Eber (Hebrew: עֵבֶר – ʿḖḇer; Greek: ἜβερÉber; Arabic: عٰبِر‎ – ʿĀbir) is an ancestor of the Israelites and the Ishmaelites according to the "Table of Nations" in Genesis 10-11 and 1 Chronicles 1.

Eber imagined in the 1553 Promptuarium Iconum Insigniorum


Eber was a great-grandson of Noah's son Shem and the father of Peleg born when Eber was 34[1] years old, and of Joktan. He was the son of Shelah, a distant ancestor of Abraham. According to the Hebrew Bible, Eber died at the age of 464,[2] (Genesis 11:14-17) when Jacob was 79.

In the Septuagint, Eber's (῞Εβερ) father is called Sala (Σαλά). His son is called Phaleg (Φαλέγ), born when Heber was 134 years old, and he had other sons and daughters. Heber lived to an age of 404 years.[3] (Septuagint Genesis 11:14-17; [1])


The Aramaic/Hebrew root עבר is connected with crossing over and the beyond.[4] Considering that other names for descendants of Shem also stand for places, Eber can also be considered the name of an area, perhaps near Assyria.[5] A number of mediaeval scholars such as Michael the Syrian, Bar Hebraeus, and Agapius the Historian mentioned the prevailing view, that the Hebrews had received their name from Eber, while also pointing out that according to others, the name "Hebrew" meant "those who cross", in reference to those who crossed the Euphrates river with Abram from Ur to Harran, and then to the land of Canaan.

In some translations of the New Testament, he is referred to once as Heber ([Luke 3:35] ...the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Heber, the son of Salah...); however, he should not be confused with the Heber of the Old Testament (different Hebrew spelling, חבר), grandson of Asher (Genesis 46:17).

Hebrew language

According to Abu Isa, Eber, the great-grandson of Shem, refused to help with the building of the Tower of Babel, so his language was not confused when it was abandoned. He and his family alone retained the original human language (a concept referred to as lingua humana in Latin), Hebrew, a language named after Eber.[6] (There are different religious positions on this issue; see also Adamic language.)

[Genesis 10:21] Also to Shem, the father of all the Children of Eber, and the older brother of Japheth, children were born. (NASB)

In Islam

Eber is sometimes referred to in classical Islamic writings as the "father" of the "prehistoric, original Arabs" (the ʿArab al-ʿĀriba), who lived in the Arabian Peninsula after the Deluge.[7] Eber was also identified with the Quranic prophet Hud by some of the early Muslim authorities.[8] Other sources identify the prophet Hud as Eber's son.[8]

See also


  1. ^ 34 according to the Masoretic Text; 134 according to the Septuagint. Larsson, Gerhard. “The Chronology of the Pentateuch: A Comparison of the MT and LXX.” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 102, no. 3, 1983, p. 402. www.jstor.org/stable/3261014.
  2. ^ 464 according to the Masoretic Text; 460 according to the Septuagint. Larsson, Gerhard. “The Chronology of the Pentateuch: A Comparison of the MT and LXX.” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 102, no. 3, 1983, p. 402. www.jstor.org/stable/3261014.
  3. ^ Gerhard Larsson alludes to an alternate reading which gives Heber's age at death as 304 years. Larsson, Gerhard. “The Chronology of the Pentateuch: A Comparison of the MT and LXX.” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 102, no. 3, 1983, pp. 402. www.jstor.org/stable/3261014.
  4. ^ Marcus Jastrow, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature (London, W.C.: Luzac & Co. ; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons; 1903), p. 1039 etc.
  5. ^  Hirsch, Emil G.; König, Eduard (1903). "Eber". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. p. 30.
  6. ^ Morris Jastrow, Ira Maurice Price, Marcus Jastrow, Louis Ginzberg, & Duncan B. MacDonald; "Babel, Tower of", Jewish Encyclopedia; Funk & Wagnalls, 1906.
  7. ^ Buhl, Fr., “Ḏj̲urhum”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936), Edited by M. Th. Houtsma, T.W. Arnold, R. Basset, R. Hartmann.
  8. ^ a b Wensinck, A. J., “Hūd”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936), Edited by M. Th. Houtsma, T.W. Arnold, R. Basset, R. Hartmann.

