Eastern Ganga dynasty

The Eastern Ganga dynasty was a medieval Indian dynasty that reigned from Kalinga from the 11th century to the early 15th century. The territory ruled by the dynasty consisted of the whole of the modern-day Indian state of Odisha as well as parts of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.[1] The early rulers of the dynasty ruled from Dantapura; the capital was later moved to Kalinganagara (modern Mukhalingam), and ultimately to Kataka (modern Cuttack).[2] Today, they are most remembered as the builders of the Konark Sun Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage site at Konark, Odisha.

The rulers of Eastern Ganga dynasty defended their kingdom from the constant attacks of the Muslim rulers. This kingdom prospered through trade and commerce and the wealth was mostly used in the construction of temples. The rule of the dynasty came to an end under the reign of King Bhanudeva IV (1414–34), in the early 15th century.[3] Their currency was called Ganga fanams and was greatly influenced by the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas of southern India.[4]

Konark sun temple 06
Main Temple Structure, Konark Sun Temple
Eastern Ganga Empire

• 980–1015
Vajrahasta Aniyankhabhima
• 1038–1070
Vajrahasta Anantavarman
• 1070-1078
Rajaraja Devendravarman
• 1078–1147
Anantavarman Chodagangadeva
• 1178–1198
Ananga Bhima Deva II
• 1238–1264
Narasingha Deva I
• 1414–1434
Bhanu Deva IV
Historical eraClassical India
• Established
• Disestablished
Succeeded by
Gajapati Kingdom


The origin of the Later Eastern Gangas or the Imperial Gangas is not clear.[5] The first monarch of this family was Vajrahasta-Aniyakbhima who ruled from 980 to 1015 AD. He was the grandfather of Vajrahasta-Anantavarman who was crowned in 1038 AD. The relationship of Vajrahasta Aniyakbhima with the Early Gangas, if any, is not clear and cannot be determined.[6]

Towards the end of the eleventh century the Eastern Ganga rulers became matrimonially related to the Cholas of south India and the dynasty came to be known as the Chodaganga dynasty from the time of King Anantavarman Chodaganga. The latter was the son of Rajaraja Devendravarman and grandson of Vajrahasta Anantavarman of the Imperial Gangas of Kalinganagara.[7][8][9] His mother was princess Rajasundari of the Chola dynasty.[10]

Unlike the Western Ganga Dynasty who traced their lineage to the Solar Dynasty,[11] the Later Eastern Gangas claimed a lunar descent from Vishnu through Brahma, Atri and Chandra(moon).[12]


After the fall of Mahameghavahana dynasty, Kalinga was divided into different kingdoms under feudatory chiefs. Each of these chiefs bore the title Kalingadhipathi (Lord of Kalinga). The beginnings of what became the Eastern Ganga dynasty came about when Indravarma I defeated the Vishnukundin king, Indrabhattaraka and established his rule over the region with Kalinganagara (or Mukhalingam) as his capital, and Dantapura as a secondary capital. The Ganga kings assumed various titles viz. Trikalingadhipathi or Sakala Kalingadhipathi (Lord of three Kalinga or all three Kalingas namely Kalinga proper (South), Utkala (North), and Kosala (West)).

Mukhalingam near Srikakulam of Andhra Pradesh bordering Odisha has been identified as Kalinganagara, the capital of the early Eastern Gangas.[13]

After the decline of the early Eastern Gangas reign, the Chalukyas of Vengi took control of the region. The first monarch of the dynasty Vajrahastha Aniyakabhima I (980-1015 A.D), took advantage of the internal strife and revived the power of the Ganga dynasty. It was during their rule that Shaivism took precedence over Buddhism and Jainism. The magnificent Srimukhalingam Temple at Mukhalingam was built during this period.

In the 11th century, the Cholas brought the Ganga Kingdom under their rule.[13]


The Eastern Gangas were known to have intermarried with the Cholas as well as Chalukyas. The early state of the dynasty may have started from the early 8th century.

Anantavarman Chodaganga

The dynasty, towards the end of eleventh century came to be known as Chodaganga dynasty after its founder Anantavarman Chodaganga. He is believed to have ruled from the Ganges River in the north to the Godavari River in the south, thus laying the foundation of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. Also during his rule, the great Jagannath Temple at Puri was built.[13] He assumed the title of Trikalingadhipathi (ruler of the three Kalingas which comprise Kalinga proper, Utkala north and Koshala west) in 1076 CE, resulting in him being the first to rule all three divisions of Kalinga.[14]

Anantavarman was a religious person as well as a patron of art and literature. He is credited for having built the famous Jagannath Temple of Puri in Odisha.[14] King Anantavarman Chodagangadeva was succeeded by a long line of illustrious rulers such as Narasingha Deva I (1238–1264).


