East Asian Monsoon

The East Asian monsoon is a monsoonal flow that carries moist air from the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean to East Asia. It affects approximately one-third of the global population, influencing the climate of Japan (including Okinawa), the Koreas, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and much of Mainland China. It is driven by temperature differences between the East Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean. The East Asian monsoon is divided into a warm and wet summer monsoon and a cold and dry winter monsoon. This cold and dry winter monsoon is responsible for the aeolian dust deposition and pedogenesis that resulted in the creation of the Loess Plateau. The monsoon influences weather patterns as far north as Siberia, causing wet summers that contrast with the cold and dry winters caused by the Siberian High, which counterbalances the monsoon's effect on northerly latitudes.

In most years, the monsoonal flow shifts in a very predictable pattern, with winds being southeasterly in late June, bringing significant rainfall to the Korean Peninsula and Japan (in Okinawa this flow starts in May). This leads to a reliable precipitation spike in July and August. However, this pattern occasionally fails, leading to drought and crop failure. In the winter, the winds are northeasterly and the monsoonal precipitation bands move back to the south, and intense precipitation occurs over southern China and Taiwan.

The East Asian monsoon is known as jangma (장마) in Korea. In Japan the monsoon boundary is referred to as the tsuyu (梅雨) as it advances northward during the spring, while it is referred to as the shurin when the boundary retreats back southward during the autumn months.[1] Over Japan and Korea, the monsoon boundary typically takes the form of a quasi-stationary front separating the cooler air mass associated with the Okhotsk High to the north from the hot, humid air mass associated with the subtropical ridge to the south. After the monsoon boundary passes north of a given location, it is not uncommon for daytime temperatures to exceed 32 °C (90 °F) with dewpoints of 24 °C (75 °F) or higher.

See also


  1. ^ Takao, Fujio & Seita 2001.


  • Takao, Yoshikane; Fujio, Kimura; Seita, Emori (2001). "Numerical Study on the Baiu Front Genesis by Heating Contrast between Land and Ocean". Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. 79 (2): 671–686. doi:10.2151/jmsj.79.671. ISSN 0026-1165. OCLC 819392837.

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Climate of Asia

The Climate of Asia is wet across southeast sections, and dry across much of the interior. Some of the largest daily temperature ranges on Earth occur in western sections of Asia. The monsoon circulation dominates across southern and eastern sections, due to the presence of the Himalayas forcing the formation of a thermal low which draws in moisture during the summer. Southwestern sections of the continent experience low relief as a result of the subtropical high pressure belt; they are hot in the summer, warm to cool in winter, and may snow at higher altitudes. Siberia is one of the coldest places in the Northern Hemisphere, and can act as a source of arctic air masses for North America. The most active place on Earth for tropical cyclone activity lies northeast of the Philippines and south of Japan, and the phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation modulates where in Asia landfall is more likely to occur.

Climate of Seoul

The climate of Seoul features a humid continental climate with dry winter, called "Dwa" in the Köppen climate classification. Seoul is classed as having a temperate climate with four distinct seasons, but temperature differences between the hottest part of summer and the depths of winter are extreme. In summer the influence of the North Pacific high-pressure system brings hot, humid weather with temperatures soaring as high as 35 °C (95 °F) on occasion. In winter the city is topographically influenced by expanding Siberian High-pressure zones and prevailing west winds, temperatures dropping almost as low as -20 °C (-4 °F) in severe cold waves. The bitterly cold days tend to come in three-day cycles regulated by rising and falling pressure systems, during winter snowfall can cause frosty weather in the city. The most pleasant seasons, for most people in the city are spring and autumn, when azure blue skies and comfortable temperatures are regular. Most of Seoul's precipitation falls in the summer monsoon period between June and September, as a part of East Asian monsoon season.

Dafeng Milu Nature Reserve

Dafeng Milu Nature Reserve is located in Dafeng, Jiangsu Province and near the Yellow Sea coast in eastern China, with the whole area 78000 ha, the core area 2668 ha, the buffer area 2220, and the experimental area 73112. The Geological landforms are typical coastal wetland, including tidal flats, seasonal stream and part of artificial wetland together with a lot of forest land, salt marsh, and bare land. The city of Dafeng belongs to subtropical and warm temperate zone, where thermophilic crops can grow well and influenced by the East Asian monsoon. The average annual temperature is 14.5 °C and the normal precipitation is over 750 mm per year.

