East Asian Economic Review

The East Asian Economic Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal on economics and the economy of East Asia. It is published by the Korea Institute for International Economic Policy and was established in 1997 as the Journal of International Economic Studies and renamed Journal of East Asian Economic Integration in 2012, obtaining its current title in 2016. The editor-in-chief is Chul Chung (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy).

East Asian Economic Review
DisciplineInternational economics
Edited byChul Chung
Publication details
Former name(s)
Journal of International Economic Studies, Journal of East Asian Economic Integration
Publication history
Standard abbreviations
East Asian Econ. Rev.
ISSN2508-1640 (print)
2508-1667 (web)
OCLC no.806235108

Abstracting and indexing

The East Asian Economic Review is indexed and abstracted in EconLit, e-JEL, JEL on CD, ESCI, OCLC WorldCat, ProQuest, Google Scholar, ECONIS, EconBiz, EBSCO Academic Search Premier, British Library and SSRN, Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resource(ROAD) and registered to Ulrichsweb, ITS·MARC, CrossRef and Korea Citation Index.

Outstanding paper award

The journal gives a yearly Award for Excellence for an outstanding paper published in the journal. The award includes a KRW 5,000,000 prize and a detailed one- to two-page nomination statement describing how the selected paper has contributed to the knowledge of international economics.

External links

East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia and Taiwan. People indigenous to the region are called East Asians. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere.The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire. East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia (as it was principally the leading civilization in the region), exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors. Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana Buddhism which came via trade routes from India.), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Greater China, Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism, and Sindoism in Korea. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus.East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).

East Asian Bureau of Economic Research

The East Asian Bureau of Economic Research (EABER) is a forum for economic research and analysis of the major issues facing the economies of East Asia.

Based at the Crawford School of Public Policy at the Australian National University, it coordinates a network of think tanks and research institutions throughout the region including representatives from Japan, China, South Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia and Australia.

EABER's primary role is the coordination of collaborative research projects on topics relating to the Asian economy. Recent projects have focused on the Asian Century, the impact of Chinese ODI and the role of the G20 in Asia. Bringing together expertise from across the region, EABER also hosts a series of academic conferences and public policy events to share and disseminate ideas on the Asian economy. The East Asia Forum - an EABER-run online publication - provides a platform for the latest research, accessible to policymakers, the wider academic community, and members of the public.

East Asian people

East Asian people (East Asians, Northeast Asians, or Orientals) is a racial classification specifier used for ethnic groups and subgroups that are indigenous to East Asia, which consists of China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. The major ethnic groups that form the core of East Asia are the Han, Korean, and Yamato. Other ethnic groups of East Asia include the Bai, Hui, Tibetans, Manchus, Ryukyuan, Ainu, Zhuang, and Mongols.

East Asian religions

In the study of comparative religion, the East Asian religions or Taoic religions form a subset of the Eastern religions. This group includes Chinese religion overall, which further includes Ancestral Worship, Chinese folk religion, Confucianism, Taoism and so-called popular salvationist organisations (such as Yiguandao and Weixinism), as well as elements drawn from Mahayana Buddhism that form the core of Chinese Buddhism and East Asian Buddhism at large. The group also includes Japanese Shintoism and Korean Sindoism (both meaning "Ways of Gods" and identifying the indigenous shamanic religion and ancestor worship of such peoples), which have received influences from Chinese religions throughout the centuries. Chinese salvationist religions have influenced the rise of Korean and Japanese new religions—for instance, respectively, Jeungsanism, and Tenriism; these movements draw upon indigenous traditions but are heavily influenced by Chinese philosophy and theology.

All these religious traditions, more or less, share core Chinese concepts of spirituality, divinity and world order, including Tao 道 ("Way"; pinyin dào, Japanese tō or dō, and Korean do) and Tian 天 ("Heaven"; Japanese ten, and Korean cheon).

Early Chinese philosophies defined the Tao and advocated cultivating the de, "virtue", which arises from the knowledge of such Tao. Some ancient schools merged into traditions with different names or became extinct, such as Mohism (and many others of the Hundred Schools of Thought), which was largely absorbed into Taoism. East Asian religions include many theological stances, including polytheism, nontheism, henotheism, monotheism, pantheism, panentheism and agnosticism. East Asian religions have many Western adherents, though their interpretations may differ significantly from traditional East Asian religious thought and culture.

The place of Taoic religions among major religious groups is comparable to the Abrahamic religions found in Europe and the Western World as well as across the Middle East and the Muslim World and Dharmic religions across South Asia.