Rajaraja III ascended the throne in 1198 and did nothing to resist the Muslims of Bengal, who invaded Orissa in 1206. Rajaraja's son Anangabhima III, however, repulsed the Muslims and built the temple of Megheshvara at Bhuvaneshvara. Narasimhadeva I, the son of Anangabhima, invaded southern Bengal in 1243, defeated its Muslim ruler, captured the capital (Gauda), and built the Sun Temple at Konark to commemorate his victory. With the death of Narasimha in 1264, the Eastern Gangas began to decline; the sultan of Delhi invaded Odisha in 1324, and Musunuri Nayaks defeated the Odishan powers in 1356. Narasimha IV, the last known king of the Eastern Ganga dynasty, ruled until 1425. The "mad king," Bhanudeva IV, who succeeded him, left no inscriptions; his minister Kapilendra usurped the throne and founded the Suryavamsha dynasty in 1434–35.


The Eastern Gangas were great patrons of religion and the arts, and the temples of the Ganga period rank among the masterpieces of Hindu architecture.[15]


  1. Indravarman (496–535)[13]
  2. Devendravarman IV (893-?)
  3. Vajrahasta Aniyabhima (980-1015 AD)[6]
  4. Vajrahasta Anantavarman (1038-?)
  5. Rajaraja Devendravarman(?-1078)
  6. Anantavarman Chodaganga (1078–1150)[13]
  7. Ananga Bhima Deva II (1178–1198)
  8. Rajaraja II (1198–1211)
  9. Ananga Bhima Deva III (1211–1238)
  10. Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264)[13]
  11. Bhanu Deva I (1264–1279)
  12. Narasimha Deva II (1279–1306)[13]
  13. Bhanu Deva II (1306–1328)
  14. Narasimha Deva III (1328–1352)
  15. Bhanu Deva III (1352–1378)
  16. Narasimha Deva IV (1379–1424)[13]
  17. Bhanu Deva IV (1424–1434)


A Temple in Sri Mukhalingam temple complex

A Temple in Sri Mukhalingam temple complex

Konark Sun Temple Front view

Konark Sun Temple at Konark, Odisha, built by King Narasimhadeva I (1238–1264),[13] it is now a World Heritage Site.

A Stone carved throne in the backyard of Simhachalam temple

A Stone carved throne at Simhachalam temple

Eastern Ganga Fanam

A Fanam (Coin) of Eastern Ganga Dynasty[16]

See also


  1. ^ Ganga Dynasty britannica.com. Archived November 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ B. Hemalatha (1991). Life in medieval northern Andhra. Navrang.
  3. ^ [1] Archived April 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Patnaik, Nihar Ranjan (1 January 1997). Economic History of Orissa. Indus Publishing. p. 93. ISBN 978-81-7387-075-0. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  5. ^ B. Masthanaiah. The Temples of Mukhalingam: A Study on South Indian Temple Architecture. Cosmo Publications, 1977 - Mukhalingām (India) - 136 pages. p. 5.
  6. ^ a b Sailendra Nath Sen. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International, 1999 - India - 668 pages. p. 437.
  7. ^ Itihas, Volumes 19-22. p. 14.
  8. ^ Andhra Historical Research Society, Rajahmundry, Madras. Journal of the Andhra Historical Society, Volumes 6-7. Andhra Historical Research Society., 1931. p. 200.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Indian Research Institute. Indian Culture: Journal of the Indian Research Institute, Volume 12. I.B. Corporation, 1984. p. 159.
  10. ^ Indian Research Institute. Indian Culture: Journal of the Indian Research Institute, Volume 12. I.B. Corporation, 1984. p. 160.
  11. ^ N. Venkata Ramanayya. Social and cultural life of the eastern Chalukyas of Vengi. [A.P.] Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Oriental Research Institute - Andhra Pradesh (India) - 96 pages. p. 83.
  12. ^ Jörn Rüsen. Time and History: The Variety of Cultures. Berghahn Books, 01-Jan-2008 - History - 262 pages. p. 72.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.
  14. ^ a b Eastern Ganga Dynasty in India. India9.com (2005-06-07). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  15. ^ Ganga dynasty (Indian dynasties) - Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  16. ^ Michael Mitchiner (1979). Oriental Coins & Their Values : Non-Islamic States and Western Colonies A.D. 600-1979. Hawkins Publications. ISBN 978-0-904173-18-5.