External links

Aram (region)

Aram is a region mentioned in the Bible located in present-day Syria, including where the city of Aleppo now stands. At its height, Aram stretched from the Lebanon mountains eastward across the Euphrates, including parts of the Khabur River valley in northwestern Mesopotamia on the border of Iraq. The region was known as The Land of the Amurru during the Akkadian Empire (2335-2154 BC), Neo-Sumerian Empire (2112-2004 BC) and Old Assyrian Empire (2025-1750 BC) in reference to its largely Amorite inhabitants. During the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC), Neo-Babylonian Empire (612-539 BC) and Achaemenid Empire (539-332 BC) Aram was known as Eber-Nari.


In Irish mythology, Donn ("the dark one", from Proto-Celtic: *Dhuosnos) is an ancestor of the Gaels and is believed to have been a god of the dead.Donn is said to dwell in Tech Duinn (the "house of Donn" or "house of the dark one"). A 9th-century poem says that Donn's dying wish was that all his descendants would gather at Tech Duinn after death: "To me, to my house, you shall all come after your deaths". The 10th-century tale Airne Fíngein ("Fíngen's Vigil") says that Tech Duinn is where the souls of the dead gather. In their translation of Acallam na Senórach, Ann Dooley and Harry Roe commented that "to go to the House of Donn in Irish tradition means to die". This suggests that the pagan Gaels saw Donn as their ancestor and believed they would go to his abode when they died. Tech Duinn may have been thought of as a place where the souls of the dead gathered before travelling to their final destination in the otherworld, or before being reincarnated. According to Julius Caesar, the Gauls also claimed descent from a god of the underworld whom he likened to Dīs Pater.The Christian writers who put together the Lebor Gabála Érenn made Donn (also called Éber Donn) one of the Milesians, the mythical ancestors of the Gaels. The Milesians invade Ireland and take it from the Tuatha Dé Danann. During their invasion, Donn slights Ériu, one of the eponymous goddesses of Ireland, and he drowns in a shipwreck off the southwest coast. Donn is then buried on a rocky island which becomes known as Tech Duinn. In the literature, Tech Duinn is said to lie at or beyond the western edge of Ireland. Tech Duinn is commonly identified with Bull Rock, an islet off the western tip of the Beara Peninsula. Bull Rock resembles a dolmen or portal tomb as it has a natural tunnel through it, allowing the sea to pass under it as if through a portal. In Ireland there was a belief that the souls of the dead departed westwards over the sea with the setting sun.

The Metrical Dindshenchas entry for Tech Duinn recounts the tale:Through the incantations of the druids a storm came upon them, and the ship wherein Donn was foundered. ‘Let his body be carried to yonder high rock’, says Amairgen: ‘his folk shall come to this spot.’ So hence it is called Tech Duinn: and for this cause, according to the heathen, the souls of sinners visit Tech Duinn before they go to hell, and give their blessing, ere they go, to the soul of Donn. But as for the righteous soul of a penitent, it beholds the place from afar, and is not borne astray. Such, at least, is the belief of the heathen. – Translation by E. Gwynn

