East China

East China or Eastern China (simplified Chinese: 华东; traditional Chinese: 華東; pinyin: Huádōng) is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.

Although an intangible and loosely defined concept, for administrative and governmental purposes the region is defined by the Chinese Central Government to include the provinces of (in alphabetical order) Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, and Zhejiang, as well as the municipality of Shanghai. Since the Chinese government claims Taiwan and the few outlying islands of Fujian (Kinmen and Matsu) governed by the Republic of China (Taiwanese government) as its territory, the claimed "Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China" is also classified in this region.

East China
East China
Population 384.3 million

Administrative divisions

Disputed area
PRC claims - *
ROC claims - **
Provinces governed by the People's Republic of China and claimed by the Republic of China
GB[2] ISO №[3] Province Chinese Name Capital Population Density Area Abbreviation/Symbol
SH 31 Shanghai Municipality** 上海市
Shànghǎi Shì**
Shanghai** 23,019,148 3,630.20 6,341 **
JS 32 Jiangsu Province** 江苏省
Jiāngsū Shěng**
Nanjing** 78,659,903 766.66 102,600 **
ZJ 33 Zhejiang Province** 浙江省
Zhèjiāng Shěng**
Hangzhou** 54,426,891 533.59 102,000 **
AH 34 Anhui Province** 安徽省
Ānhuī Shěng**
Hefei** 59,500,510 425.91 139,700 **
FJ 35 Fujian Province (PRC)** 福建省
Fújiàn Shěng**
Fuzhou** 36,894,216 304.15 121,300 **
JX 36 Jiangxi Province** 江西省
Jiāngxī Shěng**
Nanchang** 44,567,475 266.87 167,000 **
SD 37 Shandong Province** 山东省
Shāndōng Shěng**
Jinan** 95,793,065 622.84 153,800 **
Disputed area
PRC claims - *
ROC claims - **
Provinces governed by the Republic of China and claimed by the People's Republic of China
Name Chinese Pinyin Abbreviation Provincial capital (省會/shěnghuì) Chinese Pinyin List of county-level divisions
Fujian Province (ROC) (Kinmen and Matsu)**[Note 1] 福建省 Fújiàn mǐn Jincheng** 金城鎮** Jīnchéng** List of county-level divisions**
Taiwan Province (ROC)**
Taiwan Province (PRC)*
Táiwān tái**
Zhōngxīng Xīncūn**
List of administrative divisions**

Cities with urban area over one million in population

Cities governed by the People's Republic of China

Provincial capitals in bold.

# City Urban area[4] District area[4] City proper[4] Prov. Census date
1 Shanghai 20,217,748 22,315,474 23,019,196 SH 2010-11-01
2 Nanjing 5,827,888 7,165,292 8,003,744 JS 2010-11-01
3 Hangzhou 5,162,093 6,241,971 8,700,373 ZJ 2010-11-01
4 Jinan 3,527,566 4,335,989 6,813,984 SD 2010-11-01
5 Qingdao 3,519,919 3,718,835 8,715,087 SD 2010-11-01
6 Suzhou 3,302,152 4,072,081 10,459,890 JS 2010-11-01
7 Xiamen 3,119,110 3,531,347 3,531,347 FJ 2010-11-01
8 Hefei 3,098,727 3,310,268 5,702,466 AH 2010-11-01
9 Fuzhou 2,824,414 2,921,762 7,115,369 FJ 2010-11-01
10 Wuxi 2,757,736 3,543,719 6,374,399 JS 2010-11-01
11 Wenzhou 2,686,825 3,039,439 9,122,102 ZJ 2010-11-01
12 Ningbo 2,583,073 3,491,597 7,605,689 ZJ 2010-11-01
13 Zibo 2,261,717 3,129,228 4,530,597 SD 2010-11-01
14 Changzhou 2,257,376 3,290,918 4,592,431 JS 2010-11-01
15 Nanchang 2,223,661 2,357,839 5,042,566 JX 2010-11-01
16 Yantai 1,797,861 2,227,733 6,968,202 SD 2010-11-01
17 Xuzhou 1,735,166 1,967,214 8,577,225 JS 2010-11-01
18 Nantong 1,612,385 2,274,113 7,283,622 JS 2010-11-01
19 Huai'an 1,523,655 2,635,406 4,801,662 JS 2010-11-01
20 Linyi 1,522,488 2,303,648 10,039,440 SD 2010-11-01
21 Weifang 1,261,582 2,044,028 9,086,241 SD 2010-11-01
22 Huainan 1,238,488 1,666,826 2,333,896 AH 2010-11-01
23 Taizhou 1,189,276 1,902,510 5,968,838 ZJ 2010-11-01
24 Jinjiang 1,172,827 1,986,447 see Quanzhou FJ 2010-11-01
25 Quanzhou 1,154,731 1,435,185 8,128,533 FJ 2010-11-01
26 Yancheng 1,136,826 1,615,836 7,262,200 JS 2010-11-01
27 Tai'an 1,123,541 1,735,425 5,494,207 SD 2010-11-01
28 Kunshan 1,118,617 1,644,860 see Suzhou JS 2010-11-01
29 Wuhu 1,108,087 1,307,042 2,263,123 AH 2010-11-01
30 Putian 1,107,199 1,953,801 2,778,508 FJ 2010-11-01
31 Yangzhou 1,077,531 1,392,563 4,460,066 JS 2010-11-01
32 Cixi 1,059,942 1,462,383 see Ningbo ZJ 2010-11-01
33 Jiangyin 1,013,670 1,595,138 see Wuxi JS 2010-11-01
Cities governed by the Republic of China
# City Population Census date
1 New Taipei 3,971,250 2016-01-01
2 Kaohsiung 2,778,729 2016-01-01
3 Taichung 2,746,112 2016-01-01
4 Taipei 2,704,974 2016-01-01
5 Taoyuan 2,108,786 2016-01-01
6 Tainan 1,885,550 2016-01-01