Economy of East Asia

The Economy of East Asia comprises more than 1.6 billion people (22% of the world population) living in 6 different countries. It is home to one of the most economically dynamic places in the world. The region is the site to some of the world's longest modern economic booms, starting from the Japanese economic miracle (1950–1990), Miracle on the Han River (1961–1996) in South Korea, the Taiwan miracle in Taiwan (1960–1996) and the economic boom (1978–2015) in Mainland China. The region is home of some of the world's largest and most prosperous economies: Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. As East Asia's economic prominence has grown, so has its importance and influence in the world economy. It has emerged as an increasingly prominent region in the Asian continent and in the global economy and international politics as a whole. East Asia now boasts an expanding cosmopolitan middle class, where its members are linked to the global communications grid that are identifying with its Western counterparts across the world making it a significant force to be reckoned with in the global economy. The region's economic success has led to it being dubbed "An East Asian Renaissance" by the World Bank in 2007.At the turn of the twentieth century, three of the five world's largest economies were in East Asia, with Mainland China and Japan both being the second and third largest respectively. Since the middle of the twentieth century, capitalism has blended tremendously well with the Confucian nature of Oriental East Asia. In defiance of an array of sociopolitical challenges has the East Asian economies turned into a modern economic miracle. Sustained efforts of veering East Asia into a capitalist direction has created remarkable outcomes in terms of resilience, dynamism, growth, and economic prosperity. Even as late as the mid-twentieth century, East Asia remained nonindustrial, poverty-stricken, and torn by the ravages of World War II. Since the 1960s, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and Mainland China have all achieved a modern economic takeoff leaving the economic rise of modern East Asia to become one of most important economic success stories in modern world history. In spite of decades of setbacks and turmoil, East Asia is now one of the most prosperous and technologically advanced regions in the world.Driven by rapid modernization and specialization in advanced cutting edge high technology has allowed the East Asia to register high economic growth with the region being home to among some the most affluent nations with highest standards of living across the world. Japan was the first to rise from the ashes of World War II, rapidly re-modernizing itself during the 1950s and early 1960s and eventually dominating the global marketplaces with its innovative automobiles and advanced consumer electronics while securing its position as the world's third-largest economy after the United States and Mainland China. The rise of the East Asian Tigers, which includes South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, all overcame the ravages war and poverty to achieve unprecedented impressive growth rates during the 1970s-1980s, placing themselves among the world's richest and dynamic economies. Mainland China's integration into the world economy through its entry into the World Trade Organization in 2001 has made the country a major driving force in the economy of East Asia propelling itself as a major player in the world economy. In addition, South Korea and Taiwan are among the world leaders in manufacturing consumer technology, while Hong Kong remains a leading major financial center in the world.

Han Taiwanese

Han Taiwanese or Taiwanese Hans (Chinese: 臺灣漢人) are a subgroup of Han Chinese. According to the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China, they comprise 95 to 97 percent of the Taiwanese population, which also includes Austronesians and other non-Han people. Major waves of Han Chinese immigration occurred since the 17th century to the end of Chinese Civil War in 1949, with the exception of the Japanese colonial period (1895-1945). Han Taiwanese mainly speak three varieties of Chinese: Mandarin, Hokkien and Hakka.

Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts

Many East Asian scripts can be written horizontally or vertically. Chinese, Japanese and Korean scripts can be oriented in either direction, as they consist mainly of disconnected logographic or syllabic units, each occupying a square block of space, thus allowing for flexibility for which direction texts can be written, be it horizontally from left-to-right, horizontally from right-to-left, vertically from top-to-bottom, and even vertically from bottom-to-top.

Horizontal writing is known in Chinese as hengpai (simplified Chinese: 横排; traditional Chinese: 橫排; pinyin: héngpái; literally: 'horizontal alignment'), in Japanese as yokogaki (横書き, "horizontal writing", also yokogumi, 横組み), and in Korean as garosseugi (가로쓰기) or hoengseo (횡서; 橫書).

Vertical writing is known respectively as zongpai (simplified Chinese: 纵排; traditional Chinese: 縱排; pinyin: zōngpái; literally: 'vertical alignment'), tategaki (縦書き, "vertical writing", also tategumi, 縦組み), or serosseugi (세로쓰기) or jongseo (종서; 縱書).