In the tale Togail Bruidne Dá Derga ("The Destruction of Dá Derga's Hostel"), king Conaire Mór meets his death in Bruiden Dá Derga (the "great hall or hostel of the red god"). On his way to the hostel, Conaire meets three red men riding red horses from the otherworld. They foretell his doom and tell him "we ride the horses of Donn […] although we are alive, we are dead". Donn is called "king of the dead" in the tale. It has been suggested that Dá Derga and Dá Derga's Hostel is another name for Donn and his abode. It may be a name for the death god in the context of violent death or sacrifice, hence the name "red god".In the tale Tochmarc Treblainne ("The Wooing of Treblann"), the otherworld woman Treblann elopes with the mortal man Fráech, who sends her to safety in Tech Duinn while he embarks on a quest. In this tale, Donn is said to be the son or foster-son of the Dagda. Dáithí Ó hÓgáin notes similarities between the two and suggests that Donn was originally an epithet of the Dagda.Folklore about Donn survived into the early modern era. In County Limerick, a Donn Fírinne was said to dwell in the sacred hill of Cnoc Fírinne (Knockfeerina or Knockfierna), and folklore told of people being brought into the hill to be with Donn when they died. He was said to appear as a phantom horseman riding a white horse. He was also associated with the weather: thunder and lightning meant that Donn Fírinne was riding his horse through the sky, and if clouds were over the hill it meant that he was gathering them together to make rain. This imagery may have been influenced by the lore of Odin and his horse Sleipnir from the Norse settlers in Limerick. Donn Fírinne was also said to appear and warn anyone who interfered with his hill. On the west coast of County Clare there was a Donn na Duimhche or Donn Dumhach ("Donn of the dunes"), who "was also often encountered as a night-horseman". In later folklore, the name 'Donn' came to mean an 'otherworld lord' in general.Donn is also father of Diarmuid Ua Duibhne, whom he gives to Aengus Óg to be raised.

In modern Irish, donn is the word for the colour brown.

Eber, Ohio

Eber is an unincorporated community in Fayette County, in the U.S. state of Ohio.


Eber-Nari (Akkadian, also Ebir-Nari), Abar-Nahara עבר-נהרה (Aramaic) or 'Ābēr Nahrā (Syriac) was the name of a region of Western Asia and a satrapy of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC), Neo-Babylonian Empire (612-539 BC) and Achaemenid Empire (539-332 BC). Eber-Nari roughly corresponded with the Levant (Syria region), and was also known as Aramea.

It means "Beyond the River" or "Across the River" in both the Akkadian and Imperial Aramaic languages of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (that is, the Western bank of the Euphrates from a Mesopotamian and Persian viewpoint). It is also referred to as Transeuphratia (French Transeuphratène) by modern scholars. The province is also mentioned extensively in the Biblical books of Ezra and Nehemiah as עבר הנהר Evver Hanahar. Additionally, sharing the same root meaning, Eber (pronounced Evver) was also a character in the Hebrew Bible from which the term Hebrew was widely believed to have been derived (see: Eber), thus the Hebrews were inferred to have been the people who crossed into Canaan across the (Euphrates or the Jordan) river.

The term was established during the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC) in reference to its Levantine colonies, and the toponym appears in an inscription of the 7th century BC Assyrian king Esarhaddon. The region remained an integral part of the Assyrian empire until its fall in 612 BC, with some northern regions remaining in the hands of the remnants of the Assyrian army and administration until at least 605 BC, and possibly as late as 599 BC.Subsequent to this Eber-Nari was fought over by the Neo-Babylonian Empire (612-539 BC) and Egypt, the latter of which had entered the region in a belated attempt to aid its former Assyrian overlords. The Babylonians and their allies eventually defeated the Egyptians (and remnants of the Assyrian army) and assumed control of the region, which they continued to call Eber-Nari.

The Babylonians were overthrown by the Persian Achaemenid Empire (539-332 BC), and the Persians assumed control of the region. Having themselves spent centuries under Assyrian rule, the Achaemenid Persians retained the Imperial Aramaic and Imperial organisational structures of their Assyrian predecessors.

