).

The 11th Ordinary Session of Heads of State and Government in Brazzaville during January 2004 welcomed the fact that the Protocol Relating to the Establishment of a Council for Peace and Security in Central Africa (COPAX) had received the required number of ratifications to enter into force. The Summit also adopted a declaration on the implementation of NEPAD in Central Africa as well as a declaration on gender equality.

On September 23, 2009, pursuant to Presidential Determination 2009-26[5] and as published in the Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 183 (Presidential Documents 48363) ECCAS was made eligible under the U.S. Arms Export Control Act for the furnishing of defense articles and defense services. This makes the ECCAS organization and (theoretically) the countries under their charter eligible for U.S. Foreign Military Sales Program (i.e. government to government sales and assistance) pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act and for other such U.S. assistance as directed by a USG contract to U.S. industry for such support pursuant to the (ITAR)[1].

In 2007, Rwanda decided to leave the organisation[6] in order to remove overlap in its membership in regional trade blocks and so that it could better focus on its membership in the EAC and COMESA. Rwanda was a founding member of the organisation and had been a part of it since 18 October 1981. It subsequently rejoined ECCAS in 2016.[7]

Economic integration

Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa

The Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (or CEMAC from its name in French: Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l'Afrique Centrale, in Spanish: Comunidad Económica y Monetaria de África Central, and in Portuguese: Comunidade Económica e Monetária da África Central) is an organization of states of Central Africa established by Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to promote economic integration among countries that share a common currency, the CFA franc.[8] UDEAC signed a treaty for the establishment of CEMAC to promote the entire process of sub-regional integration through the forming of monetary union with the Central Africa CFA franc as a common currency; it was officially superseded by CEMAC in June 1999 (through agreement from 1994).[9]

CEMAC's objectives are the promotion of trade, the institution of a genuine common market, and greater solidarity among peoples and towards under-privileged countries and regions.[10] In 1994, it succeeded in introducing quota restrictions and reductions in the range and amount of tariffs. Currently, CEMAC countries share a common financial, regulatory, and legal structure, and maintain a common external tariff on imports from non-CEMAC countries. In theory, tariffs have been eliminated on trade within CEMAC, but full implementation of this has been delayed. Movement of capital within CEMAC is free.[11]

Membership

Objectives

The ultimate goal is to establish a Central African Common Market. At the Malabo Heads of State and Government Conference in 1999, four priority fields for the organization were identified:

  • to develop capacities to maintain peace, security and stability - as essential prerequisites for economic and social development
  • to develop physical, economic and monetary integration
  • to develop a culture of human integration
  • to establish an autonomous financing mechanism for ECCAS

Structure

  • Conference of Heads of State and Government
  • Council of Ministers
  • Secretariat General (one secretary-general elected for four years and three assistant secretaries-general)
  • Court of Justice
  • Consultative Commission

Treaties and protocols

  • Treaty Establishing the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)
  • Protocol Establishing the Network of Parliamentarians of ECCAS (REPAC)
  • Mutual Assistance Pact Between Member States of ECCAS
  • Protocol Relating to the Establishment of a Mutual Security Pact in Central Africa (COPAX)

Appendices to the ECCAS Treaty

  • Protocol on the Rules of Origin for products to be traded between member states of the ECCAS
  • Protocol on Non-Tariff Trade Barriers
  • Protocol on the Re-export of goods within the ECCAS
  • Protocol on Transit and Transit facilities
  • Protocol on Customs cooperation within the ECCAS
  • Protocol on the Fund for Compensation for Loss of Revenue
  • Protocol on Freedom of movement and Rights of Establishment of nationals of member states within the ECCAS
  • Protocol on the Clearing House for the ECCAS
  • Protocol on Cooperation in Agricultural development between member states of the ECCAS
  • Protocol on Cooperation in Industrial development between member states of the ECCAS
  • Protocol on Cooperation in Transport and Communications between member states of the ECCAS
  • Protocol on Cooperation in Science and Technology between member states of the ECCAS
  • Protocol on Energy cooperation between member states of the ECCAS
  • Protocol on Cooperation in Natural resources between member states of the ECCAS
  • Protocol on Cooperation in the development of Human resources, Education, Training and Culture between member states of the ECCAS
  • Protocol on Cooperation in Tourism between member states of the ECCAS
  • Protocol on the Simplification and Harmonization of Trade documents and Procedures within the ECCAS
  • Protocol on the Situation of Landlocked, Semi-Landlocked, Island, Part-Island and/or Least Advanced Countries