External links

Anangabhima Deva III

Anangabhima Deva III (Odia: ତୃତୀୟ ଅନଙ୍ଗଭୀମ ଦେବ) was a powerful ruler and reformist of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty that ruled an early medieval Odisha centered empire in eastern India from the year 1211-1238 A.D. He was successful in maintaining a large extent of territory that stretched from the river Ganga in the north to Godavari in the South. He had successfully defeated the Kalachuris on the western frontiers of the empire and established a matrimonial alliance with them. His brother or brother in law, Rajaraja II became the ruler of the Dynasty in 1198. When Anangabhima III came into power, in 1211. he expelled the Muslims of Bengal from his kingdom. He had a son, Narasingha Deva I, who would later invade Bengal in 1243, and captured the capital city, Gauda. He was a reformist in the social and spiritual structure of the Odia society as the vaishnavite deity Jagannath was declared as the supreme ruler of the empire and the emperor as the deputy under him.

Anantavarman Chodaganga

Anantavarman Chodaganga (r. 1077–1150) was a ruler of the Eastern Ganga dynasty which ruled the southern part of Kalinga, India. He was the son of Rajaraja Devendravarman and Rajasundari, the daughter of Virarajendra Chola. The Chola king Kulothunga Chola I of the Chola dynasty was his uncle. However, historian S.N. Sen states that Anantavarman was the maternal grandson of Kulottunga. The Jagannath Temple at Puri was rebuilt in the 11th century atop its ruins by Anantavarman Chodaganga.King Chodaganga was originally a Shaivite from Srimukhalingam(which was in Kalinga/Odisha till 1934,as part of Undivided Ganjam District) who became a Vaishnava under the influence of Ramanuja when the latter visited the Jagannath Puri temple. In his Sindurapura grant(1118 A.D) Anantavarma styles himself Paramavaishnava. Despite being related to Anantavarman, Kulothunga Chola I did not stop from burning Anantavarman's empire. Historians propose that it was probably because the king failed to pay his rent for two consecutive years. He was ousted by Kulothunga's general Karunakara Thondaiman and this victory is detailed in the Tamil classic Kalingattupparani. Monarchs from this region of the subcontinent regularly assumed the title Chodaganga Deva throughout the ancient and medieval periods to allude to their Chola and Ganga heritage

From various inscriptions it is known that King Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva established the present temple some time near the end of the eleventh century. A copper plate inscription made by King Rajaraja III found on the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple near the north entrance states that Jagannath temple was built by Gangesvara, i.e., Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva.

Later, King Ananga Bhima Deva II (1170–1198) did much to continue the work of Chodaganga Deva, building the walls around the temple and many of the other shrines on the temple grounds. He is thus often considered one of the builders of the temple. He also did much to establish the regulations around the service to the Deity.

A scion of this dynasty made rich donations to the Koneswaram temple, Trincomalee on Puthandu, 1223 CE in the name of King Chodaganga Deva. Shortly afterwards, the Konark temple was constructed in Odisha. A brother of the king titled Ulagaikonda Permadi is known to us from several inscriptions.

Flag of the Jaffna Kingdom

The Flag of the Jaffna Kingdom of the Aryacakravarti line of kings of Jaffna kingdom in northern Sri Lanka consisted of the couchant bull (also called a Nandi), the silver crescent moon with a golden sun. The single sacred conch shell, which spiral open to the right, and in the centre above the sacred bull, is a white parasol with golden tassels and white pearls. The color of the Royal Flag is saffron. The flag symbols are similar to number of flags found in India especially belonging to the Eastern Ganga dynasty. The Setu coins minted by the Aryacakravarti kings also have a similar symbol.

Ganga (disambiguation)

The Ganga, or Ganges, formerly also spelled Gunga, is one of the largest rivers in India.