In 535 BC the Persian king Cyrus the Great organized some of the newly conquered territories of the former Neo-Babylonian Empire as a single satrapy; "Babylonia and Eber-Nari", encompassing southern Mesopotamia and the bulk of the Levant. Northern Mesopotamia, the north east of modern Syria and south east Anatolia remaining as Athura (Assyria) (Achaemenid Assyria).The satrap of Eber-Nari resided in Babylon and there were subgovernors in Eber-Nari, one of which was Tettenai, mentioned in both the Bible and Babylonian cuneiform documents. This organization remained untouched until at least 486 BC (Xerxes I's reign), but before c. 450 BC the "mega-satrapy" was split into two—Babylonia and Eber-Nari.Herodotus' description of the Achaemenid tax district number V fits with Eber-Nari. It comprised Aramea, Phoenicia, and Cyprus (which was also included in the satrapy). Herodotus did not include in the tax list the Arabian tribes of the Arabian peninsula, identified with the Qedarites, that did not pay taxes but contributed with a tax-like gift of frankincense.

Eber-Nari was dissolved during the Greek Seleucid Empire (312-150 BC), the Greeks incorporating both this region and Assyria in Upper Mesopotamia into Seleucid Syria during the 3rd century BC. Syria was originally a 9th-century Indo-Anatolian derivation of Assyria and was used for centuries only in specific reference to Assyria and the Assyrians (see Name of Syria), a land which in modern terms actually encompassed only the northern half of Iraq, north east Syria and south east Turkey and not the bulk of Greco-Roman, Byzantine or modern nation of Syria. However, from this point the terms Syrian and Syriac were used generically and often without distinction to describe both Assyria proper and Eber-Nari/Aram, and their respective Assyrian and Aramean/Phoenician populations.

Eber D. Howe

Eber Dudley Howe (June 9, 1798 – November 10, 1885) was the founder and editor of the Painesville Telegraph, a newspaper that published in Painesville, Ohio, starting in 1822. Howe was the author of one of the first books that was critical of the spiritual claims of Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. His 1834 book Mormonism Unvailed [sic] was based largely on affidavits collected by Latter Day Saint dissenter Doctor Philastus Hurlbut and on the letters of dissenter Ezra Booth, which in 1831 had been published in the Ohio Star.

Eber Finn

Éber Finn (modern spelling: Éibhear Fionn), son of Míl Espáine, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland and one of the founders of the Milesian lineage, to which medieval genealogists traced all the important Gaelic royal lines.

According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn, the ancestors of the Gaels were living in the Iberian peninsula, ruled by two of the sons of Míl, Éber Donn and Érimón. After Míl's uncle Íth made a voyage to Ireland but was murdered by its three kings, Mac Cuill, Mac Cécht and Mac Gréine of the Tuatha Dé Danann, the seven sons of Míl led an invasion in thirty-six ships. They landed in County Kerry and fought their way to Tara. On the way, the wives of the three kings, Ériu, Banba and Fodla, requested that the island be named after them: Ériu is the earlier form of the modern name Éire, and Banba and Fodla were often used as poetic names for Ireland, much as Albion is for Britain.

At Tara the sons of Míl met the three kings, and it was decreed that the invaders return to their ships and sail a distance of nine waves from Ireland, and if they were able to land again, Ireland would be theirs. They set sail, but the Tuatha Dé used magic to brew up a storm, in which five of the sons were drowned, leaving only Eber Finn, Érimón and Amergin the poet, to land and take the island in the Battle of Tailtiu. Amergin divided the kingship between Érimón, who ruled the northern half, and Éber Finn, the southern.A year after the Battle of Tailtiu, Éber Finn became unhappy with his half, fought a battle his brother at Airgetros, lost and was killed. Érimón became sole ruler of Ireland. The High Kingship would alternate between the descendants of Éber and the descendants of Érimón. Éber's sons included Conmáel, Ér, Orba, Ferón and Fergna.Geoffrey Keating dates his reign to 1287 BC, the Annals of the Four Masters to 1700 BC.

Eber Moas

Éber Alejandro Moas Silveira (born March 21, 1969 in Montevideo) is a retired football defender from Uruguay, who obtained 48 international caps for his national team. Having made his debut on September 27, 1988 against Ecuador (2-1), Moas played his last international match for his native country on July 20, 1997 in a World Cup Qualifier against Bolivia (0-1).

Eber Phelps

Eber Phelps has been a Democratic member of the Kansas House of Representatives, representing the 111th district.