Peace and security activities

Central African states adopted a pact of non-aggression at the end of the fifth meeting of the UN Consultative Committee on Security in Central Africa held in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The pact, adopted on 9 September 1994, was arrived at after five days of meeting and discussions between military experts and ministers of Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and São Tomé and Príncipe. At a summit conference of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa which took place in Yaoundé on 25–26 February 1999, member states decided to create an organisation for the promotion, maintenance and consolidation of peace and security in Central Africa, which would be called the Council for Peace and Security in Central Africa (COPAX). The COPAX Protocol has now entered into force.

Technical organs of the COPAX council

  • The Central African Early-Warning System (MARAC), which collects and analyses data for the early detection and prevention of crises.
  • The Defence and Security Commission (CDS), which is the meeting of chiefs of staff of national armies and commanders-in-chief of police and gendarmerie forces from the different member states. Its role is to plan, organize and provide advice to the decision-making bodies of the community in order to initiate military operations if needed.
  • The Multinational Force of Central Africa (FOMAC), which is a non-permanent force consisting of military contingents from member states, whose purpose is to accomplish missions of peace, security and humanitarian relief.

The standing orders for COPAX, including those of CDS, MARAC and FOMAC were adopted in June 2002 at the 10th Ordinary Summit in Malabo.

In January 2000, Gabon hosted a regional peacekeeping exercise "Gabon 2000" with the objective of increasing the capacity of ECCAS states in the field of peacekeeping and conflict prevention and management. This exercise represented a direct application of the French RECAMP-concept (reinforcement of African peacekeeping capacities).

Extraordinary Summits of both ECCAS and CEMAC took place in Libreville on 23 June 2000. Foreign ministers from 10 Central African states met in the Democratic Republic of Congo on 16 and 17 August 2001 to discuss security in their war-torn region. The meeting was sponsored by the United Nations, and only Rwanda declined to attend.

A meeting of Defence Chiefs of Staff was held in Brazzaville in October 2003, at which it was decided that a brigade-size peacekeeping force would be created in order to intervene in unstable Central African areas.[13] This could then form one of the African Union's five planned brigades of the African Standby Force, one brigade for each region (North, West, Central, East and Southern Africa). The meeting recommended that military planners from each of the ECCAS states form a group to work out the details for the force. They also suggested the establishment of a joint peacekeeping training centre and military exercises every two years. The first of these is to take place in Chad.

MICOPAX

The Mission for the consolidation of peace in Central African Republic (MICOPAX) is a peace operation in the Central African Republic led by the ECCAS.[14] It's involved in the Central African Republic Bush War and 2012–2013 Central African Republic conflict.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Traité instituant une Union douanière et économique de l'Afrique centrale" (PDF) (in French). CEMAC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  2. ^ "CEMAC EN BREF" (in French). CEMAC. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  3. ^ Alen Angok. "PRÉSENTATION". Ge-Infonet (in French). Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  4. ^ NEPAD, The Africa Platform on Development Effectiveness, http://www.africa-platform.org/fr/perspectives-africaines/communautes-economiques-regionales/communaute-economique-des-etats-dafrique, Retrieved 2 january 2018
  5. ^ http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/E9-23086.htm
  6. ^ "SADC, COMESA and the EAC: Conflicting regional and trade agendas". Institute for Global Dialogue. October 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  7. ^ a b "Rwanda back to Central Africa bloc, 10 years on". 2016-08-20. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  8. ^ CEMAC website Archived 2008-12-21 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ CEMAC Treaty (in French)
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2008-05-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l'Afrique Centrale (CEMAC)
  11. ^ "National Trade Estimates Report – Cameroon" US Fed News, 31 March 2006
  12. ^ "Etats Membres". Economic Community of Central African States. Archived from the original on 2013-08-24.
  13. ^ UK House of Commons, House of Commons Written Answers 28 April 2004, part 37 Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, accessed March 2009
  14. ^ "MICOPAX". EuropeAid – European Commission. 2012-05-15. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11.

