Eastern red bat

The eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) is a species of microbat in the family Vespertilionidae. Eastern red bats are widespread across eastern North America, with additional records in Bermuda.

Eastern red bat
The image depicts a eastern red bat, recently captured by a researcher
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Lasiurus
Species:
L. borealis
Binomial name
Lasiurus borealis
Müller, 1776
Lasiurus borealis map
Synonyms
  • Vespertilio borealis Müller, 1776
  • Vespertilio noveboracensis Erxleben, 1777
  • Vespertilio lasiurus Schreber, 1781
  • Vespertilio rubellus Palisot de Beauvois, 1796
  • Vespertilio rubra Ord, 1815
  • Vespertilio tesselatus Rafinesque, 1818
  • Vespertilio monachus Rafinesque, 1818
  • Vespertilio rufus Warden, 1820
  • Lasiurus funebris Fitzinger, 1870
  • Myotis quebecensis Yourans, 1930

Taxonomy and etymology

It was described in 1776 by German zoologist Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller. He initially placed it in the genus Vespertilio, with the name Vespertilio borealis.[2] It was not placed into its current genus Lasiurus until the creation of the genus in 1831 by John Edward Gray.[3] Its species name "borealis" is Latin in origin, meaning "northern." Of the species in its genus, the eastern red bat is most closely related to other red bats, with which they form a monophyly. Its closest relatives are the Pfeiffer's red bat (Lasiurus pfeifferi), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), cinnamon red bat (L. varius), desert red bat (L. blossevillii), saline red bat (L. salinae), and the greater red bat (L. atratus).[4]

Red bat (4a)
Eastern red bat (female), roosting

Description

The eastern red bat has distinctive fur, with its back brick red or rusty red and frosted with white. Individual hairs on its back are approximately 5.8 mm (0.23 in), while hairs on its uropatagium are 2.6 mm (0.10 in) long. Fur on its ventral surface is usually lighter in color, while the shoulders may appear white. Females are usually lighter in color than the males. Its entire body is densely furred, including its uropatagium. It is a medium-sized member of its genus, weighing 7–13 g (0.25–0.46 oz) and measuring 109 mm (4.3 in) from head to tail. Its ears are short and rounded, with triangular tragi. Its wings are long and pointed. Its tail is long, at 52.7 mm (2.07 in) long. Its forearm is approximately 40.6 mm (1.60 in) long. Its dental formula is 1.1.2.33.1.2.3, for a total of 32 teeth.[3]

Biology

The aspect ratio and wing loading of eastern red bat wings indicates that they fly relatively quickly and are moderately manoeuvrable.[3] Eastern red bats are insectivorous, preying heavily on moths, with other insect taxa also consumed. They consume known pests, including gypsy moths, tent caterpillar moths, Cydia moths, Acrobasis moths, cutworm moths, and coneworm moths.[5]

Range and habitat

The eastern red bat is widely distributed in eastern North America and Bermuda.[6] It generally occurs east of the Continental Divide, including southern Canada and northeastern Mexico. In the winter, it occurs in the southeastern United States and northeastern Mexico, with greatest concentrations in coastal areas. In the spring and summer, it can be found in the Great Lakes region and the Great Plains region. Unlike the closely related hoary bat, males and females have the same geographic range throughout the year.[7] Formerly, some authors included the western United States, Central America, and the northern part of South America in its range,[3] but these populations have since been reassigned to the desert red bat, Lasiurus blossevillii.[6]

