East Asian cultural sphere

The East Asian cultural sphere, or the Sinosphere, consists of nations in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture, including literary traditions and religions.[1] Other names for the concept include the Sinic world, the Confucian world, the Taoist world, and the ancient Chinese cultural sphere, though the last name is also used to refer particularly to the Sinophone community (any place or neighbourhood inhabited by a significant minority of people who speak varieties of Chinese).

However, the historical influence of ancient China has not just been confined to this narrow definition, because it has also spread to Southeast Asian countries like Thailand, Myanmar, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, through the establishment of significant overseas Chinese populations and diaspora communities.

The East Asian cultural sphere shares a Confucian ethical philosophy, Buddhism, Taoism, and it historically has shared a 8,000 year old ancient Han Chinese writing system.[1] The core regions of the East Asian cultural sphere are China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam (CJKV, these are highlighted in dark blue in the image).

The terms "East Asian cultural sphere" and "Chinese character (Hànzì) cultural sphere" (see Chinese wikipedia) are used interchangeably with "Sinosphere" but they have different denotations and connotations.

Also compare this with the Eastern world, Western world, Sino-Austric languages, Altaic languages, Eastern Eurasian, Austric languages.

East Asian Cultural Sphere (Sinosphere)
East Asian Cultural Sphere
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese東亞文化圈
Simplified Chinese东亚文化圈
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetVùng văn hóa Đông Á
Hán-Nôm塳文化東亞
Korean name
Hangul동아문화권
Hanja東亞文化圈
Japanese name
Kanji東亜文化圏
Hiraganaとうあぶんかけん
漢字文化圈/汉字文化圈 · 한자 문화권 · Vòng văn hóa chữ Hán · 漢字文化圏
"Chinese character (Hànzì) cultural sphere" and "East Asia Cultural sphere" written in Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese.
Red Japanese temple (Unsplash)
Mahayana Buddhism, Influenced East Asian Religion.
Confucius Statue at the Confucius Temple
Confucianism plays a crucial part in East Asian Culture.
Ngomon2
Chinese Architecture has had a major influence, on the East Asian architectural styles of Vietnam, Korea, and Japan. Image: Imperial City Hue Vietnam
Chinese Dragon 2012
East Asian Dragons are legendary creatures in East Asian Mythology and East Asian Culture.
Constellation of Literature pavilion - Temple of Literature, Hanoi - DSC04688
Confucian Education and Imperial Examinations, played a huge role in creating scholars and mandarins (bureaucrats) for East Asian Dynasties. Image: Temple of Literature, Hanoi

Terminology

China has been regarded as one of the centers of civilization. The emergent cultures that arose from the migration of original Han settlers from the Yellow River is sometimes regarded as the starting point of the East Asian world. Nowadays, its population is around 2-2.5 billion (see Demographics of the world).

The Japanese historian Nishijima Sadao (西嶋定生, 1919–1998), professor emeritus at the University of Tokyo, originally coined the term 东亚文化圈 (later borrowed into Chinese, see Etymology). He conceived of a Chinese or East Asian cultural sphere distinct from cultures of the west. According to Nishijima, this cultural sphere shared the philosophy of Confucianism, the religion of Buddhism, and similar political and social structures. His cultural sphere includes China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, stretching from areas between Mongolia and the Himalayas.[2]

East Asian Culture

Arts

Architecture

Countries from the East Asian cultural sphere share a common architectural style stemming from the architecture of ancient China.[3]

Calligraphy

See caoshu.

Cinema

See Hong Kong cinema, Korean dramas, Korean pop, Japanese anime, pokemon, etc. (all of which are more modern compared to the more traditional aspects of these other categories).

Martial Arts

See Martial Arts, Gongfu, Kuntao, Karate, Taekwondo, Judo, Sumo, Nhất Nam, Vovinam etc.

Music

See List of Chinese musical instruments like erhu, which have influenced Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and even countries as south as Indonesia.[4]

Cuisine

The cuisine of East Asia shares many of the same ingredients and techniques. Chopsticks are used as an eating utensil in all of the core East Asian countries.[5] The use of soy sauce, a sauce made from fermenting soy beans, is also widespread in East Asia. Rice is a main staple food in all of East Asia and is a major focus of food security.[6] In East Asian countries, the word for 'cooked rice' can embody the meaning of food in general (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: fàn).[5]

Kimchi, sushi, phở, sashimi, wasabi, tea, noodles / ramen, udon, rice, hot pot, dumplings, dimsum, etc. are popular terms associated with East Asian cuisine (泡菜、寿司、面、米饭、火锅、茶、饺子、点心、等).

Also see Chinese cuisine, list of Chinese dishes, Vietnamese cuisine, Japanese cuisine, Korean cuisine, etc.

Traditions

Fashion

See hanfu, qipao / cheongsam, kimono, hanbok, áo dài, etc.[4]

Lion Dance

The Lion Dance, is a form of traditional dance in Chinese culture and other culturally East Asian countries in which performers mimic a lion's movements in a lion costume to bring good luck and fortune. Aside from China, versions of the lion dance are found in Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet, and Taiwan. Lion Dances are usually performed during New Year, religious and cultural celebrations.

New Year

Greater China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam traditionally observe the same lunar new year. However, Japan has moved its New Year to fit the Western New Year since the Meiji Restoration while Korea later also moved to Western New Year since the 1970s.

Philosophy and religion

The Art of War, Tao Te Ching, Analects are classic Chinese texts that have been influential in East Asian history.

Taoism

The countries of China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam have been influenced by Taoism. Also called Onmyōdō in Japan.

Shintoism

Plum trees Kitano Tenmangu
Two women praying in front of a Japanese Shinto shrine.

