East Rock

East Rock of south-central Connecticut, United States, with a high point of 366 feet (112 m), is a 1.4-mile (2 km) long trap rock ridge located primarily in the neighborhood of East Rock on the north side of the city of New Haven. A prominent landscape feature and a popular outdoor recreation area with cliffs that rise 300 feet (91 m) over the city below, East Rock is part of the narrow, linear Metacomet Ridge that extends from Long Island Sound near New Haven, north through the Connecticut River Valley of Massachusetts to the Vermont border.[1][2] East Rock is the central feature of East Rock Park, a municipal park owned by the city of New Haven along the New Haven-Hamden town line.

East Rock
East Rock
Highest point
Elevation366 ft (112 m)
Coordinates41°19′38″N 72°54′17″W / 41.32722°N 72.90472°W
LocationNew Haven, Hamden
Parent rangeMetacomet Ridge
Age of rock200 Ma
Mountain typeFault-block; igneous
Easiest routeAuto road


East Rock
East Rock with its eponymous neighborhood below

East Rock, located in New Haven and Hamden, Connecticut, is 1.4 miles (2.3 km) long by 0.5 miles (800 m) wide at its widest point, although steepness of the terrain make the actual land area much larger. Beside the high point, East Rock has three other distinct peaks: Whitney Peak, 300 feet (91 m), a sharp-sided pinnacle on the north side of the ridge; Indian Head, 310 feet (94 m), just south of the high point; and Snake Rock, 205 feet (62 m), the southern buttress of the ridge.

Whitney Peak and Lake Whitney (located at the western base of the mountain behind the dammed Mill River) are named after Eli Whitney, the inventor of the cotton gin and a former New Haven resident. The Eli Whitney Museum, a museum and workshop with hands-on projects and exhibits on Eli Whitney and A. C. Gilbert, is located at the base of the dam.

East Rock, New Haven
East Rock, New Haven, an 1872 engraving showing the Mill River, with New Haven in the distance

On the summit of East Rock, clearly visible for miles below, is the 112-foot (34 m) Soldiers and Sailors Monument. The monument honors the residents of New Haven who gave their lives in the American Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the Civil War.[3]

East rock winter
View south from East Rock in winter.

East Rock is located entirely within the 425-acre (172 ha) East Rock Park, managed by the city of New Haven, which maintains a seasonal automobile road that climbs to the summit of the ridge, a network of trails, an environmental center, and a rose garden. A number of recreation facilities are located at the southwest base of the ridge; these are also managed by the city. The ridge is completely surrounded by the urban neighborhoods of New Haven and its metropolitan extension into south Hamden. East Rock lends its name to the nearby upscale East Rock neighborhood of New Haven, known for its Queen Anne and Victorian architecture. U.S. Route 5 borders the east side of East Rock while Interstate 91 crosses below Snake Rock to the south.

The Metacomet Ridge extends west from East Rock as series of smaller, unnoteworthy traprock outcrops to West Rock Ridge; it extends east over another series of traprock outcrops to Saltonstall Mountain and Peter's Rock. The west side of East Rock drains into the Mill River thence to New Haven Harbor and Long Island Sound; the east side into the Quinnipiac River, thence to New Haven Harbor and Long Island Sound. Both rivers abut the base of the mountain.[2][4]


East Rock from SSS Hall, October 17, 2008
The trap rock cliffs of East Rock

East Rock is a fault-block ridge formed 200 million years ago during the Triassic and Jurassic periods and is composed of trap rock, known as basalt, if extrusive, or diabase, if intrusive. East Rock, being intrusive, is diabase. Diabase is a dark colored rock, but the iron within it weathers to a rusty brown when exposed to the air, lending the ledges a distinct reddish appearance. Diabase frequently breaks into octagonal and pentagonal columns, creating a unique "postpile" appearance. Huge slopes made of fractured diabase scree are visible beneath many of the ledges of East Rock. These diabase cliffs are the product of lava intrusions hundreds of feet deep that welled up through faults creating sills during the rifting apart of North America from Eurasia and Africa over a period of 20 million years. Erosion and glacial abrasion over the subsequent 200 million years wore away the weaker sedimentary layers, under which the sill had intruded, at a faster rate than the diabase, leaving the abruptly tilted edges of the diabase sheets exposed, creating the distinct linear ridge and dramatic cliff faces visible today.[5][6]