Ganga may also refer to:

Ganga (goddess), the Hindu goddess that personifies the Ganges River

Western Ganga Dynasty (Gangas), an ancient southern Indian dynasty

Eastern Ganga Dynasty, a medieval Indian dynasty

A term of Sanskrit origin for cannabis (drug), also called ganja

Ganga (music), a type of rural folk singing from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Ganga, a stage name for Danish electronic musician Christian Rønn

Ganga Dynasty

Ganga Dynasty is a name used for two related dynasties who ruled parts of India:

The Western Ganga Dynasty, a kingdom in southern India, based in southern Karnataka, from the 3rd to the 11th centuries

The Eastern Ganga Dynasty, rulers of Odisha from the 11th to the 15th centuries

Historic sites in Odisha

This article lists monuments and sites of historic importance in Odisha, India.

History of Kalahandi

The history of Kalahandi goes back to the primitive period where a well-civilized, urbanized, and cultured people inhabited this land mass around 2000 years ago. The world's largest celt of Stone Age and the largest cemetery of the megalithic age have been discovered in Kalahandi. This shows the region had a civilized culture since the pre-historic era. Asurgarh near Narla in Kalahandi was one of the oldest metropolises in Odisha whereas the other one was Sisupalgarh near Bhubaneswar. Some other historical forts in the region includes Budhigarh (ancient period), Amthagarh (ancient period), Belkhandi (ancient to medieval period) and Dadpur-Jajjaldeypur (medieval period). This land was unconquered by the great Ashoka, who fought the great Kalinga War, as per Ashokan record. In medieval period the region had played a prominent role to link South India, Eastern India and Central India region and witnessed the battle ground for Somavamsi, Chola, Kalachuris of Kalyani and Eastern Ganga dynasty. Kalahandi region was the main route for Chola to attack Subarnapur.

The history of Kalahandi is rich in terms of contribution towards the Indian culture and temple architecture. Temple of Goddess Stambeswari at Asurgarh, built during 500 AD, is a perfect example where the first brick Temple in Eastern India was built. Sanskritization in Odisha was first started from Kalahandi, Koraput region, ancient Mahakantara region. Earliest flat-roofed stone temple of Odisha was built at Mohangiri in Kalahandi during 600 AD. Temple architecture achieved perfection at Belkhandi in Kalahandi and then traversed to Ekamra, present Bhubaneswar, along with the political expansion of the Somavamsis during the 1000–1100 AD.

The distribution and occurrence of precious and semi-precious gemstones and other commercial commodities of Kalahandi region have found place in accounts of Panini (5th century BC), Kautilya (3rd century BC), Ptolemy (2nd century AD), Wuang Chuang (7th century AD) and Travenier (19th century AD). Present name Kalahandi finds mention for the first time in the Junagarh Dadhivaman temple inscription issued from Kalahandinagara by Maharaja Jugasai Dev in A. D. 1718... The region was known as various names in different period of time such as Kantara, Mahakantara, Titilaka Janapada, Atavi Land, Chakrakota Mandala, Kamala Mandala and Karonda Mandal. It was also part of Trikalinga for a certain period. It was a feudatory under Eastern Ganga dynasty, Gadajat under Maratha and Princely State under British rule in India. After independence of India, in 1948, Kalahandi joined Indian Union and became a part of Odisha state. However, in post independence period the name Kalahandi got associated with backwardness despite its rich history, culture, art, craft and agriculture & forest resources.

Kalinga Magha

Kalinga Magha (Tamil: கலிங்க மாகன் / கலிங்க மாகோன் / காளிங்க மகன், Sinhala: කාලිංග මාඝ, Odia: କଳିଙ୍ଗ ମଘା) also known as Magha the Tyrant and Kulankayan Cinkai Ariyan, is an invader who is remembered primarily for his aggressive conquest. He is identified as the founder of the Jaffna kingdom and first king of the Aryacakravarti dynasty. According to the Segarāsasekara-Mālai belong the first Aryacakravarti king of Jaffna to Eastern Ganga dynasty of Kalinga, who were descendants of Western Gangas and Cholas. His family was connected to the rulers of Ramanathapuram in Tamil Nadu. Kalinga Magha’s relatives of Ramanathapuram administered the famous temple of Rameswaram. He usurped the throne from Parakrama Pandyan II of Polonnaruwa, in 1215. His reign saw the massive migration of native Sinhalese to the south and west of Sri Lanka, and into the mountainous interior, in a bid to escape his power. Magha was the last ruler to have his seat in the traditional northern seat of native power on the island, known as Rajarata; so comprehensive was his destruction of Sinhalese power in the north that all of the successor kingdoms to Rajarata existed primarily in the south of the island.

