East Asian rainy season

The East Asian rainy season, commonly called the plum rain (Chinese: 梅雨; pinyin: méiyǔ), is caused by precipitation along a persistent stationary front known as the Mei-Yu front for nearly two months during the late spring and early summer between eastern Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. The wet season ends during the summer when the subtropical ridge becomes strong enough to push this front north of the region.

Plum rain in Shinjuku, Tokyo
Plum rain 梅雨 falling on two clear umbrellas, looking up toward the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building, in June 2009.

Etymology

The term "plum rain" was a Chinese term for the rain in the fourth and fifth lunar month.[1][2] It specifically refers to the historical belief that, when the plums turn yellow and fall at the south of the Yangtze in the fourth and fifth months, that the moisture that evaporates from the plant turns into rain.[2]

The term appears in the following poem by Du Fu (fl. 8th century) of the Tang dynasty:

梅雨
南京犀浦道,四月熟黃梅。
湛湛長江去,冥冥細雨來。
茅茨疏易溼,雲霧密難開。
竟日蛟龍喜,盤渦與岸迴。
Plum rain
On the Xipu road from the Southern Capital
the fourth month ripens the yellow p[r]unus.
The long river goes off surging,
and, darkening, a fine rain comes.
Roof-thatch, loosely bound, is easily soaked,
clouds and fog are dense and will not lift.
All day long the dragons delight,
whirlpools turning with the bank.[1]

Formation

An east-west zone of disturbed weather during spring along this front stretches from the east China coast, initially across Taiwan and Okinawa, later, when it has shifted to the north, eastward into the southern peninsula of South Korea and Japan.[3] The rainy season usually lasts from May to June in Taiwan and Okinawa,[4] from June to July (approximately 50 days) in Russian Primorsky Krai, Japan and Korea and from July to August in Eastern China (especially the Chang Jiang and Huai River regions).

The weather front forms when the moist air over the Pacific meets the cooler continental air mass. The front and the formation of frontal depressions along it brings precipitation to Primorsky Krai, Japan, Korea, eastern China, and Taiwan. As the front moves back and forth depending on the strength of cool and warm air masses, there is often prolonged precipitation and sometimes flooding in eastern China. However, in the years that it does not rain as much as usual, a drought might result. The rainy season ends when the warm air mass associated with the subtropical ridge is strong enough to push the front north and away.

Effects

The high humidity in the air during this season encourages the formation of mold and rot not only on food but on fabrics as well. Environmentally, heavy rains encourage mudslides and flooding in all areas affected. The most rain in a one-hour period as recorded in Japan was in Nagasaki in 1982 with 153 mm. The highest overall recorded rainfall during the rainy season in Japan was in 2003, when Miyazaki Prefecture recorded rains of 8670 mm.

Japan

In Japan, the rainy season is called Tsuyu (梅雨) and lasts from early June to mid-July for most of the country (on the main island of Honshū and the islands of Kyūshū and Shikoku), approximately June 7 to July 20 for the main Kansai and Kantō regions.[5] It comes a month earlier to Okinawa in the south (early May through mid-June), but Hokkaidō in the north is largely unaffected. The season is occasionally called Samidare (五月雨, literally "May Rain (in Japanese traditional calendar)"; corresponds roughly to June in modern calendar) on account of this timing. The pop artist Eiichi Ohtaki produced a popular song by this name, and a WW2 Japanese naval ship was also given this name.

The rains in the middle of November - early December are sometimes called the Sazanka Tsuyu, literally "rainy season of the Camellia" on account of the timing with the blossoming of the seasonal flower.

This period is generally avoided for tourism, but some sights are considered particularly atmospheric in the rain and fog, particularly mountain forests, notably Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range (including Mount Kōya).[5] Vegetation, especially moss, is also rather lush at this time, and hence sights known for their moss, such as Saihō-ji (the moss temple) are also popular at this time of year.