Shintoism is the ethnic religion of Japan. Shinto literally means "Way of the Gods". Shinto practitioners commonly affirm tradition, family, nature, cleanliness and ritual observation as core values.[7]

Taoist influence is significant in their beliefs about nature and self-mastery. Ritual cleanliness is a central part of Shinto life.[8] Shrines have a significant place in Shinto, being places for the veneration of the kami (gods or spirits).[9] "Folk", or "popular", Shinto features an emphasis on shamanism, particularly divination, spirit possession and faith healing. "Sect" Shinto is a diverse group including mountain-worshippers and Confucian Shinto schools.[10]

Buddhism

The countries of China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam share a history of Mahayana Buddhism. It is thought to have spread from India (perhaps Northeast India) via the Silk Road through Pakistan, Xinjiang, east as well as through SEA, Vietnam, then north through Guangzhou and Fujian. From China it proliferated to Korea and Japan, especially during the Tang dynasty (see Kukai). It could have also re-spread from China south to Vietnam. East Asia is now home to the largest Buddhist population in the world at around 200-400 million (see Buddhism by country; the top five are China, Thailand, Myanmar, Japan, Vietnam—three countries within the East Asian Cultural Sphere).

Confucianism

The countries of China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam share a Confucian philosophical worldview.[11] Confucianism is a humanistic[12] philosophy that believes that human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavour especially including self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucianism focuses on the cultivation of virtue and maintenance of ethics, the most basic of which are rén (), (/), and (/).[13] Ren is an obligation of altruism and humaneness for other individuals, yi is the upholding of righteousness and the moral disposition to do good, and li is a system of norms and propriety that determines how a person should properly act in everyday life.[13]

Neo-Confucianism

Mid-Imperial Chinese philosophy is primarily defined by the development of Neo-Confucianism. During the Tang dynasty, Buddhism from Nepal also became a prominent philosophical and religious discipline. Neo-Confucianism has its origins in the Tang dynasty; the Confucianist scholar Han Yu is seen as a forebear of the Neo-Confucianists of the Song dynasty.[14] The Song dynasty philosopher Zhou Dunyi is seen as the first true "pioneer" of Neo-Confucianism, using Daoist metaphysics as a framework for his ethical philosophy.[15]

Elsewhere in East Asia, Japanese philosophy began to develop as indigenous Shinto beliefs fused with Buddhism, Confucianism and other schools of Chinese philosophy. Similar to Japan, in Korean philosophy elements of Shamanism were integrated into the Neo-Confucianism imported from China. In Vietnam, neo-Confucianism was developed into Vietnamese own Tam giáo as well, along with indigenous Vietnamese beliefs and Mahayana Buddhism.

Other religions

Though not commonly identified with that of East Asia, the following religions have been just as popular or influential in its history:

  1. Hinduism, see Hinduism in Vietnam, Hinduism in China
  2. Islam, see Xinjiang, Muslims in China, Islam in Hong Kong, Islam in Japan, Islam in Korea, Islam in Vietnam.
  3. Christianity, one of the most popular religions in Hong Kong, Korea etc.

Language

Historical Linguistics

Various languages are thought to have originated in East Asia and have various degrees of influence on each other. These include:

  1. Altaic: proposed to include the Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic language families; and possibly also the Japonic and Koreanic families, and the Ainu language. thought to have originated around Xinjiang or in the Eurasian steppe.
  2. Sino-Tibetan: thought to have originated around the Yellow River north of the Yangzi.[16][17] These include the Chinese languages, Tibetan, Burmese, etc. and are thought to have spread from north China to the southwest.
  3. Austronesian: from Southern China then to Taiwan then throughout SEA, Madagascar, and Polynesia
  4. Austroasiatic: also from Southern China to Vietnam and Cambodia
  5. Kra-Dai: from Southern China to Thailand and Laos

The core Languages of the East Asian Cultural Sphere generally include the Chinese languages, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. All of these languages have a well documented history of having historically used Chinese characters and Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese all have roughly 60% of their vocabulary stemming from Chinese.[18][19][20] There is a small set of minor languages that are comparable to the core East Asian languages such as Zhuang and Hmong-Mien. They are often overlooked since neither have their own country or heavily export their culture, but Zhuang has been written in hanzi inspired characters called Sawndip for over 1000 years. Hmong while having supposedly lacked a writing system until modern history is also suggested to have a similar percentage of Chinese loans to the core CJKV languages as well.[21]

While other languages have been impacted by the Sinosphere such as the Thai with its Thai numeral system and Mongolian with its historical use of hanzi: the amount of Chinese vocabulary overall is not nearly as expansive in these languages as the core CJKV, or even Zhuang and Hmong.

There are various hypotheses trying to unify various subsets of the above languages, including the Sino-Austronesian and Austric language groupings. An overview of these various language groups is discussed in Jared Diamond's Germs, Guns, and Steel, among other places.

Writing Systems

East Asia is quite diverse in writing systems, from the Brahmic inspired abugidas of SEA, the logographic hanzi of China, the syllabaries of Japan, and various alphabets and abjads used in Korea (Hangul), Mongolia (Cyrillic), Vietnam (Latin), Indonesia (Latin / Arabic), etc.

Writing Systems 2
Diversity of writing systems in East Asian cultural sphere

Hanzi (漢字 or 汉字) is considered the cultural glue that unifies the languages and cultures of many East Asian nations. Historically, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam have used Chinese characters. Today, they are mainly used in China, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore albeit in different forms.

Mainland China and Singapore use simplified characters, whereas Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau use traditional.

Japan still uses kanji but has also invented kana, inspired by cursive forms of Chinese.

Korea used to write in hanja but has invented an alphabetic system called hangul (also inspired by Chinese and phags-pa during the Mongol Empire) that is nowadays the majority script. However hanja is a required subject in South Korea. Names are also written in hanja. Hanja is also studied and used in academia, newspapers, and law; areas where a lot of scholarly terms and Sino-Korean cognates are used and necessary to distinguish between otherwise ambiguous homonyms.