Kapilendra Deva

Kapilendra Deva (Odia: କପିଲେନ୍ଦ୍ର ଦେବ) (r. 1434-1466 AD) was the founder of the Gajapati dynasty that ruled parts of eastern and southern India, including present-day Odisha as the center of his empire. He had staged a military coup against the preceding and the last Eastern Ganga dynasty ruler Bhanu Deva IV and overtook the throne as the king was weak and had lost territories to the south. His name is also written as Kapilendra Routray or Sri Sri Kapilendra Deva. In claiming descent from the Surya Vamsha (Sun dynasty) of the Mahabharata, he also took the title shri shri ...(108 times) Gajapati Gaudesvara Naba Koti Karnatotkala Kalbargesvara. This title literally meant the lord of Bengal (Gauda), of Karnataka region or Vijayanagara kingdom, of Golkonda kingdom and of nine crore subjects. The title is still used by the sun dynasty kings of Puri on ritual occasions.

List of rulers of Odisha

The land of Odisha has undergone several changes in terms of its boundaries since ancient ages. It was also known by different names like Odra Desha, Kalinga, Hirakhanda, Mahakantara or Utkala in different eras. The year 1568 is considered a turning point in the history of Odisha. In the year 1568, Kalapahad invaded the state. This, aided by internal conflicts, led to a steady downfall of the state from which it didn't recover.

Maa Barunei Temple

Maa Barunei Temple is dedicated to the Hindu Goddess Barunei a manifestation of Shakti. The temple is located on the Barunei Hill in Khordha district of the Indian state of Odisha. The temple has idols of the twin goddesses Barunei and Karunei in the sanctum sanctorum. A beautiful stream flows from the hills which is known as Swarna Ganga, which enhances the beauty of this place.

Maa Ugra Tara

The Goddess Ugratara (Odia: ମା ଉଗ୍ରତାରା)is the tutelary deity of Eastern Ganga dynasty Gajapati kings. Her ancient temple lies 65 kilometers from Bhubaneswar. The icon of Mother Tara is Chaturbhuja, holding potent weapons in her hands. She is very popular as Ugratara due to her fierce aspect, but benevolent to the adorers. There is a railway station named Bhushandapur in Khordha district.

Narasingha Deva I

'Langula' Narasingha Deva I (Odia: ପ୍ରଥମ ଲାଙ୍ଗୂଳା ନରସିଂହ ଦେବ) was a powerful monarch and warrior of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty of early medieval Odisha who reigned c. 1238–1264. He defeated the Muslim forces of Bengal who constantly threatened the Eastern Ganga dynasty's rule over his kingdom of Kalinga (ancient Odisha) from the times of his father Anangabhima Deva III. He was the first king from Kalinga and one of the few rulers in India who took the offensive against the Islamic expansion over India by Turko-Afghan invaders. His father had successfully defended his kingdom against the Turko-Afghan rulers of Bengal and may have even crossed into Bengal chasing the invaders on backfoot. He also built the Konark temple to commemorate his victories over the Muslims besides multiple temples as architectural marvels along with the largest fort complex of Eastern India at Raibania in Balasore,. The Kendupatana plates of his grandson Narasingha Deva II mention that Sitadevi, the queen of Narasingha Deva I was the daughter of the Paramara king of Malwa.

Peddintlamma Temple, Kolletikota

Peddintlamma Temple is a Hindu pilgrimage center. It is located on the shores of Kolleru Lake in Kolletikota of Krishna district in Andhra Pradesh. During the 13th century, the temple was constructed by Eastern Ganga Dynasty Army General under the reign of a Suryavansha Vadiya king, Langula Narasimhadeva (Langula Gajapathi Raju) of Eastern Ganga Dynasty.