Korea

The rainy season is between June and mid-July. It is caused by hot and humid high pressure forming in the Sea of Okhotsk due to the North Pacific anticyclone combining with Asiatic continental high pressure. When the two meteorological events meet they form a long jangmajeonseon (Hanja: 장마前線). Beginning in late-May, the North Pacific high pressure forces the weaker continental anticyclone south of the island of Okinawa. This fall to the south then reverses and gradually strengthens as it moves northwards back towards the Korean peninsula. On landfall, heavy monsoon rains lead to torrential downpours and flooding. By August the system has weakened as the southern systems retreat towards the Filipino archipelago.

By early autumn, the North Pacific high pressure system is pushed away as Asiatic continental cold high pressure moves southwards. This produces inclement weather although not on the scale of the summer monsoons. Korea can, however, be struck by typhoons during this period.

Timing

In some years, the rainy season's actual beginning and end are under debate. For example, in 2005, the subtropical ridge moved quickly northward in late June/early July. The weather front skipped the Chang Jiang region and there was no rainy season there. Then, the ridge retreated southward and there was significant rainfall in the region. This gave rise to the question of whether this was the summer-type rainfall pattern that is common after the first rainy season or the second rainy season. Some meteorologists even argued that the rainy period in late June was not a true rainy season.[6][7][8][9][10]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Owen, Stephen [translator & editor], Warner, Ding Xiang [editor], Kroll, Paul [editor] (2016). The Poetry of Du Fu open access, Volume 2. De Gruyter Mouton. Pages 298–299. ISBN 978-1-5015-0189-0
  2. ^ a b Lu Dian's Piya (published in the Song dynasty). Cited in Sargent, Stuart Howard. The Poetry of He Zhu (1052-1125): Genres, Contexts, and Creativity. Brill. p. 18. ISBN 978-90-04-15711-8.
  3. ^ [1] Archived 2006-04-27 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Okinawa Travel Information". Archived from the original on 2013-03-10. Retrieved 2011-05-13.
  5. ^ a b Rainy Season (Tsuyu), japan-guide.com
  6. ^ 入梅不像梅出梅梅更浓 梅雨"变味"真假难辨 (in Chinese). Xinhuanet. 2005-07-14. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
  7. ^ 倒黄梅?二度梅? 有关专家认为再下就要变成梅雨 (in Chinese). Sina. 2005-07-09. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
  8. ^ 是"倒黄梅"还是"二度梅"?接连阴雨让专家直挠头 (in Chinese). Sina. 2005-07-08. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
  9. ^ 上海是否出现了"倒黄梅"?为啥视而不见 (in Chinese). CNHYC. 2005-07-17. Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
  10. ^ 是倒黄梅还是二度梅? (in Chinese). 新华报业网. 2005-07-12. Archived from the original on 2008-05-25. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
1953 North Kyushu flood

The 1953 North Kyushu flood was a flood which hit Northern Kyushu, Japan (Fukuoka Prefecture, Saga Prefecture, Kumamoto Prefecture and Ōita Prefecture) in June 1953. The flood was caused by cloudbursts and prolonged rain from the Meiyu rain front which dropped 1,000 mm (3.3 ft.) of rain over Mount Aso and Mount Hiko. This downpour resulted in the overflow of many of the surrounding rivers, such as the Chikugo River.

The flood was a major disaster with 1,001 people dead or missing, 450,000 houses flooded, and about 1 million people affected. Due to the severity of the disaster, flood control measures along rivers in Northern Kyushu were fundamentally revised, with many of the changes still in place.

The flood was not given an official name by the Japan Meteorological Agency which has resulted in it being referred to differently in a variety of sources. In Kumamoto Prefecture, Shirakawa Great Flood (白川大水害) or 6.26 Flood (6.26水害) are usually used. In Kitakyushu city, they tend to use North Kyushu Great Flood (北九州大水害). In this article, 1953 North Kyushu Flood is used, based on the area of the flood.