FlowRoot3824
Development of kana from Chinese characters
Map-Chinese Characters
Country where Han character is/was used

Vietnam used to write in chữ Hán or Classical Chinese. Since the 8th century they began inventing many of their own chữ Nôm. Since French colonization, they have switched to using a modified version of the Latin alphabet called chữ Quốc ngữ. However, Chinese characters still hold a special place in the cultures as their history and literature have been greatly influenced by Chinese characters. In Vietnam (and North Korea), hanzi can be seen in temples, cemeteries, and monuments today, as well as serving as decorative motifs in art and design. And there are movements to restore Hán Nôm in Vietnam. (Also see History of writing in Vietnam.)

Zhuang are similar to the Vietnamese in that they used to write in Sawgun (Chinese characters) and have invented many of their own characters called Sawndip (Immature characters or native characters). Sawndip is still used informally and in traditional settings, but in 1957, the People's Republic of China introduced an alphabetical script for the language, which is what it officially promotes.[24]

Literature

East Asian literary culture was based on the use of Literary Chinese, which became the medium of scholarship and government across the region. Although each of these countries developed vernacular writing systems and used them for popular literature, they continued to use Chinese for all formal writing until it was swept away by rising nationalism around the end of the 19th century.[25]

Throughout East Asia, Literary Chinese was the language of administration and scholarship. Although Vietnam, Korea and Japan each developed writing systems for their own languages, these were limited to popular literature. Chinese remained the medium of formal writing until it was displaced by vernacular writing in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[26] Though they did not use Chinese for spoken communication, each country had its own tradition of reading texts aloud, the so-called Sino-Xenic pronunciations, which provide clues to the pronunciation of Middle Chinese. Chinese words with these pronunciations were also borrowed extensively into the local vernaculars, and today comprise over half their vocabularies.[27]

Books in Literary Chinese were widely distributed. By the 7th century and possibly earlier, woodblock printing had been developed in China. At first, it was used only to copy the Buddhist scriptures, but later secular works were also printed. By the 13th century, metal movable type was used by government printers in Korea, but seems to have not been extensively used in China, Vietnam, or Japan. At the same time manuscript reproduction remained important until the late 19th century.[28]

Some ancient literature include:

Mythology

East Asian dragon, pandas, Chinese zodiac, etc.

Textual Scholarship

Japan's textual scholarship had Chinese origin which made Japan one of the birthplaces of Sinology.[29]

STEM

Thousand Talents program

List of Chinese inventions, including gunpowder, the printing press, paper, silk

Chinese mathematics

Chinese herbology, acupuncture, Traditional Chinese medicine

Society

guanxi

bao

mianzi and lianzi

Government

Tang dynasty

confucian imperial exam system

Mandate of Heaven

legalism

Geopolitics and international relations

Some say that Australia and New Zealand are increasingly under Chinese influence.[30]

Italy became the first G7 country to sign a BRI mou with China.[31]

Economy and trade

The business cultures of Sinosphere countries in some ways are heavily influenced by Confucianism.

Important in China is the social concept of 关系 or guanxi. This has influenced the societies of Korea and Japan as well.

Japan features hierarchically-organized companies and the Japanese place a high value on relationships (see Japanese work environment).[32] Korean businesses also adhere to Confucian values, and are structured around a patriarchal family governed by filial piety (孝顺) between management and a company's employees.[33]

Before European imperialism, East Asia has always been one of the largest economies in the world, whose output had mostly been driven by China and the Silk Road.

During the Industrial Revolution, East Asia modernized and became an area of economic power starting with the Meiji Restoration in the late 19th century when Japan rapidly transformed itself into the only industrial power outside the North Atlantic area.[34] Japan's early industrial economy reached its height in World War II (1939-1945) when it expanded its empire and became a major world power.

Post WW2 (Tiger economies)

Following Japanese defeat, economic collapse after the war, and US military occupation, Japan's economy recovered in the 1950s with the post-war economic miracle in which rapid growth propelled the country to become the world's second largest economy by the 1980s.

Since the Korean War and again under US military occupation, South Korea has experienced its own postwar economic miracle called the Miracle on the Han River, with the rise of global tech industrial leaders like Samsung, LG, etc. As of 2019 its economy is 4th largest in Asia and 11th largest in the world.

Hong Kong became one of the Four Asian Tiger economies, developing strong textile and manufacturing economies.[35] South Korea followed a similar route, developing a textile industry.[35] Following in the footsteps of Hong Kong and Korea, Taiwan and Singapore quickly industrialized through government policies. By 1997 the four Asian Tiger economies joined Japan as among East Asia's developed economies.

As of 2019, South Korean and Japanese growth have stagnated (also see Lost Decade), and present growth in East Asia has now shifted to China and to the Tiger Cub Economies of Southeast Asia.[36][37][38][39]

Modern era (China and SEA)

Since the Reform and Opening Up (改革开放) China has become the 2nd-largest economy in the world respectively by nominal GDP.

Nowadays the Pearl River Delta along with nearby Hong Kong and Macau, is one of the top startup regions (comparable with Beijing and Shanghai) in East Asia, featuring some of the world's top drone companies like DJI, among other things.

Up until the early 2010s, Vietnamese trade was heavily dependent on China, and many Chinese-Vietnamese speak both Cantonese and Vietnamese, which share many linguistic similarities. Vietnam, one of Next Eleven countries as of 2005, is regarded as a rising economic power in Southeast Asia.[40]

East Asia participates in numerous global economic organizations including:

People

Zheng He of the Ming dynasty was famous for his voyages around the Old World.

Zhang Qian of the Han dynasty is credited with helping open the Ancient Silk Road.

History of East Asia

The History of East Asia is also important in understanding the mutual interactions between various East Asian people and can also better point to what it means to be "East Asian."

During WW2 and the Imperial Japanese Era, there were ideas of Pan-Asianism and a Greater East Asian Co-prosperity sphere. But the idea was not realized since Japan lost the war.

See Silk Road

Etymology of 'Sinosphere'

The term Sinosphere is sometimes used as a synonym for the East Asian cultural sphere. The etymology of Sinosphere is from Sino- "China; Chinese" (cf. Sinophone) and -sphere in the sense of "sphere of influence", "area influenced by a country".

