East Pomeranian (Ostpommersch) is an East Low German dialect that is either moribund or used to be spoken in what was roughly Pomerania (now Northwestern Poland; previously part of Germany until the end of World War II) and today is also spoken in some communities in Brazil. It is part of the Low German language.
East Pomeranian was mostly spoken in the Farther Pomerania (Hinterpommern) region of the Prussian Province of Pomerania and in Pomerelia. After World War II, the East Pomeranian-speaking German inhabitants of the region were largely expelled to western Germany.
The varieties of East Pomeranian are:
|Native to||Brazil and diaspora of expellees in Germany|
Brazilians (brasileiros in Portuguese, IPA: [bɾaziˈlejɾus]) are citizens of Brazil. A Brazilian can also be a person born abroad to a Brazilian parent or legal guardian as well as a persons who acquired Brazilian citizenship. Brazil is a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, majority of Brazilians do not equate their nationality with their ethnicity, usually embracing and espousing both simultaneously.
In the period after the colonization of the Brazilian territory by Portugal, during much of the XVI century, the word "Brazilian" was given to the Portuguese merchants of Brazilwood, designating exclusively the name of such profession, since the inhabitants of the land were, in most of them, indigenous or Portuguese born in Portugal, or in the territory now called Brazil. However, long before the independence of Brazil, in 1822, both in Brazil and in Portugal, it was already common to attribute the Brazilian gentile to a person, usually of clear Portuguese descent, resident or whose family resided in the State of Brazil (1530-1815), belonging to the Portuguese Empire. During the lifetime of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815-1822), however, there was confusion about the nomenclature.Demographics of Brazil
Brazil's population is very diverse, comprising many races and ethnic groups. In general, Brazilians trace their origins from five sources: Europeans, Amerindians, Africans, Levantines, and East Asians.Brazil has conducted a periodical population census since 1872. Brazil is widely known to be one of the most diverse countries in the world. Since 1940, this census has been carried out decennially. Scanned versions of the forms for each census distributed in Brazil since 1960 are available on-line from IPUMS International.Historically, Brazil has experienced large degrees of ethnic and racial admixture, assimilation of cultures and syncretism.East Low German
East Low German (German: ostniederdeutsche Dialekte, ostniederdeutsche Mundarten, Ostniederdeutsch) is a group of Low German dialects spoken in north-eastern Germany as well as by minorities in northern Poland. Together with West Low German dialects, it forms a dialect continuum of the Low German language. Before 1945, the dialect was spoken along the entire then German-settled Baltic Coast from Mecklenburg, through Pomerania, West Prussia into certain villages of the East Prussian Klaipėda Region.
East Pomeranian, Central Pomeranian and West Pomeranian should not be confused with the West Slavic Pomeranian language (German: Pomoranisch).German Brazilians
German Brazilians (German: Deutschbrasilianer, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch: Deitschbrasiliooner, Portuguese: teuto-brasileiros) refers to Brazilian people of ethnic German ancestry or origin. German Brazilians live mostly in the country's South Region, with lesser but still significant degree in the Southeast Region. German dialects together make up the second most spoken first language in Brazil after Portuguese. A few Brazilian municipalities have Brazilian Hunsrückisch and Germanic East Pomeranian as co-official with Portuguese. They are located in Southern Brazil and Espírito Santo. In the year 2000 Brazilian census 12 million people in Brazil claimed to be of German descent. According to Born and Dickgiesser (1989, p. 55) the number of Brazilians of German descent in 1986 was 3.6 million.
Between 1824 and 1972, about 260,000 Germans settled in Brazil, the fifth largest nationality to immigrate after the Portuguese, the Italians, the Spanish, and the Japanese. The rapid increase in numbers is due to a very high birth rate, the highest in Brazil. In the 19th century the average number of births per German-Brazilian woman was 10.
The vast majority settled in the Southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná, as well as in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Less than 5% of Germans settled in Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, and Espírito Santo.The state mostly heavily affected by German immigration is Santa Catarina, the only state where Germans were the main nationality among immigrants. Germans and Austrians were about 50% of all immigrants settled in Santa Catarina, and between 15–20% in Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná. In the rest of the country, Germans accounted for less than 5% of immigrants.German language
German (Deutsch [dɔʏtʃ] (listen)) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.
One of the major languages of the world, German is the first language of almost 100 million people worldwide and the most widely spoken native language in the European Union. Together with French, German is the second most commonly spoken foreign language in the EU after English, making it the second biggest language in the EU in terms of overall speakers. German is also the second most widely taught foreign language in the EU after English at primary school level (but third after English and French at lower secondary level), the fourth most widely taught non-English language in the US (after Spanish, French and American Sign Language), and the second most commonly used scientific language as well as the third most widely used language on websites after English and Russian. The German-speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books (including e-books) in the world being published in the German language. In the United Kingdom, German and French are the most-sought after foreign languages for businesses (with 49% and 50% of businesses identifying these two languages as the most useful, respectively).German is an inflected language with four cases for nouns, pronouns and adjectives (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative), three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter), two numbers (singular, plural), and strong and weak verbs. German derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A portion of German words are derived from Latin and Greek, and fewer are borrowed from French and Modern English. With slightly different standardized variants (German, Austrian and Swiss Standard German), German is a pluricentric language. It is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and also other parts of the world. Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups (e.g. Low German or Plautdietsch) are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects".Immigration to Brazil
Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign persons to reside permanently. It should not be confused with the colonisation of the country by the Portuguese, or with the forcible bringing of people from Africa as slaves.