Ebers Papyrus

The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC. Among the oldest and most important medical papyri of ancient Egypt, it was purchased at Luxor (Thebes) in the winter of 1873–74 by Georg Ebers. It is currently kept at the library of the University of Leipzig, in Germany.

Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small RNAs

The Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are small non-coding RNAs localized in the nucleus of human cells infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). First discovered in 1981, EBERs are the most abundant RNAs present in infected cells. EBERs interact with several host proteins to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Although a precise function for EBERs remains elusive, roles in transformation and oncogenesis are proposed.

Irmfried Eberl

Irmfried Eberl (8 September 1910 – 16 February 1948) was an Austrian psychiatrist and medical director of the euthanasia institutes in Brandenburg and Bernburg, who helped set up and was the first commandant of the Treblinka extermination camp where he worked as SS-Obersturmführer from 11 July 1942 until his dismissal on 26 August 1942. He was arrested after the end of the war in January 1948. Eberl hanged himself the following month to avoid trial.

Lake Eber

Lake Eber (Turkish: Eber Gölü) is a fresh water lake in Afyon Province, Turkey.

Paul Eber

Paul Eber (8 November 1511 – 10 December 1569) was a German Lutheran theologian, reformer and hymnwriter, known for the hymn for the dying, "Herr Jesu Christ, wahr Mensch und Gott".


Peleg (Hebrew: פֶּלֶג – Péleḡ, in pausa פָּלֶג – Pā́leḡ, "division"; Greek: Φάλεκ – Phálek) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as one of the two sons of Eber, an ancestor of the Israelites, according to the "Table of Nations" in Genesis 10-11 and 1 Chronicles 1. Peleg's son was Reu, born when Peleg was thirty, and he had other sons and daughters. According to the Hebrew Bible, Peleg lived to the age of 239 years. (Genesis 11:16-19)

In the Septuagint and some Christian Bibles derived from it, Peleg is called Phaleg and his father is called Heber. His son is called Ragau, born when Phaleg was 130 years old, and he had other sons and daughters. According to the Septuagint, Phaleg lived to an age of 339 years. (Septuagint Genesis 11:16-19) Modern translations generally use the names and dating as in the Masoretic Hebrew text. (compare Genesis 11:16-19)

Peleg is a common surname in Israel, also being the root lettering for sailing (lehaflig להפליג) and a military half-bivouac tent (peleg-ohel פלג אוהל). The meaning of Peleg in English is "brook", a little river.

SMS Eber (1887)

SMS Eber, a 735-ton iron-hulled gunboat, was built at Kiel, Germany for gunboat diplomacy in the Pacific. It was a barque-rigged auxiliary steamer. After commissioning in September 1887 she was sent to the Pacific to serve in the German colonial empire. She disarmed the inhabitants of Nauru in 1888, ending their civil war and annexing the island to the German Empire. Eber was anchored in Apia Harbor, Samoa, during the 1889 Apia cyclone of 15–16 March 1889. Though she was the most modern of the seven warships present, damage to her propeller made it impossible for her to survive the violent wind and seas. After a long struggle, Eber was forced against the edge of the harbor reef and sank quickly, with the loss of 73 of her crewmen.

Salah (biblical figure)

Salah, Shelah, or Sala (Hebrew: שֶׁלַח – Šélaḥ, in pausa שָׁלַח – Šā́laḥ; Greek: Σαλά – Salá) is an ancestor of the Israelites according to the Table of Nations in Genesis 10. He is thus one of the table's “seventy names.” He is also mentioned in Genesis 11:12–15, 1 Chronicles 1:18–24, and Luke 3:35.

In the ancestral line from Noah to Abraham, he is the son of Arpachshad (in the Masoretic Text and Samaritan Pentateuch) or Cainan (in the Septuagint ) and the father of ‘Eber. The name ‘Eber for his son is the original eponym of the Hebrew people, from the root ‘abar (עבר, Hebrew word #5674 in Strong's Concordance), “to cross over.”The Gospel of Luke and Book of Jubilees both agree with the Septuagint in making Salah the son of Cainan, adding the information that his mother was Milcah (the daughter of Madai), while his wife is named as Mu'ak, daughter of Kesed (another son of Arphachsad).