  1. ^ The PRC claims the Kinmen and Matsu Islands as part of its own Fujian Province.


  1. ^ https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_regions_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China
  2. ^ GB/T 2260 codes for the provinces of China
  3. ^ ISO 3166-2:CN (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China)
  4. ^ a b c 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: 中国统计出版社 [China Statistics Press]. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.

External links

Coordinates: 31°16′43″N 120°35′09″E / 31.2785°N 120.5859°E

Cao Jianming

Cao Jianming (Chinese: 曹建明; pinyin: Cáo Jiànmíng; born September 24, 1955 in Shanghai) was the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate of the People's Republic of China. Since 2018 he has served as one of the Vice Chairpersons of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.

China University of Petroleum

The China University of Petroleum (simplified Chinese: 中国石油大学; traditional Chinese: 中國石油大學; pinyin: Zhōngguó Shíyóu Dàxué) is a university in China. It consists of China University of Petroleum, located in Qingdao, and a branch called China University of Petroleum (Beijing), located in Beijing. Both are regarded as the best universities in the field of petroleum related subjects in China. It is placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines.

Donghua University

Donghua University (simplified Chinese: 东华大学; traditional Chinese: 東華大學; pinyin: Dōnghuá Dàxué) ( Donghua means eastern China area in Chinese ) is a public research university in Shanghai, China. Established in 1951, DHU is one of the state-key universities directly under the Ministry of Education of China and is a member of China's Project 211 group of national universities. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, and is especially well known for its engineering, management, design and materials disciplines.

East China Normal University

East China Normal University (ECNU) is a comprehensive public research university in Shanghai. It was formed in 1951 by the merger of the Great China University founded in 1924 and Kwang Hua University (est. 1925) which had its ultimate origins in the St. John's College established in the city in 1879. Its original role was to train teachers for secondary and higher education, as suggested in the name "Normal", but very soon housed top-class researchers and evolved into an elite research-intensive university.ECNU is now organized into more than 22 schools, colleges, and institutes, located in two campuses throughout Minhang and Putuo. The university comprises 2 affiliated schools across the Shanghai metropolitan area: NYU Shanghai in Pudong, Asia-Europe Business School in Zizhu International Education Park. ECNU also maintains a National Forest Ecosystem Observation and Research Station in Tiantong National Forest Park, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province.

ECNU is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University.

It is often considered to be one of the most prestigious universities in China and is internationally recognized, as evidenced by its partnerships with institutions around the world. Sponsored by the national program "Project 211" and "Project 985", the university is a frontrunner in the nation's research and innovation, and has been dubbed as the "Columbia of the East". The university also has strong ties with the China Meteorological Administration, State Oceanic Administration and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

East China Sea

The East China Sea is a marginal sea east of China. The East China Sea is a part of the Pacific Ocean and covers an area of roughly 1,249,000 square kilometres (482,000 sq mi). To the east lies the Japanese island of Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands, to the south, lies the South China Sea, and to the west by the Asian continent. The sea connects with the Sea of Japan (East Sea) through the Korea Strait and opens to the north into the Yellow Sea. The countries which border the sea include Japan, Taiwan and China.