East Rock hosts a combination of microclimates unusual in New England. Dry, hot upper ridges support oak savannas, often dominated by chestnut oak and a variety of understory grasses and ferns. Eastern red cedar, a dry-loving species, clings to the barren edges of cliffs. Cooler north facing backslopes tend to support extensive stands of eastern hemlock interspersed with the oak-hickory forest species more common in the surrounding lowlands. Narrow ravines crowded with hemlock block sunlight, creating damp, cooler growing conditions with associated cooler climate plant species. Talus slopes are especially rich in nutrients and support a number of calcium-loving plants uncommon in eastern Connecticut.[1][7]

East Rock is also an important seasonal raptor migration path.[1]


Soldiers and Sailors Monument

East Rock is a popular outdoor recreation destination among residents and visitors of the greater New Haven region. Views from the clifftops span metropolitan New Haven, Long Island Sound, and Long Island.[4]

East Rock Park is open year-round to hikers and walkers. The automobile road is open April 1 to November 1, 8 a.m. to sunset and November 1 to March 31, Friday, Saturday, Sunday, and holidays, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., weather permitting. Activities permitted in the park include hiking, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, picnicking, bicycling (on roads and city-designated mountain bike trails only), boating (on the Mill River), bird watching, and dog walking. Rock climbing, swimming, and alcoholic beverages are prohibited. A number of hiking trails traverse the ridge, most notably the Giant Steps Trail which ascends to the summit at a near-vertical pitch from the south. At the foot of the mountain are located football, baseball, and soccer fields, tennis courts, basketball courts, and playgrounds. The Trowbridge Environmental Center is open Thursdays and Fridays from 10:00 am to 5:00 pm, and at least one Saturday a month for public programs; it offers displays and information about the geology and ecosystem of East Rock. The Pardee Rose Garden and Greenhouse features roses and other flowering plants from spring to fall, and is a popular place to shoot wedding pictures.

The naturalist landscaping and other aspects of the park led to its being listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997.[8]

See also

History of East Rock


  1. ^ a b c Farnsworth, Elizabeth J. "Metacomet-Mattabesett Trail Natural Resource Assessment." Archived 2007-08-07 at the Wayback Machine, 2004. PDF file. Cited Nov. 20, 2007.
  2. ^ a b DeLorme Topo 6.0. Mapping Software. DeLorme, Yarmouth, Maine
  3. ^ City of New Haven. cited Dec. 22, 2007.
  4. ^ a b "Map of East Rock Park" (PDF). City of New Haven, Connecticut. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  5. ^ Raymo, Chet and Raymo, Maureen E. Written in Stone: A Geologic History of the Northeastern United States. Globe Pequot, Chester, Connecticut, 1989.
  6. ^ "Geology of Connecticut". Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
  7. ^ The Traprock Wilderness Recovery Strategy Archived 2007-08-16 at the Wayback Machine. Cited Dec. 13, 2007
  8. ^ National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.

External links

Cedar Hill (New Haven)

Cedar Hill is a neighborhood in New Haven, Connecticut. It includes portions of the city-designated neighborhoods of East Rock, Quinnipiac Meadows, and Mill River.

Cedar Hill was named for cedar trees that were once plentiful there in 1665. The area was divided from the local surroundings by the construction of I-91 in the 1960s.

Cedar Hill's boundary runs from James Street, up the Mill River, to Rice Field, over Indian Head Rock, to the Hamden town line, across to Middletown Avenue, to the Eastern side of State Street, back up to James Street.

Connecticut Transit New Haven

Connecticut Transit New Haven is the second largest division of Connecticut Transit, providing service on 24 routes in 19 towns within the Greater New Haven and Lower Naugatuck River Valley areas, with connections to other CT Transit routes in Waterbury and Meriden, as well as connections to systems in Milford and Bridgeport at the Connecticut Post Mall.

Since 1979, the Hartford, New Haven, and Stamford divisions of CT Transit have been operated by First Transit. Service is operated seven days a week on 24 routes.

Don Henley

Donald Hugh Henley (born July 22, 1947) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, record producer and founding member of the Eagles. He was the drummer and co-lead vocalist for the Eagles from 1971 to 1980, when the band broke up, and from 1994 to 2016, when they reunited. Following a year-long break due to Eagles founder Glenn Frey's death, Henley reformed the band in summer 2017 for the Classic West and Classic East rock festivals, hiring Vince Gill and Deacon Frey to replace Glenn. Henley has been the only constant member of the band since its formation. Henley sang the lead vocals on Eagles hits such as "Witchy Woman", "Desperado", "Best of My Love", "One of These Nights", "Hotel California", "Life in the Fast Lane", "The Long Run" and "Get Over It".