East Asian rainy season

The East Asian rainy season, commonly called the plum rain (Chinese: 梅雨; pinyin: méiyǔ), is caused by precipitation along a persistent stationary front known as the Mei-Yu front for nearly two months during the late spring and early summer between eastern Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. The wet season ends during the summer when the subtropical ridge becomes strong enough to push this front north of the region.

Geography of Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is an island state in East Asia. The main island of Taiwan, known historically as Formosa, makes up 99% of the area controlled by the ROC, measuring 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi) and lying some 180 kilometres (112 mi) across the Taiwan Strait from the southeastern coast of mainland China. The East China Sea lies to its north, the Philippine Sea to its east, the Luzon Strait directly to its south and the South China Sea to its southwest. Smaller islands include a number in the Taiwan Strait including the Penghu archipelago, the Kinmen and Matsu Islands near the Chinese coast, and some of the South China Sea Islands.

The main island is a tilted fault block, characterized by the contrast between the eastern two-thirds, consisting mostly of five rugged mountain ranges parallel to the east coast, and the flat to gently rolling plains of the western third, where the majority of Taiwan's population reside. There are several peaks over 3,500 m, the highest being Yu Shan at 3,952 m (12,966 ft), making Taiwan the world's fourth-highest island. The tectonic boundary that formed these ranges is still active, and the island experiences many earthquakes, a few of them highly destructive. There are also many active submarine volcanoes in the Taiwan Straits.

The climate ranges from tropical in the south to subtropical in the north, and is governed by the East Asian Monsoon. The main island is struck by an average of four typhoons in each year. The eastern mountains are heavily forested and home to a diverse range of wildlife, while land use in the western and northern lowlands is intensive.

Hailar District

Hailar District, formerly a county-level city, is an urban district that serves as the seat of the prefecture-level city Hulunbuir in northeastern Inner Mongolia, China. Hulunbuir, due to its massive size, is a city in administrative terms only, being mainly grassland and rural.

Long known as the "Pearl of the Grasslands", Hailar acts as a gateway between China and Russia. The district has an estimated population of 256,000, and serves as a regional center for commerce, trade, and transportation.

Huadian, Jilin

Huadian (simplified Chinese: 桦甸; traditional Chinese: 樺甸; pinyin: Huàdiàn) is a city in south-central Jilin province, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Jilin City.

Huazhou, Guangdong

Huazhou, formerly romanized as Fachow or Fahsien, is a county-level city in southwestern Guangdong Province, China. Bordering Guangxi to the north, it is administrated as part of the prefecture-level city of Maoming. During the 2010 census, its population was 1,178,809, of which 320,418 were considered urban.

Index of Korea-related articles (E)

This is a partial list of Korea-related topics beginning with E. For Korean words starting with 어 or 으, see also under O or U respectively.

Index of Korea-related articles (J)

This is a partial list of Korea-related topics beginning with J. For Korean words starting with ㅈ, see also under List of Korea-related topics.

Jiaohe, Jilin

Jiaohe (Chinese: 蛟河; pinyin: Jiāohé) is a middle-sized county-level city in east-central Jilin province, People's Republic of China, bordering Heilongjiang to the northeast. It is under the administration of Jilin City, 65 kilometres (40 mi) to the west, and it is well known for its production of tobacco. The mayor of the city is Wang Gang (王钢).

The sister city (or twin town) of Jiaohe is Folsom, California, United States.

Lake Tengger

Lake Tengger (also known as Lake Zhuyeze) is a paleolake in China. It formed within the Tengger Desert during the Pleistocene and in reduced form during the Holocene as well. It is not certain when it existed.


Monsoon () is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains, although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon.The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West African and Asia-Australian monsoons. The inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with incomplete wind reversal has been debated.The term was first used in English in British India and neighbouring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area.