Traditionally, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean are written vertically in columns going from top to bottom and ordered from right to left, with each new column starting to the left of the preceding one. The stroke order and stroke direction of Chinese characters (hanzi in Chinese, kanji in Japanese, hanja in Korean), Japanese kana, and Korean Hangul all facilitate writing in this manner. In addition, writing in vertical columns from right to left facilitated writing with a brush in the right hand while continually unrolling the sheet of paper or scroll with the left. Since the nineteenth century, it has become increasingly common for these languages to be written horizontally, from left to right, with successive rows going from top to bottom, under the influence of European languages such as English, although vertical writing is still frequently used in Hong Kong, Japan, Macau, Korea, and Taiwan.

Horses in East Asian warfare

Horses in East Asian warfare are inextricably linked with the strategic and tactical evolution of armed conflict. A warrior on horseback or horse-drawn chariot changed the balance of power between civilizations.

When people with horses clashed with those without, horses provided a huge advantage. When both sides had horses, battles turned on the strength and strategy of their mounted horsemen, or cavalry. Military tactics were refined in terms of the use of horses (cavalry tactics).

As in most cultures, a war horse in East Asia was trained to be controlled with limited use of reins, responding primarily to the rider's legs and weight. Horses were significant factors in the Han-Hun Wars and Wuhu incursions against past kingdoms of China, and the Mongol conquest of much of Eurasia and into Europe; and they played a part in military conflicts on a smaller, more localized scale.

Japanese people

Japanese people (Japanese: 日本人, Hepburn: nihonjin) are an ethnic group that is native to the Japanese archipelago and modern country of Japan, where they constitute 98.5% of the total population. Worldwide, approximately 129 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 125 million are residents of Japan. People of Japanese ancestry who live outside Japan are referred to as nikkeijin (日系人), the Japanese diaspora. The term ethnic Japanese is often used to refer to mainland Japanese people, specifically Yamato people. Japanese people are one of the largest ethnic groups in the world.

Journal of East Asian Studies

The Journal of East Asian Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal published triannually by Lynne Rienner Publishers. It was established in 2001 and is abstracted and indexed by Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, International Political Science Abstracts, and Social Sciences Citation Index. As of 2012 the editor-in-chief is Stephan Haggard.

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

The Korea Institute for International Economic Policy (KIEP), established in 1989, is a government funded economic research institute addressing the international economy and its relationship with Korea. KIEP has aimed to be a regional hub for international economic policy research, and has served as a warehouse of information on Korea's international economic policies for nearly 30 years.

As a government-funded research institute, KIEP has accomplished critical research and in-depth analysis on international economic policy issues; including international macroeconomics, finance, trade and commerce, international investment, international financial cooperation, and regional studies for a variety of governmental agencies and research partners.

KIEP has its international networking capabilities through the KIEP Beijing Office, the Korea Economic Institute of America (KEI) in Washington, and also run National APEC Study Center in KIEP organization.

KIEP has above two hundreds of working staff and over 70% of our organization consists of research staff members. Over 50 members of research fellows with PhDs in economics and related fields are mostly supported by the groups of research and administrative staff members.

KIEP ranked 31st in the top 50 of US and non-US think tanks among 7,815 research institutes around the world by the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program(TTCSP) released in 2008 at the University of Pennsylvania. At the same Index, KIEP ranked 5th global top think tank in the category of International Economic Policy.[1]

LEE, JAE-YOUNG is appointed as the 10th president of KIEP in April, 2018.


Koreans (Korean: 한민족, 한국인, 한국사람; Hanja: 韓民族, 韓國人, 韓國사람; RR: Hanminjok, Hanguk-in, Hanguksaram in South Korean; alternatively Korean: 조선민족, 조선인, 조선사람; Hanja: 朝鮮民族, 朝鮮人, 朝鮮사람; RR: Joseonminjok, Joseonin, Joseonsaram in North Korean, lit. "Korean race"; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Korea and southwestern Manchuria.Koreans mainly live in the two Korean states: North Korea and South Korea (collectively and simply referred to as Korea). They are also an officially recognized ethnic minority in China, Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam, plus in a number of Post-Soviet states, such as Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Over the course of the 20th century, significant Korean communities have formed in the Americas (especially in the United States and Canada) and Oceania.

As of 2017, there were an estimated 7.4 million ethnic Koreans residing outside Korea.

List of Kenyan entrepreneurs

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

This is a partial list of notable Kenyan business executives. For other Kenyans, see List of Kenyans.

To be included in this list, the named persons must have existing articles written about them on Wikipedia. This list of famous or popular business people in Kenya is incomplete. You can help by adding more names to it.