Conservation

The eastern red bat is evaluated as least concern by the IUCN, the lowest-priority conservation category. It meets the criteria for this designation because it has a wide geographic range, large population size, it occurs in protected areas, it tolerates some habitat disturbance, and its population size is unlikely to be declining rapidly.[1] Eastern red bats and other migratory tree bats are vulnerable to death by wind turbines via barotrauma.[8] The eastern red bat has the second-greatest mortality from wind turbines, with hoary bats most affected.[9] While it has been documented carrying the spores of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus that causes white-nose syndrome, no individuals have been observed with clinical symptoms of the disease.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Arroyo-Cabrales, J.; Miller, B.; Reid, F.; Cuarón, A.D.; de Grammont, P.C. (2016). "Lasiurus borealis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T11347A22121017. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T11347A22121017.en.
  2. ^ Müller, P.L.S (1776). Des Ritters Carl von Linné vollständiges Natursystem: nach der zwölften lateinischen Ausgabe, und nach Anleitung des holländischen Houttuynischen Werks. 1. Gabriel Nicolaus Raspe. p. 20.
  3. ^ a b c d Shump, K. A.; Shump, A. U. (1982). "Lasiurus borealis". Mammalian Species (183): 1–6. doi:10.2307/3503843. JSTOR 3503843.
  4. ^ Baird, A. B.; Braun, J. K.; Mares, M. A.; Morales, J. C.; Patton, J. C.; Tran, C. Q.; Bickham, J. W. (2015). "Molecular systematic revision of tree bats (Lasiurini): doubling the native mammals of the Hawaiian Islands". Journal of Mammalogy. 96 (6): 1255–1274. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyv135.
  5. ^ Clare, E. L.; Fraser, E. E.; Braid, H. E.; Fenton, M. B.; Hebert, P. D. (2009). "Species on the menu of a generalist predator, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis): using a molecular approach to detect arthropod prey". Molecular Ecology. 18 (11): 2532–2542. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04184.x.
  6. ^ a b Simmons, N. B. (2005). "Genus Lasiurus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 458–459. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  7. ^ Cryan, P. M. (2003). "Seasonal distribution of migratory tree bats (Lasiurus and Lasionycteris) in North America". Journal of Mammalogy. 84 (2): 579–593. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2003)084<0579:SDOMTB>2.0.CO;2.
  8. ^ Cryan, P. M.; Brown, A. C. (2007). "Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines". Biological Conservation. 139 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.05.019.
  9. ^ Kunz, T. H.; Arnett, E. B.; Erickson, W. P.; Hoar, A. R.; Johnson, G. D.; Larkin, R. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Thresher, R. W.; Tuttle, M. D. (2007). "Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats: questions, research needs, and hypotheses". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 5 (6): 315–324. doi:10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[315:EIOWED]2.0.CO;2.
  10. ^ "Bats affected by WNS". White-Nose Syndrome.org. US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
Arielulus

Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:

Genus Arielulus

Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)

Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)

Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)

Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)

Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)

Barbastella

Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.

Cinnamon red bat

The cinnamon red bat (Lasiurus varius) is a species of bat from the family Vespertilionidae. It is often listed as a synonym of the eastern red bat or the desert red bat, but is distinct.

Desert red bat

The desert red bat (Lasiurus blossevillii), also known as the western red bat, or southern red bat, is one of many species of bats. This particular one is from the family Vespertilionidae, which is the largest bat family. This species and its relative Lasiurus borealis are sometimes just referred to as red bats.

Eimeria

Eimeria is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that includes various species capable of causing the disease coccidiosis in animals such as cattle, poultry, and smaller ruminants including sheep and goats. Eimeria species are considered to be monoxenous because the life cycle is completed within a single host, and stenoxenous because they tend to be host specific, although a number of exceptions have been identified. Species of this genus infect a wide variety of hosts. Thirty-one species are known to occur in bats (Chiroptera), two in turtles, and 130 named species infect fish. Two species (E. phocae and E. weddelli) infect seals. Five species infect llamas and alpacas: E. alpacae, E. ivitaensis, E. lamae, E. macusaniensis, and E. punonensis. A number of species infect rodents, including E. couesii, E. kinsellai, E. palustris, E. ojastii and E. oryzomysi. Others infect poultry (E. necatrix and E. tenella), rabbits (E. stiedae) and cattle (E. bovis, E. ellipsoidalis, and E. zuernii). For full species list, see below.

The most prevalent species of Eimeria that cause coccidiosis in cattle are E. bovis, E. zuernii, and E. auburnensis. In a young, susceptible calf it is estimated that as few as 50,000 infective oocysts can cause severe disease. Eimeria infections are particularly damaging to the poultry industry and costs the United States more than $1.5 billion in annual loses. The most economically important species among poultry are E. tenella, E. acervulina, and E. maxima. The oocysts of what was later called Eimeria steidai were first seen by the pioneering Dutch microscopist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) in the bile of a rabbit in 1674. The genus is named after the German zoologist Theodor Eimer (1843–1898).

