East Asian hip-and-gable roof

In East Asian architecture, the hip-and-gable roof consists of a hip roof that slopes down on all four sides and integrates a gable on two opposing sides.[1][2] It is usually constructed with two large sloping roof sections in the front and back respectively, while each of the two sides is usually constructed with a smaller roof section.[3]

The style is Chinese in origin and has spread across East Asia. The original style and similar styles are found in the traditional architecture of Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Kalmykia. It also influenced the style of the bahay na bato of the Philippines.

Irimoya
A hip-and-gable roof

Etymology

It is known as xiēshān (歇山) in Chinese,[4][5] irimoya (入母屋) in Japanese,[2] and paljakjibung (팔작지붕/八作--) in Korean.[6]

Irimoya in Japan

Irimoya arrived from China to Japan in the 6th century.[2] The style was originally used in the main and lecture halls of a Buddhist temple compound. It started to be used for the honden at shrines later, during the Japanese Middle Ages.[7] Its gable is usually right above the moya, or core, while the hip covers the hisashi, a veranda-like aisle surrounding the core on one or more sides.[2]

It is still in wide use in Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in Japan, and also in palaces, castles, and folk dwellings. In the last case, it is often called moya-zukuri (母屋造).[2]

Kandyan roof of Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, a style known as the Kandyan roof bears many similarities to the original East Asian hip-and-gable roof. The Kandyan roof is primarily used for religious, and historically, royal buildings. Its roots however lie in the traditions of the "Sri Lankan village".[8][9]

Gallery

Longxing Temple 2

The Longxing Temple—built in 1052, located at present-day Zhengding, Hebei Province, China—has a hip-and-gable with double eaves.[5]

Forbidden City Gate of Heaven 2

A hip-and-gable is seen in the Tiananmen, Beijing, China.[3]

National Concert Hall (Taiwan)

National Concert Hall in Taipei

Yakushiji daikodo

Yakushi-ji's (Dai)kō-dō

Kamomioya-jinja hashidono

A hip-and-gable roof at Shimogamo Shrine

Shikoroyane

A shikoro-yane

Shitennoji main gate

Shitennō-ji main gate and its shikoro-yane

Tamamushi Shrine

The Tamamushi Shrine has a shikoro-yane

Sri Lanka - 029 - Kandy Temple of the Tooth

The Kandyan roof style of the Temple of the Tooth in Kandy, Sri Lanka

Great Drigung Kagyud Lotus Stupa

The Great Drigung Kagyud Lotus Stupa in Lumbini, Nepal

See also

References

  1. ^ Guo, Qinghua (2010). The mingqi pottery buildings of Han Dynasty China, 206 BC-AD 220 : architectural representations and represented architecture. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. p. 138. ISBN 9781845193218.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Irimoya-zukuri". JAANUS: Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
  3. ^ a b Deqi, Shan. Chinese vernacular dwellings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9780521186674.
  4. ^ Chen, Congzhou; Pan, Hongxuan; Lu, Bingjie (2008). Chinese houses : a pictorial tour of China's traditional dwellings. Pleasantville: Reader's Digest Association. p. 331. ISBN 9781606520017.
  5. ^ a b Chung, Anita (2004). Drawing boundaries : architectural images in Qing China. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawai'i Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 9780824826635.
  6. ^ "Naver Dictionary". Retrieved 2013-03-10.
  7. ^ Iwanami Nihonshi Jiten (岩波日本史辞典), CD-ROM Version. Iwanami Shoten, 1999-2001.
  8. ^ Architecture and Identity, pg 491
  9. ^ Senarat Paranavitana Commemoration Volume
Architecture

Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitekton "architect", from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "creator") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

Bussiere Garden

Bussiere Garden, also called Jardin Bussière, located in the north of Sujiaguo Town, Haidian District of Beijing, was constructed by Doctor Jean-Augustin Bussière of Peking Union Medical College during the years in the Republic of China.

Chinese architecture

Chinese architecture demonstrates an architectural style that developed over millennia in China, before spreading out to influence architecture all throughout East Asia. Since the solidification of the style in the early imperial period, the structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. Starting with the Tang dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural styles of Japan, Korea, Mongolia, and Vietnam, and a varying amount of influence on the architectural styles of Southeast and South Asia including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and The Philippines.

Chinese architecture is typified by various features; such as, bilateral symmetry, use of enclosed open spaces, the incorporation of ideas related to feng shui such as directional hierarchies, a horizontal emphasis, and the allusion to various cosmological, mythological, or other symbolism. Chinese architecture traditionally classifies structures according to type, ranging from pagodas to palaces. In part because of an emphasis on the use of wood, a relatively perishable material, and due to a de-emphasis on major monumental structures built of less-organic but more durable materials, much of the historical knowledge of Chinese architecture derives from surviving miniature models in ceramic and published planning diagrams and specifications. Some of the architecture of China shows the influence of other types or styles from outside of China, such as the influences on mosque structures originating in the Middle East. Although displaying certain unifying aspects, rather than being completely homogeneous, Chinese architecture has many types of variation based on status or affiliation, such as dependence on whether the structures were constructed for emperors, commoners, or used for religious purposes. Other variations in Chinese architecture are shown in the varying styles associated with different geographic regions and in ethnic architectural design.