The "CJKV" languages—Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese—translate the English -sphere as Chinese quān "circle; ring; corral; pen", Japanese ken 圏けん "sphere; circle; range; radius", Korean gwon 권 and Vietnamese quyển, all of which are cognates.[41][42]

Victor H. Mair discussed the origins of these "culture sphere" terms.[43] Chinese wénhuà quān 文化圈 dates back to a 1941 translation for German Kulturkreis "culture circle/field", which the Austrian ethnologists Fritz Graebner and Wilhelm Schmidt proposed. Japanese historian Nishijima Sadao coined the expressions Kanji bunka ken (漢字文化圏, "Chinese-character culture sphere") and Chuka bunka ken (中華文化圏, "Chinese culture sphere"), which China later re-borrowed as loanwords. Nishijima devised these Sinitic "cultural spheres" within his "Theory of an East Asian World" (東アジア世界論 Higashi Ajia sekai-ron).

Chinese-English dictionaries give similar translations of this keyword wénhuà quān 文化圈: "the intellectual or literary circles" (Liang Shiqiu 1975) and "literary, educational circles" (Lin Yutang 1972).

The Sinosphere may be taken to be synonymous to Ancient China and its descendant civilizations as well as the "Far Eastern civilizations" (the Mainland and the Japanese ones). In the 1930s in A Study of History, the Sinosphere along with the Western, Islamic, Eastern Orthodox, Indic, etc. civilizations is presented as among the major "units of study."[44]

Comparisons with the West

The British historian Arnold J. Toynbee listed the Far Eastern civilization as one of the main civilizations outlined in his book, A Study of History. He included Japan and Korea in his definition of "Far Eastern civilization" and proposed that they grew out of the "Sinic civilization" that originated in the Yellow River basin.[45] Toynbee compared the relationship between the Sinic and Far Eastern civilization with that of the Hellenic and Western civilizations, which had an "apparentation-affiliation."[46]

The American Sinologist and historian Edwin O. Reischauer also grouped China, Korea, and Japan together into a cultural sphere that he called the Sinic world. These countries are centralized states that share a Confucian ethical philosophy. Reischauer states that this culture originated in Northern China, and compared the relationship between Northern China and East Asia to that of Greco-Roman civilization and Europe. The elites of East Asia were tied together through a common written language based on Chinese characters, much in the way that Latin had functioned in Europe.[11]