Evening bat

The evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) is a species of bat in the vesper bat family that is native to North America. Hunting at night, they eat beetles, moths, and other flying insects.

Laephotis

Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:

Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)

Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)

Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)

De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)

Lasiurus

Lasiurus is the genus comprising hairy-tailed bats. The generic name Lasiurus is derived from the Greek lasios (hairy) and oura (tail). It contains some of the most attractive bats (Chiroptera) in the whole continent of North America, including such species as the eastern red bat, L. borealis, and the hoary bat, L. cinereus. They are very robust and long-winged, with fast and strong flight; several species fly during parts of the day, especially when migrating south in autumn. The hoary bat and red bat will often fly in daylight during winter.

When roosting, this group is also interesting as they hang from twigs, usually hidden by leaves in trees, and do not use caves. The northern species, such as the red and hoary bats, have particularly thick and dense fur for extra insulation, and may migrate south in winter, although winter roosting sites can still be quite cool.

They are, as a genus, unusual, being the only bats apart from the parti-coloured bat Vespertilio murinus to possess an extra pair of nipples (four in total). This allows them to suckle more than the usual one pup per season that most bats produce, with two or three being common and sometimes four produced, though more rarely.

List of mammals of Missouri

This is a list of known mammals in the US state of Missouri.

List of mammals of Ohio

This list of mammals of Ohio includes a total of 70 mammal species recorded in the state of Ohio. Of these, three (the black bear, Indiana bat, and Allegheny woodrat) are listed as endangered in the state, three (the Norway rat, house mouse, and wild boar) are introduced, two (the gray bat and Mexican free-tailed bat) are considered accidental, and eight (the American bison, elk, cougar, Canada lynx, gray wolf, American marten, marsh rice rat, and southern red-backed vole) have been extirpated from the state.

The following codes are used to designate some species:

(E) - Species listed as endangered in Ohio

(A) - Species considered accidental in Ohio

(Ex) - Species that has been extirpated from Ohio, but can still be found elsewhere

(I) - Species established in Ohio as a result of human intervention

List of mammals of South Carolina

This is a list of mammals that are or were in the past native to the US state of South Carolina.

BalaenopteridaeBowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)

Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)

Humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae)

Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)

Right whale (Eubalaena glacialis)

Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)BovidaeBison (Bison bison)CanidaeCoyote (Canis latrans)

Fox

Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)

Red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

Wolf

Gray wolf (Canis lupus)

Red wolf (Canis rufus)CervidaeElk (Cervus elaphus)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)DasypodidaeNine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)DelphinidaeAntillean beaked whale (Mesoplodon europaeus)

Atlantic pilot whale (Globicephala melaena)

Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontails)

Common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

Dense-beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)

False killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens)

Grampus (Grampus griseus)

Pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata)

Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanenis)

Saddleback dolphin (Delphinus delphis)

Short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrohyncha)

Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris)

Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

True's beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus)DidelphimorphiaVirginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)EquidaeHorse (Equus caballus)EschrichtiidaeGray whale (Eschrichtius robustus)FelidaeBobcat (Lynx rufus)

Mountain lion (Puma concolor)LeporidaeEastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus)

Marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris)

New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis)

Swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus)MephitidaeSpotted skunk (Spilogal putorius)

Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)MolossidaeBrazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)MuridaeBlack rat (Rattus rattus)

Cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus)

Deer mouse (Peromyscuc maniculatus)

Eastern harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys humulis)

Eastern woodrat (Neotoma Floridana)

Golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli)

Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus)

House mouse (Mus musculus)

Meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus)

Muskrat (Ondatra zibethiscus)

Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus)

Pine vole (Microtus pinetorum)

Red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi)

Rice rat (Oryzomys palustris)

White-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)MustelidaeLeast weasel (Mustela nivalis)

Long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata)

Mink (Mustela vison)

North American river otter (Lutra canadensis)PhocidaeHarbor seal (Phoca vitulina)

Hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)PhocoenidaeHarbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)PhyseteridaeDwarf sperm whale (Kogia simus)

Pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps)

Sperm whale (Physeter catodon)ProcyonidaeRaccoon (Procyon lotor)SciuridaeEastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus)

Gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

Least shrew (Cryptotis parva)

Masked shrew (Sorex cinereus)

Southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis)SoricidaeAmerican pygmy shrew (Microsorex hoyi)

Red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)

Short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda)

Smoky shrew (Sorex fumeus)

Southeastern shrew (Sorex longirostris)

Southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans)

Woodchuck (Marmota monax)SuidaeWild boar (Sus scrofa)TalpidaeEastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus)

Hairy-tailed mole (Parascalops breweri)

Star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata)TrichechidaeManatee (Trichechus manatus)UrsidaeBlack bear (Ursus americanus)VespertilionidaeBig brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

Eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus)

Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis)

Eastern small-footed bat (Myotis leibii)

Evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis)

Hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus)

Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis)

Little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus)

Northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis)

Northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius)

Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Plecotus rafinesqueii)

Seminole bat (Lasiurus seminolus)

Silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)

Southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius)ZapodidaeMeadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius)

Woodland jumping mouse (Napaeozapus insignis)ZiphiidaeGoosebeaked whale (Ziphius carvirostris)

Minor red bat

The minor red bat (Lasiurus minor) is a species of bat from the family Vespertilioninae. It is found in the Bahamas, Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico, though there are only six known individuals in the latter. Hurricanes, habitat destruction, and human population growth are several factors leading to a decreasing population trend, and the minor red bat is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN Red List due to ongoing population reduction and a small geographic range. The minor red bat is a solitary, insectivorous species that forages in open areas and rests among the leaves of a tree. It is a swift flier, though it is not highly maneuverable. The minor red bat is possibly conspecific with the Seminole bat, Eastern red bat, and Desert red bat.

Red bat

Red bat may refer to:

Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), a species of bat found in the Eastern United States

Western red bat (Lasiurus blossevillii), a species of bat found in Western United States, also called the "Desert red bat"

The Red Bat, a cartoon character

Saline red bat

The saline red bat (Lasiurus salinae) is a species of bat from the family Vespertilionidae. It was formerly included as a subspecies or a synonym of the eastern red bat and the desert red bat, but is distinct. The species is present in Argentina, and its type locality has been found in the city of Cruz del Eje in the Córdoba Province.

Scotoecus

Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

Silver-haired bat

The silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) is a solitary migratory species of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae and the only member of the genus Lasionycteris.

Tragus (ear)

The tragus is a small pointed eminence of the external ear, situated in front of the concha, and projecting backward over the meatus. It also is the name of hair growing at the entrance of the ear. Its name comes from Ancient Greek tragos, meaning 'goat', and is descriptive of its general covering on its under surface with a tuft of hair, resembling a goat's beard. The nearby antitragus projects forwards and upwards.Because the tragus faces rearwards, it aids in collecting sounds from behind. These sounds are delayed more than sounds arriving from the front, assisting the brain to sense front vs. rear sound sources.In a positive fistula test (for the presence of a fistula from cholesteatoma to the labyrinth), pressure on the tragus causes vertigo or eye deviation by inducing movement of perilymph.

Vespertilioninae

The Vespertilioninae are a subfamily of vesper bats from the family Vespertilionidae.

Whartonia carpenteri

Whartonia carpenteri is a species of trombiculid mite collected from the eastern red bat, Lasiurus borealis, and the gray sac-winged bat, Balantiopteryx plicata.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae
Aeorestes
Antrozous
Arielulus
Barbastella
Bauerus
Chalinolobus
Corynorhinus
Dasypterus
Eptesicus
Euderma
Eudiscopus
Falsistrellus
Glauconycteris
Glischropus
Hesperoptenus
Histiotus
Hypsugo
Ia
Idionycteris
Laephotis
Lasionycteris
Lasiurus
Mimetillus
Neoromicia
Niumbaha
Nyctalus
Nycticeinops
Nycticeius
Nyctophilus
Otonycteris
Parastrellus
Perimyotis
Pharotis
Philetor
Pipistrellus
Plecotus
Rhogeessa
Scoteanax
Scotoecus
Scotomanes
Scotophilus
Scotorepens
Scotozous
Tylonycteris
Vespadelus
Vespertilio

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