After the Eagles broke up in 1980, Henley pursued a solo career and released his debut album I Can't Stand Still, in 1982. He has released five studio albums, two compilation albums, and one live DVD. His solo hits include "Dirty Laundry", "The Boys of Summer", "All She Wants to Do Is Dance", "The Heart of the Matter", "The Last Worthless Evening", "Sunset Grill", "Not Enough Love in the World", and "The End of the Innocence".

The Eagles have sold over 150 million albums worldwide, won six Grammy Awards, had five No. 1 singles, 17 Top 40 singles, and six No. 1 albums. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1998 and are the biggest selling American band in history. As a solo artist, Henley has sold over 10 million albums worldwide, had eight Top 40 singles, won two Grammy Awards and five MTV Video Music Awards. Combined with the Eagles and as a solo artist, Henley has released 25 Top 40 singles on the Billboard Hot 100. He has also released seven studio albums with the Eagles and five as a solo artist. In 2008, he was ranked as the 87th greatest singer of all time by the Rolling Stone magazine.Henley has also played a founding role in several environmental and political causes, most notably the Walden Woods Project. From 1994 to 2016, he divided his musical activities between the Eagles and his solo career.

East Peak (New Haven County, Connecticut)

Should not be confused with East Rock, another traprock summit in Connecticut

East Peak, 976 feet (297 m), is a prominent basalt traprock mountain in the Hanging Hills of Meriden, Connecticut. Rugged and scenic, the peak rises steeply above the city of Meriden 600 feet (183 m) below and is characterized by its vertical cliffs and sweeping views of southern Connecticut and Long Island Sound. A small stone observation tower known as Castle Craig stands on the summit.

East Peak is located within the 1,800-acre (7.3 km2) Hubbard Park. The 51-mile (82 km) Metacomet Trail crosses East Peak, and a seasonal auto road climbs to a small parking lot at Castle Craig. Activities enjoyed on the peak include Hiking, bicycling, and in the winter, cross-country skiing on the road. Although East Peak appears on a number of rock climbing websites, the brochure to Hubbard Park indicates that the areas is closed to rock climbing.

East Rock, New Haven

East Rock is a neighborhood in the city of New Haven, Connecticut, named for nearby East Rock, a prominent trap rock ridge. The area is home to a large group of Yale students, staff, and faculty, as well as many young professionals and families. It is known as the "grad ghetto," because it is a popular apartment rental location for graduate and professional students at Yale. East Rock is also a popular destination for cyclists, as a city bike lane runs along Orange Street, the neighborhood's spine.

East Rock Park

East Rock Park is a park in the city of New Haven and the town of Hamden, Connecticut that is operated as a New Haven city park. The park surrounds and includes the mountainous ridge named East Rock and was developed with naturalistic landscaping. The entire 427-acre (173 ha) park is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Foggy Bottom

Foggy Bottom is one of the oldest late 18th- and 19th-century neighborhoods in Washington, D.C. Foggy Bottom is west of the White House and downtown Washington, in the Northwest quadrant, bounded roughly by 17th Street NW to the east, Rock Creek Parkway to the west, Constitution Avenue NW to the south, and Pennsylvania Avenue NW to the north. Much of Foggy Bottom is occupied by the main campus of the George Washington University (GWU). Foggy Bottom is thought to have received its name due to its riverside location, which made it susceptible to concentrations of fog and industrial smoke, an atmospheric quirk. The Foggy Bottom neighborhood not only borders Downtown Washington D.C., but also borders the very affluent neighborhood of Georgetown as well. Residents of Foggy Bottom also have convenient access to Georgetown University as well.

The United States Department of State gained the metonym "Foggy Bottom" when it moved its headquarters to the nearby Harry S Truman Building, originally planned and constructed to be the new United States Department of War headquarters building, from the State, War, and Navy Building (now known as the Eisenhower Executive Office Building) near the White House in 1947.