Rudrama Devi

Rani Rudrama Devi (died 1289 or 1295), or Rudradeva Maharaja, sometimes spelled Rudramadevi or Rudrama-devi, was a monarch of the Kakatiya dynasty in the Deccan Plateau with capital at Warangal of present day Telangana from 1263 until her death. She was one of the few women to rule as monarch in the Indian subcontinent and promoted a male image in order to do so.Rudrama Devi probably began her rule of the Kakatiya kingdom jointly with her father, Ganapatideva, as his co-regent, from 1261-62. She assumed full sovereignty in 1263.Unlike her Kakatiya predecessors, she chose to recruit as warriors many people who were not aristocratic, granting them rights over land tax revenue in return for their support. This was a significant change and one that was followed by her successor and also by the later Vijayanagara Empire.Rudrama Devi faced challenges from the Eastern Ganga dynasty and the Yadavas soon after beginning her rule. She was able to repel the former, who retreated beyond the Godavari River in the late 1270s, and she also defeated the Yadavas, who were forced to cede territory in western Andhra. A fragmentary Kannada language inscription also states that the Kakatiya general Bhairava defeated the Yadava army probably in or after 1263 CE, which may be a reference to his repulsion of Mahadeva's invasion. A coin of Mahadeva bears the Kakatiya emblem varaha with the Yadava symbols; this varaha may have been stuck on Mahadeva's coins to mark the Kakatiya victory.She was, however, unsuccessful in dealing with the internal dissent posed by the Kayastha chieftain Ambadeva after he became head of his line in 1273. Ambadeva objected to being subordinate to the Kakatiyas and he gained control of much of southwestern Andhra and what is now Guntur District.

Sun temple

A sun temple (or solar temple) is a building used for religious or spiritual activities, such as prayer and sacrifice, dedicated to the sun or a solar deity. Such temples were built by a number different cultures and are distributed across the world including in India, China, Egypt, Japan and Peru. Some of the temples are in ruins, undergoing excavation, preservation or restoration and a few are listed as World Heritage Sites individually or as part of a larger site, such as Konark.

Vadde raju

Vaddi or Vadde Raju or Vadiya Rajulu or Vaddera or Vadde or Odde ( also transliterated as Odiya Rajulu) is an Indian caste. It originated during the Eastern Ganga dynasty that later became Gajapathi Kingdom. They belong to Suryavamsha Andhra Kshatriyas. They live mainly in south Andhra Pradesh (Prakasam, Nellore, Guntur, Krishna) including rayalseema region , Telangana, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

Yameshwar Temple

Yameshwar or Jameshwar Temple is a very old temple dedicated to Shiva being worshiped by Yama. It is situated in Bhubaneswar near Bharati Matha, in Jameshwar Patna.

Timeline and
cultural period
Northwestern India
(Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)
Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India
Upper Gangetic Plain
(Ganga-Yamuna doab)
Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain
Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period
(Srauta culture)[a]
Painted Grey Ware culture
Late Vedic Period
(Shramanic culture)[b]
Northern Black Polished Ware
 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha Adivasi (tribes)
Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation"
Rise of Shramana movements
Jainism - Buddhism - Ājīvika - Yoga
 5th century BC (Persian conquests) Shaishunaga dynasty Adivasi (tribes)
 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire
Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period
(300 BC – 200 AD)
 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas
Early Pandyan Kingdom
Satavahana dynasty
46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam
Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f]
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
Mahayana Buddhism
Sangam period
(300 BC – 200 AD)
 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire
Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty
Early Cholas
Early Pandyan Kingdom
Satavahana dynasty
46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam
 1st century BC
 1st century AD


Kuninda Kingdom
 2nd century Kushan Empire
 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa kingdom Kalabhra dynasty
Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)
Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g]
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire
Varman dynasty
Kalabhra dynasty
Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)
Kadamba Dynasty
Western Ganga Dynasty
 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty
Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)
 6th century Nezak Huns
Kabul Shahi
Maitraka Adivasi (tribes) Badami Chalukyas
Kalabhra dynasty
Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)
Culture Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. AD 650-1100)[h]
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
 7th century Indo-Sassanids Vakataka dynasty
Empire of Harsha
Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)
Pandyan Kingdom(Revival)
 8th century Kabul Shahi Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom
 9th century Gurjara-Pratihara Rashtrakuta dynasty
Pandyan Kingdom
Medieval Cholas
Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)
Chera Perumals of Makkotai
10th century Ghaznavids Pala dynasty
Kamboja-Pala dynasty
Kalyani Chalukyas
Medieval Cholas
Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)
Chera Perumals of Makkotai
References and sources for table


  1. ^ Samuel
  2. ^ Samuel
  3. ^ Michaels (2004) p.39
  4. ^ Hiltebeitel (2002)
  5. ^ Michaels (2004) p.39
  6. ^ Hiltebeitel (2002)
  7. ^ Micheals (2004) p.40
  8. ^ Michaels (2004) p.41


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