The American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington considered the Sinic world as one of many civilizations in his book The Clash of Civilizations. He notes that "all scholars recognize the existence of either a single distinct Chinese civilization dating back to at least 1500 B.C. and perhaps a thousand years earlier, or of two Chinese civilizations one succeeding the other in the early centuries of the Christian epoch."[47] Huntington's Sinic civilization includes China, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Chinese communities in Southeast Asia.[48] Of the many civilizations that Huntington discusses, the Sinic world is the only one that is based on a cultural, rather than religious, identity.[49] Huntington's theory was that in a post-Cold War world, humanity "identify with cultural groups: tribes, ethnic groups, religious communities, and at the broadest level, civilizations."[50][51]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6669569.stm
  2. ^ Wang Hui, "'Modernity and 'Asia' in the Study of Chinese History," in Eckhardt Fuchs, Benedikt Stuchtey, eds.,Across cultural borders: historiography in global perspective [1] (Rowman & Littlefield, 2002 ISBN 978-0-7425-1768-4), p. 322.
  3. ^ McCannon, John (February 2002). How to Prepare for the AP World History. ISBN 9780764118166.
  4. ^ a b Adi, Yoga (13 July 2017). "Top 8 Chinese Culture in Indonesia". Facts of Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  5. ^ a b Davidson, Alan (1981). Food in Motion: The Migration of Foodstuffs and Cookery Techniques : Proceedings : Oxford Symposium 1983. Oxford Symposium. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-907325-07-9.
  6. ^ Wen S. Chern; Colin A. Carter; Shun-yi Shei (2000). Food security in Asia: economics and policies. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-78254-334-3.
  7. ^ Ono, Sakyo. Shinto: The Kami Way. Pp 97–99, 103–104. Tuttle Publishing. 2004. ISBN 0-8048-3557-8
  8. ^ Ono, Sakyo. Shinto: The Kami Way. Pp 51–52, 108. Tuttle Publishing. 2004. ISBN 0-8048-3557-8
  9. ^ Markham, Ian S. & Ruparell, Tinu . Encountering Religion: an introduction to the religions of the world. pp 304–306 Blackwell Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-631-20674-4.
  10. ^ Ono, Sakyo. Shinto: The Kami Way. Pg 12. Tuttle Publishing. 2004. ISBN 0-8048-3557-8
  11. ^ a b Edwin O. Reischauer, "The Sinic World in Perspective," Foreign Affairs 52.2 (January 1974): 341-348. JSTOR
  12. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark (2005). Religion in global civil society. Oxford University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-19-518835-6.
  13. ^ a b Craig, Edward. Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. ISBN 0-19-285421-6 Craig 1998, p. 536.
  14. ^ Essentials of Neo-Confucianism: Eight Major Philosophers of the Song and Ming Periods by Huang, Siu-chi. Huang 1999, p. 5.
  15. ^ A Sourcebook of Chinese Philosophy by Chan, Wing-tsit. Chan 2002, p. 460.
  16. ^ Jin, Li; Wuyun Pan; Yan, Shi; Zhang, Menghan (24 April 2019). "Phylogenetic evidence for Sino-Tibetan origin in northern China in the Late Neolithic". Nature. 569 (7754): 112–115. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1153-z. ISSN 1476-4687.
  17. ^ Sagart, Laurent and Jacques, Guillaume and Lai, Yunfan and Ryder, Robin and Thouzeau, Valentin and Greenhill, Simon J. and List, Johann-Mattis. 2019. "Dated language phylogenies shed light on the ancestry of Sino-Tibetan". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 21. 10317-10322. doi:10.1073/pnas.1817972116
  18. ^ DeFrancis, John, 1911-2009. (1977). Colonialism and language policy in Viet Nam. The Hague: Mouton. ISBN 9027976430. OCLC 4230408.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ Sohn, Ho-min. (1999). The Korean language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521361230. OCLC 40200082.
  20. ^ Shibatani, Masayoshi. (1990). The languages of Japan. 柴谷, 方良, 1944- (Reprint 1994 ed.). Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521360706. OCLC 19456186.
  21. ^ Ratliff, Martha Susan. (2010). Hmong-Mien language history. Pacific Linguistics. ISBN 9780858836150. OCLC 741956124.
  22. ^ "Why reading their own language gives Mongolians a headache". SoraNews24. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  23. ^ October 2017, Aigerim Bulambayeva in Nation on 31 (31 October 2017). "Kazakhstan to switch to Latin alphabet by 2025". The Astana Times. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  24. ^ Zhou, Minglang, 1954-. Multilingualism in China : the politics of writing reforms for minority languages, 1949-2002. Berlin. ISBN 9783110924596. OCLC 868954061.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ Kornicki, P.F. (2011), "A transnational approach to East Asian book history", in Chakravorty, Swapan; Gupta, Abhijit (eds.), New Word Order: Transnational Themes in Book History, Worldview Publications, pp. 65–79, ISBN 978-81-920651-1-3.Kornicki 2011, pp. 75–77
  26. ^ Kornicki (2011), pp. 66–67.
  27. ^ Miyake (2004), pp. 98–99.
  28. ^ Kornicki (2011), p. 68.
  29. ^ "Given Japan’s strong tradition of Chinese textual scholarship, encouraged further by visits by eminent Chinese scholars since the early twentieth century, Japan has been one of the birthplaces of modern sinology outside China" Early China - A Social and Cultural History, page 11. Cambridge University Press.
  30. ^ Weijian, Chen. "Australia And New Zealand Are Ground Zero For Chinese Influence". NPR.org. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  31. ^ "DOCUMENTO D'INTESA TRA IL GOVERNO DELLA REPUBBLICA ITALIANA E IL GOVERNO DELLA REPUBBLICA POPOLARE CINESE SULLA COLLABORAZIONE ALL'INTERNO DEL PROGETTO ECONOMICO "VIA DELLA SETA" E DELL'INIZIATIVA PER LE VIE MARITTIME DEL XXI° SECOLO".
  32. ^ Where cultures meet; a cross-cultural comparison of business meeting styles. Hogeschool van Amsterdam. p. 69. ISBN 978-90-79646-17-3.
  33. ^ Timothy Book; Hy V.. Luong (1999). Culture and economy: the shaping of capitalism in eastern Asia. University of Michigan Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-472-08598-9. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  34. ^ Aiko Ikeo (4 January 2002). Economic Development in Twentieth-Century East Asia: The International Context. Taylor & Francis. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-203-02704-2.
  35. ^ a b Compare: J. James W. Harrington; Barney Warf (1995). Industrial Location: Principles, Practice, and Policy. Routledge. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-415-10479-1. As the textile industry began to abandon places with high labor costs in the western industrialized world, it began to sprout up in a variety of Third World locations, in particular the famous 'Four Tiger' nations of East Asia: South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. Textiles were particularly important in the early industrialization of South Korea, while garment production was more significant to Hong Kong.
  36. ^ "Why South Korea risks following Japan into economic stagnation". Australian Financial Review. 21 August 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  37. ^ Abe, Naoki (12 February 2010). "Japan's Shrinking Economy". Brookings. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  38. ^ "The rise and demise of Asia's four little dragons". South China Morning Post. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  39. ^ "YPs' Guide To: Southeast Asia—How Tiger Cubs Are Becoming Rising Tigers". spe.org. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  40. ^ "The story behind Viet Nam's miracle growth". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  41. ^ DeFrancis, John, ed. (2003), ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary, University of Hawaii Press, p. 750.
  42. ^ T. Watanabe, E. R. Skrzypczak, and P. Snowden (2003), Kenkyūsha's New Japanese-English Dictionary, Kenkyusha, p. 873. Compare Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
  43. ^ Victor Mair, Sinophone and Sinosphere, Language Log, November 8, 2012.
  44. ^ See the "family tree" of Toynbee's "civilizations" in any edition of Toynbee's own work, or e.g. as Fig.1 on p.16 of: The Rhythms of History: A Universal Theory of Civilizations, By Stephen Blaha. Pingree-Hill Publishing, 2002. ISBN 0-9720795-7-2.
  45. ^ Sun, Lung-kee (2002). The Chinese National Character: From Nationalhood to Individuality. M.E. Sharpe. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-7656-3936-3.
  46. ^ Sun, Lung-kee (2002). The Chinese National Character: From Nationalhood to Individuality. M.E. Sharpe. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-7656-0826-0.
  47. ^ The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996; ISBN 0684811642), p. 45
  48. ^ William E. Davis (2006). Peace And Prosperity in an Age of Incivility. University Press of America. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-7618-3248-5.
  49. ^ Michail S. Blinnikov (2011). A Geography of Russia and Its Neighbors. Guilford Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-60623-933-9.
  50. ^ Lung-kee Sun (2002). The Chinese National Character: From Nationalhood to Individuality. M.E. Sharpe. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-7656-0826-0.
  51. ^ Hugh Gusterson (2004). People of the bomb: portraits of America's nuclear complex. U of Minnesota Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-8166-3860-4.

Sources

  • Ankerl, Guy (2000). Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Global communication without universal civilization. 1. Geneva, Switzerland: INU Press. ISBN 978-2-88155-004-1.
  • Joshua Fogel, "The Sinic World," in Ainslie Thomas Embree, Carol Gluck, ed., Asia in Western and World History a Guide for Teaching. (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, Columbia Project on Asia in the Core Curriculum, 1997). ISBN 0585027331. Access may be limited to NetLibrary affiliated libraries. [2]
  • Fogel, Joshua A. (2009). Articulating the Sinosphere : Sino-Japanese relations in space and time. Edwin O. Reischauer Lectures ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03259-0.
  • Holcombe, Charles (2011). "Introduction: What is East Asia". A history of East Asia : from the origins of civilization to the twenty-first century (1st published. ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-0521731645.
  • Holcombe, Charles (2001). The Genesis of East Asia, 221 B.C.-A.D. 907 ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Honolulu: Association for Asian Studies and University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0824824150.
  • Reischauer, Edwin O. (1974). "The Sinic World in Perspective". Foreign Affairs. 52 (2): 341–348. doi:10.2307/20038053. JSTOR 20038053.