National Mall and Memorial Parks

National Mall and Memorial Parks (formerly known as National Capital Parks-Central) is an administrative unit of the National Park Service (NPS) encompassing many national memorials and other areas in Washington, D.C. Federally owned and administered parks in the capital area date back to 1790, some of the oldest in the United States. In 1933, they were transferred to the control of the National Park Service. These parks were known as the National Capital Parks from their inception until 1965. The NPS now operates multiple park groupings in the D.C. area, including National Capital Parks-East, Rock Creek Park, President's Park, and George Washington Memorial Parkway. National Mall and Memorial Parks also provides technical assistance for the United States Navy Memorial.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Connecticut

This is a list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Connecticut. There are more than 1,500 listed sites in Connecticut. All 8 counties in Connecticut have listings on the National Register.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.

National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut

This is a list of National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in the city of New Haven, Connecticut, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map.There are 265 properties and districts listed on the National Register in New Haven County. The city of New Haven is the location of 67 of these properties and districts, including 9 National Historic Landmarks; they are listed here, while the other properties and districts in the remaining parts of the county, including 1 National Historic Landmark, are covered in National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven County, Connecticut. Three sites appear in both New Haven County lists.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.

New Haven, Connecticut

New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010.New Haven was the first planned city in America. A year after its founding by English Puritans in 1638, eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, creating what is commonly known as the "Nine Square Plan". The central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre (6 ha) square at the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark, and the "Nine Square Plan" is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark.New Haven is the home of Yale University. As New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, Yale serves as an integral part of the city's economy. Health care (hospitals and biotechnology), professional services (legal, architectural, marketing, and engineering), financial services, and retail trade also contribute to the city's economic activity.

The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, when sole governance was transferred to the more centrally located city of Hartford. New Haven has since billed itself as the "Cultural Capital of Connecticut" for its supply of established theaters, museums, and music venues. New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees (including some large elms) that gave the city the nickname "The Elm City".

Peter's Rock

Peter's Rock, also known as Rabbit Rock, Rabbit Hill, Indian Rock and Great Rock, with a high point of (est.) 373 feet (114 m) above sea level, is a trap rock peak located 4 miles (6 km) northeast of downtown New Haven, Connecticut in the town of North Haven. It is part of the Metacomet Ridge that extends from Long Island Sound near New Haven, north through the Connecticut River Valley of Massachusetts to the Vermont border. Peter's Rock is known for its scenic views, unique microclimate ecosystems, rare plant communities, and columnar basalt rock formations. It is traversed by a number of hiking trails managed by the non-profit Peter's Rock Association.


Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art. Outside North America, scholars often use terms such as "carving", "engraving", or other descriptions of the technique to refer to such images. Petroglyphs are found worldwide, and are often associated with prehistoric peoples. The word comes from the Greek prefix petro-, from πέτρα petra meaning "stone", and γλύφω glýphō meaning "to carve", and was originally coined in French as pétroglyphe.

The term petroglyph should not be confused with petrograph, which is an image drawn or painted on a rock face. Both types of image belong to the wider and more general category of rock art or parietal art. Petroforms, or patterns and shapes made by many large rocks and boulders over the ground, are also quite different. Inuksuit are also unique, and found only in the Arctic (except for reproductions and imitations built in more southerly latitudes).

Another form of petroglyph, normally found in literate cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on "living rock" such as a cliff, rather than a detached piece of stone. While these relief carvings are a category of rock art, sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture, they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, which concentrate on engravings and paintings by prehistoric or nonliterate cultures. Some of these reliefs exploit the rock's natural properties to define an image. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures, especially in the ancient Near East. Rock reliefs are generally fairly large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures that are larger than life-size.

Stylistically, a culture's rock relief carvings relate to other types of sculpture from period concerned. Except for Hittite and Persian examples, they are generally discussed as part of the culture's sculptural practice. The vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on essentially horizontal surfaces are also found. The term relief typically excludes relief carvings inside natural or human-made caves, that are common in India. Natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are also usually excluded. Reliefs on large boulders left in their natural location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are likely to be included, but smaller boulders described as stele or carved orthostats.

Quinnipiac Trail

The Quinnipiac Trail is a 24-mile (39 km) Blue-Blazed hiking trail in New Haven County, Connecticut. It is the product of the evolution and growth of the first 10.6-mile (17.1 km) trail designated in Connecticut's Blue-Blazed Hiking Trail system, with its light-blue rectangular vertical painted blazes .