Operation Popeye

Operation Popeye (Project Controlled Weather Popeye / Motorpool / Intermediary-Compatriot) was a highly classified weather modification program in Southeast Asia during 1967–1972. The cloud seeding operation during the Vietnam War ran from March 20, 1967 until July 5, 1972 in an attempt to extend the monsoon season, specifically over areas of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The operation was used to induce rain and extend the East Asian Monsoon season in support of U.S. government efforts related to the War in Southeast Asia.

The former U.S. Secretary of Defense, Robert S. McNamara, was aware that there might be objections raised by the international scientific community but said in a memo to the president that such objections had not in the past been a basis for prevention of military activities considered to be in the interests of U.S. national security.

The chemical weather modification program was conducted from Thailand over Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam and allegedly sponsored by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and CIA without the authorization of then Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird who had categorically denied to Congress that a program for modification of the weather for use as a tactical weapon even existed.

Pangean megamonsoon

The Pangean megamonsoon refers to the theory that the supercontinent Pangea experienced a distinct seasonal reversal of winds, resulting in extreme transitions between dry and wet periods throughout the year. Pangea was a conglomeration of all the global continental land masses, which lasted from the late Carboniferous through the mid Jurassic. This megamonsoon intensified as the continents continued to shift toward each other, reaching its maximum strength in the Triassic, the period in which continental surface area of Pangea was at its peak.The megamonsoon would have led to immensely arid regions along the interior regions of the continent. These areas would have been nearly uninhabitable, with extremely hot days and frigid nights. However, the coasts experienced seasonality, transitioning from rainy weather in the summer to dry conditions during the winter.


Puyang is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Henan province, People's Republic of China. Located on the northern shore of the Yellow River, it borders Anyang in the west, Xinxiang in the southwest, and the provinces of Shandong and Hebei in the east and north respectively.

Rhinolophus xinanzhongguoensis

Rhinolophus xinanzhongguoensis, the wedge-sellaed horseshoe bat or southwestern China horseshoe bat, is a species of horseshoe bat from China.

Rudnaya Pristan

Rudnaya Pristan (Russian: Ру́дная При́стань, lit. Ore Wharf) is a village (selo) located at the mouth of the Rudnaya River, on the Pacific coast of Primorsky Krai. It is situated 35 km east of Dalnegorsk (also in Primorsky Krai) and approximately 514 km north of Vladivostok. Its population was 2,107 in 2010, 2,389 in 2002, and 2,947 in 1989.Lead smelting has been the town's primary industry since a plant was built there in 1930. The plant has provided steady employment for most of the area's families since that time, but at enormous cost to both the health of the residents and the local environment. The residents suffer from many health problems, including an inordinately high rate of cancer, and the soil has become heavily contaminated with lead-related by-products. The Blacksmith Institute consequently declared Rudnaya Pristan, along with Dalnegorsk, one of the ten worst polluted places on earth, although Anatoly Lebedev, leader of the ecological NGO BROK, disputes this inclusion.Despite its coastal location, Rudnaya Pristan's harbor has remained largely undeveloped, and its climate is harsh, dominated in winter by the vast Siberian high-pressure system and in summer by remnants of the East Asian monsoon. This combination results in very cold, dry winters with generally high winds, and muggy summers that provide ideal conditions for the breeding of mosquitoes.

Siberian High

The Siberian High (also Siberian Anticyclone; Russian: Азиатский антициклон) is a massive collection of cold dry air that accumulates in the northeastern part of Eurasia from September until April. It is usually centered on Lake Baikal. It reaches its greatest size and strength in the winter when the air temperature near the center of the high-pressure area is often lower than −40 °C (−40 °F). The atmospheric pressure is often above 1,040 millibars (31 inHg). The Siberian High is the strongest semi-permanent high in the northern hemisphere and is responsible for both the lowest temperature in the Northern Hemisphere, of −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) on 15 January 1885 at Verkhoyansk, and the highest pressure, 1083.8 mbar (108.38 kPa, 32.01 inHg) at Agata, Krasnoyarsk Krai on 31 December 1968, ever recorded. The Siberian High is responsible both for severe winter cold and attendant dry conditions with little snow and few or no glaciers across Siberia, Mongolia, and China. During the summer, the Siberian High is largely replaced by the Asiatic low.

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