External links

Chinese civilization

Chinese civilization may refer to:

The country China

History of China

Chinese culture

Chopsticks

Chopsticks are kitchen/eating utensils that are shaped pairs of equal-length sticks that have been used in virtually all of East Asia for over two millennia. First invented and used by the Han Chinese over 8,000 years ago, chopsticks later spread to other countries that were tributary states of the Empire of China that established an East Asian cultural sphere based on ancient Han Chinese culture, science and technological innovations. In Southeast Asia, only Vietnam and ethnic Chinese communities consume all food with chopsticks. In Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Indian and Malay communities in Singapore and Malaysia, as well as in Nepal, chopsticks are generally used only to consume noodles. In Thailand, chopsticks is now a part of their eating utensils along with the spoon and fork, where in the past chopsticks were never used. Using chopsticks is uncommon in the Philippines.Chopsticks are smoothed and frequently tapered and are commonly made of bamboo, plastic, wood, or stainless steel. They are less commonly made from titanium, gold, silver, porcelain, jade, or ivory. Chopsticks are held in the dominant hand, between the thumb and fingers, and used to pick up pieces of food.

Culture of Vietnam

The culture of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Văn hóa Việt Nam) originated from an ancient Baiyue Kingdom in East Asia called Nam Việt, which shared both Bách Việt and Han Culture with the ancient Bronze age Đông Sơn culture being widely considered one of its most important progenitors. Han China invaded and annexed Nam Việt in 111 BC leading to the first Chinese domination of Vietnam.

Due to a millennium of Chinese rule, Vietnam was heavily influenced by Chinese culture in terms of politics, government, Confucian social and moral ethics, and art. Vietnam is considered to be part of the East Asian cultural sphere.Following independence from China in the 10th century, Vietnam began a southward expansion that saw the annexation of territories formerly belonging to the Champa civilization (now Central Vietnam) and parts of the Khmer empire (modern southern Vietnam), which resulted in minor regional variances in Vietnam's culture due to exposure to these different groups.

During the French colonial period, Vietnamese culture absorbed various influences from the Europeans, including the spread of Catholicism and the adoption of the Latin alphabet. Prior to this, Vietnamese had used both Chinese characters and a script called Chữ nôm which was based on Chinese but included newly invented characters meant to represent native Vietnamese words. The processes of cultural evolution in Vietnam have also been reflected through the changes and the mix of cultural elements on urban house exterior façades, according to research in 2019.In the socialist era, the Vietnamese cultural life was deeply influenced by government-controlled media and the cultural influences of socialist programs. For many decades, foreign cultural influences were shunned and emphasis placed on appreciating and sharing the culture of communist nations such as the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and others. Since the 1990s, Vietnam has been exposed to other Asian, European and American culture and media.

Some elements generally considered to be characteristic of Vietnamese culture include ancestor veneration, ancestor worship, respect for community and family values, handicrafts and manual labour religious belief. Important symbols present in Vietnamese culture include dragons, turtles, lotuses and bamboo.

East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia and Taiwan. People indigenous to the region are called East Asians. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere.The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire. East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia (as it was principally the leading civilization in the region), exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors. Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana Buddhism which came via trade routes from India.), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Greater China, Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism, and Sindoism in Korea. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus.East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).

Emperor Inside, King Outside

Emperor Inside, King Outside (外王內帝) is a system used by countries within East Asian cultural sphere. The ruler claimed emperor domestically, while using title of king when negotiating with China. This rule has applied for Japan , Korea, Vietnam, etc. The title Majesty (陛下) is not allowed to use, while using Highness (殿下) instead.

First Full Moon Festival

Lantern Festival may refer to four related festivals in East Asian cultural sphere:

Yuanxiao in China

Daeboreum in Korea

Koshōgatsu in Japan

Tết Nguyên Tiêu or “Rằm tháng Giêng” in Vietnam

Four Symbols

The Four Symbols (Chinese: 四象; pinyin: Sì Xiàng, literally meaning "four images"), are four mythological creatures appearing among the Chinese constellations along the ecliptic, and viewed as the guardians of the four cardinal directions. These four creatures are also referred to by a variety of other names, including "Four Guardians", "Four Gods", and "Four Auspicious Beasts". They are the Azure Dragon of the East, the Vermilion Bird of the South, the White Tiger of the West, and the Black Turtle (also called "Black Warrior") of the North. Each of the creatures is most closely associated with a cardinal direction and a color, but also additionally represents other aspects, including a season of the year, a virtue, and one of the Chinese "five elements" (wood, fire, earth, metal, and water). Each has been given its own individual traits and origin story. Symbolically, and as part of spiritual and religious belief, these creatures have been culturally important across countries in the East Asian cultural sphere.

Fu (country subdivision)

Fu (Chinese: 府; pinyin: fǔ) is a traditional administrative division of Chinese origin used in the East Asian cultural sphere, translated variously as commandery, prefecture, urban prefecture, or city. They were first instituted as a regular form of administrative division of China's Tang Empire, but were later adopted in Vietnam, Japan and Korea. At present, only two fu still remain: the prefectures of Kyoto and Osaka in Japan.

The term fu is currently also used in Chinese to translate the provinces of Thailand, but not those of mainland China, Taiwan or other countries.

Greater China

"Greater China" is an informal term used to refer a geographic area that shares commercial and cultural ties dominated by ethnic Han Chinese - for instance Chinese-language television, film and music entertainment. The precise area is not always entirely clear, but normally encompasses mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. Singapore is also regarded as part of the definition by some, although it is not as geographically close to mainland China as the rest of the countries included nor has it ever politically been a part of it.

Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area

The languages of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) form a linguistic area, which stretches from Thailand to China and spans the Sino-Tibetan, Hmong–Mien (or Miao–Yao), Kra–Dai, Austronesian (represented by Chamic) and Austroasiatic families. Neighbouring languages across these families, though presumed unrelated, often have similar typological features, which are believed to have spread by diffusion. James Matisoff referred to this area as the Sinosphere, contrasted with the "Indosphere", but viewed it as a zone of mutual influence in the ancient period. "Sinosphere" is more commonly used to refer to the East Asian cultural sphere.

David Gil (2015) considers the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area to be part of the larger Mekong-Mamberamo linguistic area, which also includes languages in Indonesia west of the Mamberamo River.

North Asia

North Asia or Northern Asia (Russian: Северная Азия, lit. 'Severnaya Aziya'), sometimes also referred to as Siberia or Eurasia, is partly a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions east of the Ural Mountains: Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East. The region is sometimes also known as Asian Russia (as opposed to the smaller but more densely populated European Russia to the west). North Asia is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by Eastern Europe, to the south by Central and East Asia and to the east by the Pacific Ocean and North America. North Asia covers an area of approximately 13,100,000 square kilometres (5,100,000 sq mi) or 8.8% of the earth's land area, or 1.5 times the size of Brazil. It is the largest subregion of Asia by area, but is also the least populated, with an approximate total population of only 33 million people or 0.74% of Asia’s population. North Asia is solely administrated by Russia, and makes up more than 75% of the territory of the country, but only 22% of its population, at a density of 2.5 people per km2 (6.5 per sq mi). The region of Western Siberia and occasionally Kazakhstan is usually called Northwestern Asia or Northwest Asia; (Russian: Северо-Западная Азия, lit. 'Severo-zapadnaya Aziya'), although the name sometimes refers to Caucasus or nearby provinces.

Topographically, the region is dominated by the Eurasian Plate, except for its eastern part, which lies on the North American, Amurian and Okhotsk Plates. It is divided by three major plains: the West Siberian Plain, Central Siberian Plateau and Verhoyansk-Chukotka collision zone. The Uralian orogeny in the west raised Ural Mountains, the informal boundary between Europe and Asia. Tectonic and volcanic activities are frequently occurred in the eastern part of the region as part of the Ring of Fire, evidenced by the formation of island arc such as Kuril Islands and ultra-prominent peaks such as Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Kronotsky and Koryaksky. The central part of North Asia is a large igneous province called the Siberian Traps, formed by a massive eruption occurred 250 million years ago.

European influences, especially Russian, are strong in the southwestern and central part of the region, due to its high Russian population from Eastern Europe which began to settle the area in the 18th-century CE. The southeastern part is historically under the influence of East Asian cultural sphere, especially the Chinese. Indigenous cultures are mostly strong in the eastern and southern part of the region due to concentrated population of indigenous ethnicities. In recent years there are growing number of movements by the indigenous peoples of the region to preserve its culture from extinction. The region is the home of different peoples such as Turkic, Tungusic and Uralic peoples.

Northeast Asia

Northeast Asia, North East Asia or Northeastern Asia is a term to refer to a subregion of Asia: the northeastern landmass and islands, bordering the Pacific Ocean. It includes the core countries of East Asia.

The term Northeast Asia was popularized during the 1930s by an American historian and political scientist named Robert Kerner. Under Kerner's definition, "Northeast Asia" included the Mongolian Plateau, the Manchurian Plain, the Korean Peninsula and the mountainous regions of the Far East controlled by Russia, stretching from Lena River in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.

Shiao Yi

Shiao Yi (simplified Chinese: 萧逸; traditional Chinese: 蕭逸; pinyin: Xiāo Yì; 4 June 1935 – 19 November 2018) was a Chinese American wuxia ("martial arts and chivalry") novelist. Shiao was often mentioned with Jin Yong as the "Nan Jin Bei Shiao" (Chinese: 南金北蕭; literally: 'Jin of the south and Shiao of the north'). In all, he wrote 55 novels in his life, including several novellas. Several of his works have been adapted for films and TV series, with their influences spreading across the East Asian cultural sphere.

Sinosphere (disambiguation)

Sinosphere traditionally refers to the East Asian cultural sphere, nations that have historically been influenced by China in terms of literary traditions, culture and religions.

It may also refer to:

James Matisoff's name for the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area

the Sinophone world, the area in which Chinese is spoken

Sinocentrism, the historical ideology that China was the cultural center of the world

Greater China, comprising Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan

Solar term

A solar term is any of 24 points in traditional East Asian lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon. The points are spaced 15° apart along the ecliptic and are used by lunisolar calendars to stay synchronized with the seasons, which is crucial for agrarian societies. The solar terms are also used to calculate intercalary months in East Asian calendars; which month is repeated depends on the position of the sun at the time.

According to the Book of Documents, the first determined term was the Winter Solstice, also named Dongzhi by Zhou Gong, while he was trying to locate the geological center of his kingdom, by measuring the length of the sun's shadow on an ancient timekeeper instrument named Tu Gui (土圭). Then four terms of seasons were set, which were soon evolved as eight terms; until 104 B. C. in the book Taichu Calendar, the entire 24 solar terms were officially included in Chinese calendar.Because the Sun's speed along the ecliptic varies depending on the Earth-Sun distance, the number of days that it takes the Sun to travel between each pair of solar terms varies slightly throughout the year. Each solar term is divided into three pentads (候 hòu) (ja), so there are 72 pentads in a year. Each pentad consists of five, rarely six, days, and are mostly named after phenological (biological or botanical) phenomena corresponding to the pentad.

Solar terms originated in China, then spread to Korea, Vietnam, and Japan, countries in the East Asian cultural sphere. Although each term was named based on the seasonal changes of climate in North China Plain, peoples living in the different climates still use it with no changes. This is exhibited by the fact that traditional Chinese, Hanja, and Kanji characters for most of the solar terms are identical.