External links

Ahmad Allam-Mi

Ahmad Allam-Mi (born 1948) is a Chadian diplomat who has been Secretary-General of the Economic Community of Central African States since 2013. He was the Foreign Minister of Chad from 2005 to 2008, and he was Chad's Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 2008 to 2013.

Central Africa

Central Africa is a region of the African continent comprising various countries according to different definitions. Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and São Tomé and Príncipe are members of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Six of those states (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon) are also members of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and share a common currency, the Central African CFA franc. The African Development Bank defines Central Africa as Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. Middle Africa is an analogous term used by the United Nations in its geoscheme for Africa. It includes the same countries as the African Development Bank's definition, along with Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe.

Central African Backbone

The Central African Backbone (CAB) is a fiber-optic Internet backbone being developed to connect the countries of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) in Africa via high speed internet. The countries included in the CAB project are: Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Republic of the Congo and São Tomé and Príncipe. It's split up into five phases, each phase focusing on the fibre rollout in one or more countries.

Central African Republic

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; French: République centrafricaine pronounced [ʁepyblik sɑ̃tʁafʁikɛn], or Centrafrique [sɑ̃tʁafʁik]) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west. The CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres (240,000 sq mi) and had an estimated population of around 4.6 million as of 2016. As of 2019, the CAR is the scene of a civil war, ongoing since 2012.Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas, but the country also includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north and an equatorial forest zone in the south. Two thirds of the country is within the Ubangi River basin (which flows into the Congo), while the remaining third lies in the basin of the Chari, which flows into Lake Chad.

What is today the Central African Republic has been inhabited for millennia; however, the country's current borders were established by France, which ruled the country as a colony starting in the late 19th century. After gaining independence from France in 1960, the Central African Republic was ruled by a series of autocratic leaders, including an abortive attempt at a monarchy; by the 1990s, calls for democracy led to the first multi-party democratic elections in 1993. Ange-Félix Patassé became president, but was later removed by General François Bozizé in the 2003 coup. The Central African Republic Bush War began in 2004 and, despite a peace treaty in 2007 and another in 2011, civil war resumed in 2012.

Despite its significant mineral deposits and other resources, such as uranium reserves, crude oil, gold, diamonds, cobalt, lumber, and hydropower, as well as significant quantities of arable land, the Central African Republic is among the ten poorest countries in the world, with the lowest GDP per capita at purchasing power parity in the world as of 2017. As of 2019, according to the Human Development Index (HDI), the country had the second lowest level of human development, ranking 188th out of 189 countries. It is also estimated to be the unhealthiest country as well as the worst country in which to be young. The Central African Republic is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of Central African States, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Non-Aligned Movement.

Central African Republic conflict under the Djotodia administration

An internal conflict in the Central African Republic (CAR) started essentially on 13 April 2013, when the government of President Michel Djotodia officially took over. The fighting was between the government of the Central African Republic's former Séléka coalition of rebel groups, who are mainly from the Muslim minority, and the mainly Christian anti-balaka coalition. The conflict was part of the ongoing Central African Republic Civil War (2012–present). International organisations, such as the United Nations, had warned of a possible genocide. UNSC resolution 2122 authorised the African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic (MISCA) to be deployed to the country, and France to lead operations with additional troops sent to bolster its force in the country. Following a summit of Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC), including the attendance of all the country's MPs, Djotodia resigned from the presidency on 10 January 2014. The National Transitional Council chose Bangui mayor Catherine Samba-Panza as interim president on 20 January 2014. A period of lawlessness prevailed during the early days of her presidency with people moving into religiously cleansed neighbourhoods as the UN warned of a genocide. Anti-Balaka attacks continued against Muslim civilians.

Customs and monetary union

A customs and monetary union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a customs union and a currency union. The participant countries have both common external trade policy and share a single currency.

Customs and monetary union is established through trade pact.

Customs union

A customs union is generally defined as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff. Customs unions are established through trade pacts where the participant countries set up common external trade policy (in some cases they use different import quotas). Common competition policy is also helpful to avoid competition deficiency.Purposes for establishing a customs union normally include increasing economic efficiency and establishing closer political and cultural ties between the member countries. It is the third stage of economic integration.

Every economic union, customs and monetary union and economic and monetary union includes a customs union.