East Asian Monsoon

The East Asian monsoon is a monsoonal flow that carries moist air from the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean to East Asia. It affects approximately one-third of the global population, influencing the climate of Japan (including Okinawa), the Koreas, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and much of Mainland China. It is driven by temperature differences between the East Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean. The East Asian monsoon is divided into a warm and wet summer monsoon and a cold and dry winter monsoon. This cold and dry winter monsoon is responsible for the aeolian dust deposition and pedogenesis that resulted in the creation of the Loess Plateau. The monsoon influences weather patterns as far north as Siberia, causing wet summers that contrast with the cold and dry winters caused by the Siberian High, which counterbalances the monsoon's effect on northerly latitudes.

In most years, the monsoonal flow shifts in a very predictable pattern, with winds being southeasterly in late June, bringing significant rainfall to the Korean Peninsula and Japan (in Okinawa this flow starts in May). This leads to a reliable precipitation spike in July and August. However, this pattern occasionally fails, leading to drought and crop failure. In the winter, the winds are northeasterly and the monsoonal precipitation bands move back to the south, and intense precipitation occurs over southern China and Taiwan.

The East Asian monsoon is known as jangma (장마) in Korea. In Japan the monsoon boundary is referred to as the tsuyu (梅雨) as it advances northward during the spring, while it is referred to as the shurin when the boundary retreats back southward during the autumn months. Over Japan and Korea, the monsoon boundary typically takes the form of a quasi-stationary front separating the cooler air mass associated with the Okhotsk High to the north from the hot, humid air mass associated with the subtropical ridge to the south. After the monsoon boundary passes north of a given location, it is not uncommon for daytime temperatures to exceed 32 °C (90 °F) with dewpoints of 24 °C (75 °F) or higher.

Higashiiyayama, Tokushima

Higashiiyayama (東祖谷山村, Higashiiyayama-son) was a village located in Miyoshi District, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan.

As of 2003, the village had an estimated population of 2,114 and a density of 9.25 persons per km². The total area was 228.62 km².

On March 1, 2006, Higashiiyayama, along with the towns of Ikawa, Ikeda, Mino and Yamashiro, and the village of Nishiiyayama (all from Miyoshi District), was merged to create the city of Miyoshi.

July 2016 North China cyclone

The July 2016 North China cyclone was a devastating extratropical cyclone which produced torrential precipitation and caused widespread flash floods over North China and portions of nearby regions, resulting in at least 184 deaths and ¥33.19 billion (US$4.96 billion) of damage in China.

Kamikaze-class destroyer (1905)

The Kamikaze-class destroyers (神風型駆逐艦, Kamikaze-gata kuchikukan)(""divine wind"") were a class of 32 torpedo boat destroyers (TBDs) of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Kamikaze class of destroyers were the first destroyers to be mass-produced in Japan. The class is also sometimes referred to as the Asakaze class. This class of destroyer should not be confused with the later Kamikaze-class destroyers built in 1922, which participated in the Pacific War.

Mount Kirishima

Mount Kirishima (霧島山, Kirishimayama) is a 1700 meter high active volcano group in Kagoshima Prefecture and Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Numerous eruptions have been recorded since 742. Very strong eruptions happened in 788, 1716 and 1717. Augite-hypersthene andesite is the dominant rock type.The highest peak is Karakuni-dake (韓国岳, Karakunidake) (1700 m), literally Korea peak, perhaps a reference to its height being able to see Korea from the top. Other peaks are: the sacred and often fabled in national foundation mythology, Takachiho-no-mine (高千穂峰) (1573 m) as well as Shinmoedake (新燃岳), both active volcanoes. They are part of Kirishima-Yaku National Park near Kirishima City. Legend via oldest extant texts state the summit of Takachiho was stuck the mysterious spear Ama-no-Sakahoko, by the legendary Ninigi-no-Mikoto. Mount Kirishima is considered one of the 100 Famous Japanese Mountains. The area is often foggy, and it is believed that the name Kirishima comes from the mountain looking like an island in the fog.

The Kongō-class battlecruiser Kirishima of the Imperial Japanese Navy, and the Kongō-class guided missile destroyer Kirishima of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force were both named after this mountain.

Shinmoedake is the most active of the Mount Kirishima volcanoes, having erupted in January 2011, March 2011, October 2017, and April 2018.The region as well as areas downstream is in the path of expanding Meiyu front from the continent, during the East Asian rainy season, potentially unleashing flash flooding and landslides during this time.