On December 1, 2016, 24 Solar Terms were listed as UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Tianxia

Tianxia (Chinese: 天下) is a Chinese term for an ancient Chinese cultural concept that denoted either the entire geographical world or the metaphysical realm of mortals, and later became associated with political sovereignty. In ancient China, tianxia denoted the lands, space, and area divinely appointed to the Emperor by universal and well-defined principles of order. The center of this land was directly apportioned to the Imperial court, forming the center of a world view that centered on the Imperial court and went concentrically outward to major and minor officials and then the common citizens, tributary states, and finally ending with the fringe "barbarians".

The center of this world view was not exclusionary in nature, and outer groups, such as ethnic minorities and foreign people, who accepted the mandate of the Chinese Emperor were themselves received and included into the Chinese tianxia. In classical Chinese political thought, the "Son of Heaven" (Emperor of China) (Chinese: 天子; pinyin: tiānzǐ; Wade–Giles: t'ien1-tzu3), having received the Mandate of Heaven (天命; tiānmìng; 'heaven decree'), would nominally be the ruler of the entire world. Although in practice there would be areas of the known world which were not under the control of the Emperor, in Chinese political theory the rulers of those areas derived their power from the Emperor.

The larger concept of tianxia is closely associated with civilization and order in classical Chinese philosophy, and has formed the basis for the world view of the Chinese people and nations influenced by them since at least the first millennium BC. Tianxia has been independently applied by other countries in the East Asian cultural sphere, including Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

Vietnamese calligraphy

Vietnamese calligraphy (Vietnamese Quốc ngữ: thư pháp Việt Nam, Hán Nôm: 書法越南) relates to the calligraphic traditions of Vietnam. It includes calligraphic works using a variety of scripts, including Chinese characters, Chữ nôm, and the Latin-based Quốc ngữ. Historically, calligraphers used the former two scripts. However, due to the adoption of the Latin-based Quốc ngữ, modern Vietnamese calligraphy also uses Roman script.

Traditional Vietnamese calligraphy is strongly affected by that of China. As part of the East Asian cultural sphere, Classical Chinese was often used as the written medium of communication, and as a result, Vietnamese calligraphy also follows Chinese calligraphy’s standard and uses Han script (Chinese language) in many of its writings. For example, during the Lý dynasty, its style was very similar to China’s Tang dynasty (618-907). During the Trần dynasty, it was influenced strongly by China’s Song (960-1279) and Yuan (1271-1368) dynasties.Nonetheless, over time, Vietnam developed its own styles of calligraphy for writing both Classical Chinese and Chữ nôm. In the later Lê dynasty, Vietnam developed a unique style of calligraphy called "Nam tự" (南字, lit. ‘southern script’) by Phạm Đình Hổ (範廷琥) in his book Vũ Trung Tùy Bút (雨中隨筆). It was first used in bureaucracy only but later became popular for all writing purposes. It was also called "Lệnh Thư" (令書, lit. ‘script for decrees’) in Việt Sử Toát Yếu (越史撮要) because of its initial bureaucratic characteristic.In modern times, calligraphy has been done frequently in the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet Quốc Ngữ script, as Chữ Nôm and Chinese characters have largely fallen out of use. Quốc Ngữ calligraphy gained popularity during the New Poetry and Free Poetry Movements, due to the increasing popularity of using the Vietnamese vernacular, as well as influence from French literature. Modern Vietnamese calligraphy is undoubtedly influenced by modern Latin cursive but is written using the calligraphy brush, rather than quill or reed pens as is done in Western calligraphy. Much as Chinese calligraphy is used to write poems, festive banners, signage, and so on, Vietnamese calligraphy can also serve the same purpose today.

Vietnamese people

The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (Vietnamese: người Việt or người Kinh), are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to present-day northern Vietnam, their nation state. They speak Vietnamese, the most widely spoken Austroasiatic language. They comprised 86% of the population of the country at the 1999 census, and are officially known as Kinh (related autonym) to distinguish them from other ethnic groups in Vietnam. The earliest recorded name for the ancient Vietnamese people appears as Lạc.

Although geographically and linguistically labeled as Southeast Asians, long periods of Chinese domination and influence have placed the Vietnamese in the East Asian cultural sphere, or more specifically their immediate northern neighbours, the Southern Han Chinese and other peoples within South China. The word Việt is shortened from Bách Việt, a name used in ancient times for various non-Chinese peoples who were assimilated into Chinese culture. Nam means "south". Together, Vietnam means "to the south of the Viet", as Vietnam is located south of the Bách Việt.

京 is the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and former Vietnamese character meaning "capital (city)," and the simplified form of the older way of writing the character, 亰. The character is predominantly used in the names of current and former capital cities within the East Asian cultural sphere.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinDōngyà wénhuà quān
Wu
Romanizationton-ia ven-ho-chioe
Hakka
Romanizationdung24 a31 vun11 fa55 kien24
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutpingdung1 aa3 man4 faa3 hyun1
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTang-a bûn-huà-khian
Transcriptions
Revised RomanizationDong-a Munhwagwon
Transcriptions
Revised Hepburntō-a bunkaken
Kunrei-shikiTou-A Bunkaken
Writing systems of East Asia ( * denotes unofficial usage)
Writing System Regions
Logograms 汉字 China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea*, Vietnam*, Singapore, Taiwan
Syllabary Japan (kana かな)
Alphabet (Hangul, 한글) Korea
Abugidas (spread from India) China (Tibet), Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malays*
Alphabet (Latin) Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Philippines, Brunei
Alphabet (Cyrillic) Mongolia (though there is movement to switch back to Mongolian script)[22]

Kazakhstan (will switch to Latin by 2025)[23]

Alphabet (Mongolian) Mongolia*, China (Inner Mongolia)
Abjad (Arabic) China (Xinjiang), Malays*
Countries and regions
Ethnic groups
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