The architecture of China is as old as Chinese civilization. From every source of information—literary, graphic, exemplary—there is strong evidence testifying to the fact that the Chinese have always enjoyed an indigenous system of construction that has retained its principal characteristics from prehistoric times to the present day. Over the vast area from Chinese Turkistan to Japan, from Manchuria to the northern half of French Indochina, the same system of construction is prevalent; and this was the area of Chinese cultural influence. That this system of construction could perpetuate itself for more than four thousand years over such a vast territory and still remain a living architecture, retaining its principal characteristics in spite of repeated foreign invasions—military, intellectual, and spiritual—is a phenomenon comparable only to the continuity of the civilization of which it is an integral part.

Throughout the 20th century, Chinese architects have attempted to combine traditional Chinese designs into modern architecture (usually government), with great success. Moreover, the pressure for urban development throughout contemporary China required higher speed of construction and higher floor area ratio, which means that in the great cities the demand for traditional Chinese buildings, which are normally less than 3 levels, has declined in favor of modern architecture. However, the traditional skills of Chinese architecture, including major and minor carpentry, masonry, and stonemasonry, are still applied to the construction of vernacular architecture in the vast rural area in China.

Former Kameoka Family Home

The Former Kameoka Family Home is a residential structure that was originally located in Koori Town within the Date District of Fukushima Prefecture. It was dismantled and rebuilt within the same prefecture, in the town of Hobara Town in Date City. The house is designated as an important cultural property of Japan.

Gablet roof

A gablet roof (in Britain) or Dutch gable (North America and Australasia) is a roof with a small gable at the top of a hip roof. The term Dutch gable is also used to mean a gable with parapets. Some sources refer to this as a gable-on-hip roof.A gablet roof combines the benefits of both the gable and the hip roof while adding additional architectural interest. A drawback of a hip framed roof is its reduced attic space for a given roof pitch compared to a simple gable roof. In Mediterranean climates with lower snow loads high roof pitches and their greater consumption of materials and labor are unnecessary. Simple gable roofs are also problematic, as the lower low eaves made possible by a shallow pitched hip roof provide the opportunity for both shade and rain protection in the form of an overhang or latticed porch. The shade these create keeps a structure cooler, their covered space is an attractive place for relaxation and escape from heat trapped inside, and the rain "shadow" created by overhangs greatly reduces the moisture content of the soil. This inhibits both foundation decay and subterranean termites common in these areas.

Be aware that there are dangers when reroofing. The United States Department of Labor warns, "Workers replacing roofs risk permanent injury or death from falls while they demolish old roofs and install new roofing material (for example, shingles, tiles, or slate). Even experienced roofers are exposed to unpredictable fall hazards caused by uneven sheathing, sudden gusts of wind, loose roofing materials, and surfaces that become slick when wet."

Imperial Crown Style

The Imperial Crown Style (帝冠様式, teikan yōshiki) of Japanese architecture developed during the Japanese Empire in the early twentieth century. The style is identified by Japanese-style roofing on top of Neoclassical styled buildings; and can have a centrally elevated structure with a pyramidal dome. Outside of the Japanese mainland, Imperial Crown Style architecture often included regional architectural elelements. Before the end of World War II, the style was originally referred to as Emperor's Crown Amalgamate Style, and sometimes Emperor's Crown Style (帝冠式, Teikanshiki).Starting in Japan in the 1930s, this Western and Japanese eclectic architectural style was promoted by Itō Chūta, Sano Toshikata, and Takeda Goichi. Itō, Sano, and Takeda had been appointed as judges for architectural design competitions, held a preferences for Japonesque aesthetics to be incorporated into the design guidelines, and chose designs where a Japanese styled roof was integrated into a Western style reinforced concrete building.The prototype for the style was developed by architect Shimoda Kikutaro for the Imperial Diet Building in 1920, and reached its peak in the 1930s until the end of World War II. The style ran contrary to modernism and placed an emphasis on including traditional Japanese architectural elements, in a distinct expression of Japanese Western Eclectic Architecture.

List of roof shapes

Roof shapes differ greatly from region to region. The main factors which influence the shape of roofs are the climate and the materials available for roof structure and the outer covering. Roof terminology is also not rigidly defined. Usages vary slightly from region to region, or from one builder or architect to another.

Roof shapes vary from almost flat to steeply pitched. They can be arched or domed; a single flat sheet or a complex arrangement of slopes, gables and hips; or truncated (terraced, cut) to minimize the overall height.

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