Throughout its history, Brazil has always been a recipient of immigrants, but this began to gain importance in the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century when the country received massive immigration from Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, which left lasting marks on demography, culture, language and the economy of Brazil.
In general, it is considered that people who entered Brazil up to 1822, the year of independence, were colonizers. Since then, those who entered the independent nation were immigrants.
Before 1871, the number of immigrants rarely exceeded two or three thousand people a year. Immigration increased pressure from the first end of the international slave trade to Brazil, after the expansion of the economy, especially in the period of large coffee plantations in the state of São Paulo.
Immigration has been a very important demographic factor in the composition, structure and history of human population in Brazil, with all its attending factors and consequences in culture, economy, education, racial issues, etc. Brazil has received one of the largest numbers of immigrants in the Western Hemisphere, along with the United States, Argentina and Canada.Counting from 1872 (year of the first census) by the year 2000, Brazil received about 6 million immigrants.Koschneiderisch
Koschneiderisch is a part of East Low German East Pomeranian dialect that is either moribund or used to be spoken in Pomerania (now Northwestern Poland, previously part of Germany). It is part of the Low German language.
In or shortly after World War II, the Koschneiderisch-speaking German inhabitants of the region were largely expelled to western Germany. It has palatalization of the k-sound, resulting in a sound similar to the ć-sound of the Polish language.
Koschneiderisch includes a limited number of High German words.Languages of Brazil
Portuguese is the official language of Brazil, and is widely spoken by most of population. Brazilian Sign Language is also an official language. Minority languages include indigenous languages and languages of more recent European and Asian immigrants. The population speaks or signs approximately 210 languages, of which 180 are indigenous. Fewer than forty thousand people actually speak any one of the indigenous languages in the Brazilian territory.Language is one of the strongest elements of Brazil's national unity. As time progresses, fewer people speak dialects drastically different from Portuguese to make it easier for people to communicate with one another from one location to the next. Plenty Brazilians do speak their dialect. On top of that, within Portuguese between states there is a moderate regional variation in accent, vocabulary, and use of personal nouns, pronouns, and verb conjugations. Variations are beginning to diminish as a result of mass media, especially national television networks that are viewed by the majority of Brazilians.
The written language is uniform across Brazil, and follows national rules of spelling and accentuation that are revised from time to time for simplification. With the implementation of the Orthographic Agreement of 1990, the orthographic norms of Brazil and Portugal were made virtually identical, with some minor differences. Brazil enacted these changes in 2009, and Portugal enacted them in 2012.
Written Brazilian Portuguese differs significantly from the spoken language, with only an educated subsection of the population adhering to prescriptive norms. The rules of grammar are complex and allow more flexibility than English or Spanish. Many foreigners who speak Portuguese fluently have difficulty writing it properly. Because of Brazil's size, self-sufficiency, and relative isolation, foreign languages are not widely spoken. English is often studied in school and is increasingly studied in private courses. It has replaced French as the principal second language among educated people.
In 2002, Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) was made the official language of the Bennidorm deaf community.Low Prussian dialect
Low Prussian (German: Niederpreußisch), sometimes known simply as Prussian (Preußisch), is a moribund dialect of East Low German that developed in East Prussia. Low Prussian was spoken in East and West Prussia and Danzig up to 1945. It developed on a Baltic substrate through the influx of Dutch- and Low-German-speaking immigrants. It overruled Old Prussian, which then became extinct in the 17th century.
Plautdietsch, a Low German variety, is included within Low Prussian by some observers. Excluding Plautdietsch, Low Prussian can be considered moribund due to the evacuation and forced expulsion of Germans from East Prussia after World War II. Plautdietsch, however, has several thousand speakers throughout the world, most notably in South America, Canada and Germany.
Simon Dach's poem Anke van Tharaw, the best known East Prussian poem, was written in Low Prussian.Ostkäslausch
Ostkäslausch is a part of Low Prussian dialect of Low German spoken in an area of Poland, that used to be part of Germany. It used to be or is spoken in Warmia in East Prussia.
"Deutsch-litauische Kulturbeziehungen" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-09-13.
Its border ran through Warmia.
Ostkäslausch used to be spoken around Reszel and used to have borders to Breslausch, Natangian and Standard German."Deutsch-litauische Kulturheziehungen" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-09-13.
It has features of Eastphalian and
East Pomeranian dialect.
There is gutturalisation of nd and nt to e and i, but not of the preterite of strong verbs.