East China University of Science and Technology

East China University of Science and Technology (simplified Chinese: 华东理工大学; traditional Chinese: 華東理工大學; pinyin: Huádōng Lǐgōng Dàxué, English acronym ECUST) is a research university located in Shanghai, China. Originally established with a focus on chemical technology, it has evolved into a comprehensive university that covers all academic disciplines and offers a large variety of majors. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines. The school encompasses two campuses and a science park in the Xuhui, Fengxian and Jinshan districts of Shanghai.

He Jifeng

He Jifeng (simplified Chinese: 何积丰; traditional Chinese: 何積豐; pinyin: Hé Jīfēng, born August 1943) is a Chinese computer scientist.He Jifeng graduated from the mathematics department of Fudan University in 1965. From 1965 to 1985, he was an instructor at East China Normal University. During 1980–81, he was a visiting scholar at Stanford University and the University of San Francisco in California, United States.

From 1984 to 1998, He Jifeng was a senior research fellow at the Programming Research Group in the Oxford University Computing Laboratory (now the Oxford University Department of Computer Science). He worked extensively on formal aspects of computing science. In particular, he worked with Prof. Sir Tony Hoare, latterly on Unifying Theories of Programming, resulting in a book of that name.

Since 1986, He Jifeng has been Professor of Computer Science at East China Normal University in Shanghai. In 1996, he also became Professor of Computer Science at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

In 1998, he became a senior research fellow at the International Institute for Software Technology (UNU-IIST), United Nations University, based in Macau. He moved back to Shanghai in 2005.

He Jifeng's research interests include sound methods for the specification of computer systems, communications, application and standards, and techniques for designing and implementing those specifications in software and/or hardware with high reliability.

In 2005, he was elected to the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In 2013, his 70th birthday was celebrated at East China Normal University with an international three-day Festschrift in association with the International Conference on Theoretical Aspects of Computing (ICTAC).


Laurasia () was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around 335 to 175 million years ago (Mya). It separated from Gondwana 215 to 175 Mya (beginning in the late Triassic period) during the breakup of Pangaea, drifting farther north after the split.

The name combines the names of Laurentia, the name given to the North American craton, and Eurasia. As suggested by the geologic naming, Laurasia included most of the land masses which make up today's continents of the Northern Hemisphere, chiefly Laurentia, Baltica, Siberia, Kazakhstania, and the North China and East China cratons.

Nanjing University of Science and Technology

Nanjing University of Science and Technology (Chinese: 南京理工大学; pinyin: Nánjīng Lǐgōng Dàxué), colloquially NJUST (南理工; Nánlǐgōng) is one of the national key universities under the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China. It is a science-oriented university located in Xuanwu District in the east suburban area of Nanjing.

New York University Shanghai

New York University Shanghai (NYU Shanghai) is jointly established by New York University and East China Normal University of Shanghai. It is the first American college to receive independent registration status from China's Ministry of Education. While classes are in English, some proficiency in Chinese is required for graduation.

Northeast China

Northeast China (Chinese: 中国东北) or Dongbei is a geographical region of China. It also historically corresponds with the term Inner Manchuria in the English language. It consists specifically of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang, collectively referred as the Three Northeastern Provinces (东北三省), but broadly also encompasses the eastern part of Inner Mongolia. The region is separated from Far Eastern Russia to the north largely by the Amur, Argun, and Ussuri rivers, from North Korea to the south by the Yalu River and Tumen River, and from the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region to the west by the Greater Khingan Range. The heartland of the region is the Northeast China Plain.

Due to the shrinking of its once-powerful industrial sector and decline of its economic growth, the region is called the Rust Belt in China.

As the result, a campaign named Northeast Area Revitalization Plan has been launched by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, in which five prefecture-level cities of eastern Inner Mongolia, namely Xilin Gol, Chifeng, Tongliao, Hinggan, and Hulunbuir, are also formally defined as regions of the Northeast. The region is nearly congruent with some definitions of "Manchuria" in historical foreign usage.Another term for the area is Guandong (关东), meaning "east of the Pass", referring to the famous Shanhai Pass between Liaoning Province and the neighboring Hebei Province (and also North China) to the west. This name was also used by the occupying Japanese colonists referring to their leased territory of Dalian after the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, as the Kwantung Chou (関東州), which gave name to the occupying Kwantung Army that was later mobilized to set up the puppet state of Manchukuo.