Rock Gap, West Virginia

Rock Gap is an unincorporated community along Valley Road (U.S. Highway 522) in Morgan County, West Virginia, United States. It is located between Omps to its south and Berkeley Springs to its north. Situated between Warm Springs Ridge (1,086 feet) to its west and Timber Ridge (1,355 feet) to its east, Rock Gap takes its name from the "Rock Gap" in Warm Spring Ridge, carved out by Rock Gap Run, a tributary stream of Sleepy Creek.

Rock art

In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many culturally diverse regions of the world. It has been produced in many contexts throughout human history, although the majority of rock art that has been ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual. Such artworks are often divided into three forms: petroglyphs, which are carved into the rock surface, pictographs, which are painted onto the surface, and earth figures, formed on the ground. The oldest known rock art dates from the Upper Palaeolithic period, having been found in Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. Archaeologists studying these artworks believe that they likely had magico-religious significance.

The archaeological sub-discipline of rock art studies first developed in the late-19th century among Francophone scholars studying the Upper Palaeolithic rock art found in the cave systems of Western Europe. Rock art continues to be of importance to indigenous peoples in various parts of the world, who view them as both sacred items and significant components of their cultural patrimony. Such archaeological sites are also significant sources of cultural tourism, and have been utilised in popular culture for their aesthetic qualities.Normally found in literate cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on solid or "living rock" such as a cliff, rather than a detached piece of stone. They are a category of rock art, and sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture. However, they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, which concentrate on engravings and paintings by prehistoric peoples. A few such works exploit the natural contours of the rock and use them to define an image, but they do not amount to man-made reliefs. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures, and were especially important in the art of the Ancient Near East. Rock reliefs are generally fairly large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures that are over life-size, and in many the figures are multiples of life-size.

Stylistically they normally relate to other types of sculpture from the culture and period concerned, and except for Hittite and Persian examples they are generally discussed as part of that wider subject. The vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on essentially horizontal surfaces are also found. The term typically excludes relief carvings inside caves, whether natural or themselves man-made, which are especially found in India. Natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are also usually excluded. Reliefs on large boulders left in their natural location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are likely to be included, but smaller boulders may be called stelae or carved orthostats.

Tasman Sea

The Tasman Sea (Māori: Te Tai-o-Rehua, Pitcairn-Norfolk: Tasman Sii) is a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean, situated between Australia and New Zealand. It measures about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) across and about 2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi) from north to south. The sea was named after the Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman, who was the first recorded European to encounter New Zealand and Tasmania. The British explorer Captain James Cook later extensively navigated the Tasman Sea in the 1770s as part of his first voyage of exploration.The Tasman Sea is informally referred to in both Australian and New Zealand English as The Ditch; for example, crossing the Ditch means travelling to Australia from New Zealand, or vice versa. The diminutive term "The Ditch" used for the Tasman Sea is comparable to referring to the North Atlantic Ocean as "The Pond".

West Rock Ridge State Park

West Rock Ridge State Park is a public recreation area located in New Haven, Hamden, and Woodbridge, Connecticut. The state park is named for the 400-to-700-foot (120 to 210 m) trap rock West Rock Ridge, which is part of the Metacomet Ridge extending from Long Island Sound to the Vermont border. The park's 7 miles (11 km) of open west-facing cliffs offer vistas encompassing Metropolitan New Haven and suburban towns to the west. The park includes Judges Cave, a colonial era historic site; Lake Wintergreen; and the 7-mile (11 km) Regicides Trail, part of the Connecticut Forest and Park Association's Blue Trail system. The park is part of a larger area of protected open space including state, municipal, and non-profit owned land.

Woodland Normanstone

Woodland Normanstone is a small, highly affluent residential neighborhood in Northwest Washington, D.C., adjoining the larger neighborhoods of Woodley Park, Massachusetts Avenue Heights, and Observatory Circle.

The Woodland Normanstone neighborhood is bounded on by Garfield Street to the north, Cleveland Avenue and Calvert Street to the northeast, 28th Street to the east, Rock Creek Park to the southeast, Massachusetts Avenue to the southwest, and 34th Street to the west. It is served by the Woodley Park Metro station on the Washington Metro Red Line.

Woodland Normanstone Neighborhood Association, established in 1989, represents the neighborhood. There are no commercial businesses; it is a neighborhood of detached single-family homes.

Of the 160 houses in the neighborhood, 24 are residences for embassies.The neighborhood is not well known elsewhere in the city. It is reportedly home to a number of Trump administration officials.

Mountains of Connecticut
Hanging Hills
Metacomet Ridge
Taconic Mountains

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