Ostkäslausche also has diphthongization of e and long o after ei and ou.O frequently has become io or iu.
Ostkäslausch has influence of High Prussian.
The Eastern border of Ostkäslausch was the old border of Catholic Warmia to Protestant State of the Teutonic Order.
It occurred, that Ostkäslausch and High Prussian were spoken in the same village.Outline of German language
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to German language:
One of the major languages of the world, German is the first language of almost 100 million people worldwide and the most widely spoken native language in the European Union. Together with French, German is the second most commonly spoken foreign language in the EU after English, making it the second biggest language in the EU in terms of overall speakers.Pomeranian
Pomeranian is an adjective referring to Pomerania, an area divided between Poland and Germany.Pomerode
Pomerode (Portuguese: [pomeˈɾodɪ]) is a Brazilian municipality in the state of Santa Catarina, in Southern Brazil. It is located in the valley of the Itajaí-Açu river, not very far from the city of Blumenau, one of the largest cities in the state.
Pomerode is known as the most German city in Brazil, because the vast majority of its inhabitants are of German descent and are bilingual in German and Portuguese.Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul (Portuguese: [ˈʁiw ˈɡɾɐ̃dʒi du ˈsuw] (listen); lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil. It is the fifth most populous state and the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo, Rivera and Artigas to the south and southwest, and the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest. The capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, and the crime rate is considered to be low.Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high and according to census data, it is one of the most difficult states in Brazil for foreigners to find jobs.The state has a gaucho culture like its foreign neighbors. It was originally inhabited by Guarani people. The first Europeans there were Jesuits, followed by settlers from the Azores. In the 19th century it was the scene of conflicts including the Farroupilha Revolution and the Paraguayan War. Large waves of German and Italian migration have shaped the state.Vila Neitzel
Vila Neitzel is a geographical district in the Brazilian municipality of Itueta, founded by Pomeranians.The district was founded by German refugees during World War II.In the district is currently headquartered Língua Mutter project, which has the goal of teaching and spreading the East Pomeranian dialect among the inhabitants of the district.West Pomeranian dialect
West Pomeranian (German: Westpommersch or Vorpommersch) is a dialect of the East Low German language and thus of the Low German language. It is spoken today in West Pomerania (Vorpommern) in northeast Germany. Towards the west of the region it transitions gradually into Mecklenburgisch which, like West Pomeranian, belongs to the Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch dialect. Towards the south it mixes with Brandenburgisch. West Pomeranian has several West Slavic influences. Characteristic is a hard, terse speech.
The vocabulary of the West Pomeranian dialects is compiled and described in the Pomeranian Dictionary, Pommersches Wörterbuch.White Brazilians
White Brazilians (Portuguese: brasileiros brancos [bɾɐziˈle(j)ɾuz ˈbɾɐ̃kus]) refers to Brazilian citizens of European and Levantine descent. According to the 2010 Census, they totaled 91,051,646 people, and made up 47.73% of the Brazilian population. The main ancestry of White Brazilians is Portuguese, followed by Italian, Spanish, German and other German-speaking nationalities (Austrian, Swiss, Luxembourger and Volga German), Slavic (Polish, Russian, Ukrainian etc.), Levantine, French, Dutch, Scandinavian and Baltic (Latvian and Lithuanian). The first two ancestries figure over 30 million people, and the following two around 20 million people. While the fifth and sixth revolve around 6 million people and the last four figure over a million.
The white Brazilian population is spread throughout the national territory, but its highest percentage is found in the three southernmost states, where 79.8% of the population has European or Caucasian phenotype, whereas the Southeast region has the largest absolute numbers.The states with the highest percentage of white citizens are: Santa Catarina (88.96%), Rio Grande do Sul (85.30%), Paraná (79.24%), and São Paulo (73.40%). Other states with significant rates are: Rio de Janeiro (54.50%), Mato Grosso do Sul (51.10%), Espírito Santo (50.45%), Minas Gerais (47.24%) and Goiás (43.60%). São Paulo has the largest population in absolute numbers with 30 million whites.Wisconsin German
The term Wisconsin German refers to both Wisconsin High German and to heritage dialects of German spoken in Wisconsin. By 1853 a third of Wisconsin's population was coming from German-speaking lands; by the end of the 19th Century, Wisconsin's largest minority of non-English speakers were German speakers. Unlike other heritage languages, which tend to become moribund by the third generation, Wisconsin German speakers have maintained their heritage language(s) alongside English for multiple generations, from the 1840s to well until the mid-20th century. This is due in part to their immigration patterns: the German immigrants tended to settle within ethnically homogeneous (or similar) communities, with similar linguistic, cultural, and geographic backgrounds. Additionally, the maintenance of the language was supported by German being taught and used in many local churches, schools, and the press. While Wisconsin German retains many standard and/or dialectal features of German, it has not only incorporated some linguistic elements of English, but also developed unique and innovative (morphosyntactic, syntactic, lexical) characteristics of its own. By the early mid-20th century, social, political and economic factors, such as urbanisation, contributed to a general shift from German to English.