Salah's age at death is given as 433 (Masoretic), 460 (Septuagint), and 460 (Samaritan).Henry M. Morris states that Arpachshad, Salah, and ‘Eber are listed as the most important sons since they were in the line of the promised Seed of the Woman.


Shem (; Hebrew: שֵׁם Šēm) was one of the sons of Noah in the Hebrew Bible as well as in Islamic literature.

The children of Shem were Elam, Ashur, Arphaxad, Lud and Aram, in addition to daughters. Abraham, the patriarch of the Hebrews and Arabs, was one of the descendants of Arphaxad.

Islamic literature describes Shem as one of the believing sons of Noah. Some sources even identify Shem as a

prophet in his own right and that he was the next prophet after his father.Shem is mentioned several times in Genesis 5-11 as well as 1 Chronicles 1:4.

Éber Luís Cucchi

Éber Luís Cucchi, (born September 20, 1981 in Caxias do Sul), is a Brazilian footballer who currently plays for EC Pelotas in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série D where he plays as a forward.


Érimón, (modern spelling: Éiremhón) son of Míl Espáine (and great-grandson of Breoghan, king of Celtic Galicia), according to medieval Irish legends and historical traditions, was one of the chieftains who took part in the Milesian invasion of Ireland, which conquered the island from the Tuatha Dé Danann, and one of the first Milesian High Kings.

Before coming to Ireland, he and his older brother Éber Donn were joint rulers of Spain. His great-uncle Íth made a peaceful expedition to Ireland, which he had seen from the top of a tower built by his father Breogan, but was killed by the three kings of the Tuatha Dé Danann, Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht and Mac Gréine, and in revenge the Milesians invaded in force, with Érimón and Éber Donn in command. They defeated the Tuatha Dé Danann in the Battle of Tailtiu. Éber Donn had been killed, and the High Kingship was divided between Érimón in the north and his younger brother Éber Finn in the south.

Érimón had two wives, Odba, mother of Muimne, Luigne and Laigne, whom he left behind in Spain, and Tea, mother of Íriel Fáid, who accompanied him to Ireland, and died there. Tea was a daughter of Lugaid and gave her name to Tara, where she was buried - the Lebor Gabála Érenn explains its Old Irish tame Temair as "Tea mur", "Tea's Wall". Flann Da Congall was a descendant of Érimón, who had the son Cineth, who had the son Raighan leading to the noble O'Regan family.

A year after the Battle of Tailtiu, Éber Finn became unhappy with his half, fought a battle his brother at Airgetros, lost and was killed. Érimón became sole ruler of Ireland. He appointed kings of the four provinces. He gave Leinster to Crimthann Sciathbél of the Fir Domnann; Munster to the four sons of Eber Finn, Ér, Orba, Ferón and Fergna; Connacht to Ún and Étan, sons of Uicce; and Ulster to Eber mac Ír. During this time the Cruithne settled in Ireland. He ruled for fourteen, fifteen or seventeen further years, after which he died at Airgetros, and was succeeded by his sons Muimne, Luigne and Laigne, ruling jointly.Geoffrey Keating dates his reign from 1287-1272 BC, the Annals of the Four Masters from 1700 to 1684 BC.In the tradition of comparative mythologist Georges Dumézil, the name of 'Érimón' is ostensibly related to the name of a Gaulish god 'Ario-manus', who is only known of from 1st-century BC Roman reports in Austria. This assumption derives from now-defunct 18th-century theories related to the etymology of 'Éire'.

Adam to David according to the Bible
Creation to Flood
Cain line
Patriarchs after Flood
Tribe of Judah to Kingdom
Extra-Quranic Prophets of Islam
In Stories of the Prophets
In Islamic tradition
In Quranic exegesis

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