Development Bank of the Central African States

The Development Bank of the Central African States, usually known for its French initials, BDEAC, is a multilateral development bank that is charged with financing the development of the member states of Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC). The BDEAC is different from the Bank of the Central African States (BEAC), which is a central bank.

ECOWAS Court

The ECOWAS Court of Justice is an organ of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), a regional integration community of 15 member states in Western Africa. It was created pursuant to the provisions of Articles 6 and 15 of the Revised Treaty of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

Economic union

An economic union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a common market with a customs union. The participant countries have both common policies on product regulation, freedom of movement of goods, services and the factors of production (capital and labour) and a common external trade policy. When an economic union involves unifying currency it becomes an economic and monetary union.

Purposes for establishing an economic union normally include increasing economic efficiency and establishing closer political and cultural ties between the member countries.

Economic union is established through trade pact.

International organisations in Africa

The following table lists the independent African states, and their memberships in selected organisations and treaties.

Laotegguelnodji Koumtog

Laotegguelnodji Koumtog (born 1946) is a Chadian political figure and diplomat. He served in the government of Chad as Minister of Communication and Government Spokesman from 1994 to 1998 and as Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 2000 to 2005.

Koumtog was born in Pandzangue. He was Director of Trade, Customs, Financial and Monetary Affairs at the Secretariat of the Economic Community of Central African States from 1985 to 1994. He then served as Minister of Communication and Government Spokesman from 1994 to 1998; he was also Deputy Chief of Staff to President Idriss Déby at this time. Subsequently he was Assistant Director-General of the Chad Oil Transportation Company S.A. in Komé before being appointed as Permanent Representative to the UN in 2000. He presented his credentials as Permanent Representative on December 20, 2000.

Louis Sylvain Goma

Louis Sylvain Goma (born 24 June 1941 in Pointe-Noire) is a Congolese politician who was Prime Minister of Congo-Brazzaville from 18 December 1975 to 7 August 1984, serving under three successive Heads of State: Marien Ngouabi, Jacques Yhombi-Opango, and Denis Sassou Nguesso. Later, he was Secretary-General of the Economic Community of Central African States from 1999 to 2012, and he has been Congo-Brazzaville's Ambassador to Argentina since 2019.

MISCA

The African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic (MISCA, French acronym for Mission internationale de soutien à la Centrafrique sous conduite africaine) is an African Union peacekeeping mission to the Central African Republic. MISCA was established on 5 December 2013 by United Nations Security Council resolution 2127 to stabilise the country as a result of the Central African Republic conflict under the Djotodia administration and following the 2013 Central African Republic coup d'état.

The mission, officially backed by France and initially led by the African Union, was deployed on 19 December 2013. The resolution includes the option to transfer it to a larger mission under United Nations authority with peacekeeping forces from more countries — if needed and if appropriate local conditions are met.

Nassour Guelendouksia Ouaido

Nassour Guelendouksia Ouaido (born 1947) is a Chadian politician who was Prime Minister of Chad from 1997 to 1999 and was President of the National Assembly of Chad from 2002 to 2011. He was Secretary-General of the Economic Community of Central African States from 2012 to 2013.

Regional Economic Communities

The Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in Africa group together individual countries in subregions for the purposes of achieving greater economic integration. They are described as the 'building blocks' of the African Union (AU) and are also central to the strategy for implementing the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD).

UDEAC

UDEAC may refer to:

Economic Community of Central African States

Special Administrative Unit of Civil Aeronautics

United Nations Security Council Resolution 2018

United Nations Security Council Resolution 2018 was unanimously adopted on 31 October, 2011.

Vehicle registration plates of Equatorial Guinea

The vehicle registration plates of Equatorial Guinea is a legal form requiring the citizens of Equatorial Guinea to have the car registered.

The license plates of Equatorial Guinea, like the former Spanish colony, are built on the Spanish principle and have the format "AV-123-C". The prefix "AB" means the region, "123" - the number, the suffix "С" - the series. The license plates have European shapes and sizes. Regular plates have a white background with black marks. Since 2009, on the left side of the plates is the logo of the Economic Community of Central African States and the unofficial reduction of "GE".

Regional economic communities in Africa
Continental
Inter-regional
Southern
Northern
Eastern
Western
Central
Terminology
Organizations
and policies
Political economy
Regional organizations
Exports by product

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