Senkaku Islands

The Senkaku Islands (尖閣諸島, Senkaku-shotō, variants: 尖閣群島 Senkaku-guntō and 尖閣列島 Senkaku-rettō) are a group of uninhabited islands in the East China Sea. They are located roughly due east of Mainland China, northeast of Taiwan, west of Okinawa Island, and north of the southwestern end of the Ryukyu Islands. They are also known as the Diaoyu Islands (Chinese: 钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿; pinyin: Diàoyúdǎo jí qí fùshǔ dǎoyǔ; also simply 钓鱼岛) in Mainland China, the Diaoyutai Islands (Chinese: 釣魚台列嶼; pinyin: Diàoyútái liè yǔ) in Taiwan, and the Pinnacle Islands.As a result of the discovery of potential undersea oil reserves in 1968 in the area and the 1971 transfer of administrative control of the islands from the United States to Japan, the latter's sovereignty over the territory is disputed by both the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (also known as Taiwan).China claims the discovery and ownership of the islands from the 14th century, while Japan maintained ownership of the islands from 1895 until its surrender at the end of World War II. The United States administered the islands as part of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands from 1945 until 1972, when the islands returned to Japanese control under the Okinawa Reversion Agreement between the United States and Japan.The islands are disputed between Japan and China and between Japan and Taiwan. Despite the diplomatic stalemate between mainland China and Taiwan, both governments agree that the islands are part of Taiwan as part of Toucheng Township in Yilan County. Japan regards the islands as a part of the city of Ishigaki in Okinawa Prefecture and acknowledges the claims of neither China nor Taiwan, but has not allowed the Ishigaki administration to develop the islands.


Shanghai (Chinese: 上海, Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂâŋ.xài] (listen), Wu pronunciation: [zɑ̃.hɛ] (listen)) is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, and the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a global financial centre and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north, south and west, and is bounded to the east by the East China Sea.As a major administrative, shipping and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession. The city then flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world (predominantly the Occident), and became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. However, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, and the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city. It has since re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance; it is the home of the Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the world's largest by market capitalization.Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; renowned for its Lujiazui skyline, and museums and historic buildings, such as those along The Bund, as well as the City God Temple and the Yu Garden.

Sheng Xian

Sheng Xian (fl. 190s–200s), courtesy name Xiaozhang, was an official who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He was from Kuaiji Commandery, which is around present-day Shaoxing, Zhejiang.

Shortnose demon catshark

The shortnose demon catshark (Apristurus internatus) is a catshark of the family Scyliorhinidae found only in deep water in the East China Sea. Its length is up to 40 cm. A. internatus is known only from the holotype (a 49.1-cm-total length female) and a paratype (a 40.3-cm male), both caught in the East China Sea, probably taken as bycatch in deepwater trawl fisheries. Insufficient information is available to assess this species' conservation status. The reproduction of this catshark is oviparous.

South Central China

South Central China (Chinese: 中南; pinyin: Zhōngnán; literally: "South China") is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the provinces of Guangdong, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, and Hunan, and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, however the two provincial-level special administrative regions (SAR) are also often included under South Central China: Hong Kong and Macau. This part is often divided into South China (华南) and Central China (华中) regions due to difference between civilian customs.

Taiwan Strait

The Taiwan Strait, or Formosa Strait, is a 180-kilometre (110 mi)-wide strait separating the island of Taiwan from mainland China. The strait is part of the South China Sea and connects to the East China Sea to the north. The narrowest part is 130 km (81 mi) wide.

Tao Qian (Han dynasty)

Tao Qian (pronunciation ) (132-194), courtesy name Gongzu, was a government official and warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He is best known for serving as the Governor of Xu Province.

Yangtze River Delta

The Yangtze River Delta or YRD is a triangle-shaped metropolitan region generally comprising the Wu Chinese-speaking areas of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province. The area lies in the heart of the Jiangnan region (literally, "south of the River"), where Yangtze River drains into the East China Sea. The urban build-up in the area has given rise to what may be the largest concentration of adjacent metropolitan areas in the world. It covers an area of 99,600 square kilometres (38,500 sq mi) and is home to over 115 million people as of 2013, of which an estimated 83 million is urban. If based on the greater Yangtze River Delta zone, it has over 140 million people in this region. Having a fertile soil, the Yangtze River Delta abundantly produces grain, cotton, hemp and tea. In 2018, the Yangtze River Delta had a GDP of approximately US$2.2 trillion , about the same size as Italy.

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