Kirishima Volcano Group

Saihō-ji (Kyoto)

Saihō-ji (西芳寺) is a Rinzai Zen Buddhist temple located in Matsuo, Nishikyō Ward, Kyoto, Japan. The temple, which is famed for its moss garden, is commonly referred to as "Koke-dera" (苔寺), meaning "moss temple", while the formal name is "Kōinzan Saihō-ji" (洪隠山西芳寺). The temple, primarily constructed to honor Amitābha, was first founded by Gyōki and was later restored by Musō Soseki. In 1994, Saihō-ji was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as part of the "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto". Over 120 types of moss are present in the two-tiered garden, resembling a beautiful green carpet with many subtle shades.

Tsushima, Aichi

Tsushima (津島市, Tsushima-shi) is a city located in Aichi Prefecture in the Chūbu region of Japan.

As of May 2015, the city had an estimated population of 62,879 and a population density of 2,591 persons per km². The total area was 25.09 square kilometres (9.69 sq mi).

Tsuyu

In Japanese, tsuyu may refer to:

East Asian rainy season

Dipping sauce or soup served with Japanese noodles

Tsuyu Asui (蛙吹 梅雨), a character in the manga series My Hero Academia

Vanda falcata

Vanda falcata, the wind orchid, is a species of orchid found in China, Korea, and Japan. It was formerly classified in the genus Neofinetia.

风兰 (feng lan) China (N Fujian, S Gansu, SW Hubei, W Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang)

풍란 (pungnan) Korea

風蘭 (fūran) Japan (Honshu from the Kantō region westwards; Shikoku; Kyushu; and Ryukyu Islands.)Named cultivars selected for characteristics including variegation, flower color or form, and vegetative form are often referred to as 富貴蘭 (fūkiran) in Japan.

Wet season

The wet season (sometimes called the rainy season) is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs. Generally the season lasts at least a month. The term 'green season' is also sometimes used as a euphemism by tourist authorities. Areas with wet seasons are dispersed across portions of the tropics and subtropics.Under the Köppen climate classification, for tropical climates, a wet season month is defined as a month where average precipitation is 60 millimetres (2.4 in) or more. In contrast to areas with savanna climates and monsoon regimes, Mediterranean climates have wet winters and dry summers. Dry and rainy months are characteristic of tropical seasonal forests: in contrast to tropical rainforests, which do not have dry or wet seasons, since their rainfall is equally distributed throughout the year. Some areas with pronounced rainy seasons will see a break in rainfall mid-season, when the intertropical convergence zone or monsoon trough moves to higher latitudes in the middle of the warm season.When the wet season occurs during a warm season, or summer, precipitation falls mainly during the late afternoon and early evening. In the wet season, air quality improves, fresh water quality improves, and vegetation grows substantially, leading to crop yields late in the season. Rivers overflow their banks, and some animals retreat to higher ground. Soil nutrients diminish and erosion increases. The incidence of malaria increases in areas where the rainy season coincides with high temperatures, particularly in tropical areas. Some animals have adaptation and survival strategies for the wet season. Often, the previous dry season leads to food shortages in the wet season, as the crops have yet to mature.

Wicked Lifeforms Evolien

The Wicked Lifeforms Evolien (邪命体エヴォリアン, Jameitai Evorian) are the foes of the Abarangers in the Super Sentai series Bakuryū Sentai Abaranger. They are the Wicked Life Clan, that came from Dino Earth. They dwelled within a castle-like structure, the Invasion Garden (侵略の園, Shinryaku no Sono).

Yuyao

Yuyao (simplified Chinese: 余姚; traditional Chinese: 餘姚; pinyin: Yúyáo) is a county-level city in the northeast of Zhejiang province, China. It is under the jurisdiction of the sub-provincial city of Ningbo.

It is located 40 km (25 mi) west of central Ningbo, 120 km (75 mi) east of Hangzhou, bordering Hangzhou Bay in the north. Yuyao covers an area of 1,527 km2 (590 sq mi).

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