Swaleh Nguru. Busness investor in ranching, real estate and sisal. Worth more than a billion Kenya shillings.

Bhimji Depar Shah. Investor. Worth about 700 million Kenya shillings. He is a businessman, industrialist and entrepreneur. He is also the founder and current Chairman of BIDCO Group of Companies, a Kenya-based, family-owned manufacturing conglomerate with businesses in 13 African countries. He is listed as one of the wealthiest people in Kenya.

Raila Odinga. Apart from being one of the most notable Kenyan politicians, Raila is also a businessman.Naushad Merali. He has an estimated net woth of USD 500 million. His businesses include banking, hotels, dairy processing and real estate.Atul Shah. Has an estimated networth of more than USD 100 million. His main business ventures are in Nakumatt Supermarkets.James Mwangi & Family. This is a family of Kenyan bankers, with an estimated networth of KES170 million as of 2014. Their main businesses include investments in Equity Bank Group, as well as real estate.

Manu Chandaria. He has an estimated 280 million as of 2014. He invests in steel, banking, stocks, and real estate.

Jane Wanjiru Michuki. She is a popular Kenyan lawyer. Her law firm is one of the most notable ones in Kenya, earning her significant wealth. She also invests in stocks and is involved in banking.

Naushad Merali CEO of Sammeer Group of Companies.

Donald Kaberuka Chairman of Centum Investments Kenya

Mubarak Muyika, Silicon-valley based Entrepreneur known for founding his first company at 16 and selling it two years later in a six figure deal.

James Mworia. CEO Centum Investments.

Chris Kirubi. Owner of Centum. as of March 2018, according to Centum Annual Report and Financial Statements for the Year Ending 31 March 2018.

Awadh Saleh Sherman

Patrick Ngugi Njoroge, Governor of the Central Bank of Kenya

Njuguna Ndung'u, Economics professor and former Governor of the Central Bank of Kenya

Samuel Kamau Macharia, Founder and Chairman of Royal Media Services, the largest private radio and television network in Eastern Africa

Philip Ndegwa, Entrepreneur, internationally respected economist and former Governor of the Central Bank of Kenya

Peter Munga, Founder and Chairman of Equity Group Holdings Limited, Eastern Africa's second largest bank by customers after C.B.E.

James Mwangi, Group CEO and largest individual shareholder at Equity Group Holdings Limited

Eunice Njambi Mathu, Founder and editor-in-chief of Parents Africa Magazine

Nelson Muguku Njoroge, Entrepreneur

Pius Ngugi Mbugua, Entrepreneur and owner of the Kenya Nut Company, one of the world's largest macadamia nut exporters

Jimnah Mbaru, Investment Banker, Entrepreneur and Founder Chairman of African Securities Exchanges Association

Joseph Barrage Wanjui, Chairman of UAP-Old Mutual Group

Chris Kirubi, Industrialist and largest individual shareholder at Centum Investment Company Limited, the largest listed private equity firm in East Africa

Titus Kiondo Muya, Founder of Family Bank

Jane Wanjiru Michuki, Lawyer and investor

Duncan Nderitu Ndegwa, Former Governor of the Central Bank of Kenya

Sam Thenya, Founder and Group CEO at Nairobi Women's Hospital

Betty Muthoni Gikonyo, Co-Founder and Group CEO at Karen Hospital.

Simon Gicharu, Founder of Mount Kenya University, East and Central Africa's largest private university

Tabitha Karanja, Founder and CEO of Keroche Breweries, Kenya's second largest brewery

Gerishon Kamau Kirima, Real estate magnate

Eddah Waceke Gachukia, Educationist, entrepreneur and co-founder of Riara Group of Schools

Paul Wanderi Ndung'u, Entrepreneur and co-founder of SportPesa, one of the first African businesses to sponsor a Premier League team

Gideon Maina Muriuki, Group CEO at Cooperative Bank of Kenya, the country's second largest bank by customers and third largest by assets

Esther Muthoni Passaris, Businesswoman and politician

Wanjiku Mugane, Businesswoman and investment banker. Co-founder of First Africa Group which was later bought by Standard Chartered

Dorcas Muthoni, An Inductee to the Internet Hall of Fame

Joram Kamau, Founder of Tuskys, the largest retail chain in Eastern Africa

Peter Mukuha Kago, Founder of Naivas Limited, the second largest retail chain in Eastern Africa

Benson Wairegi, Group CEO at British-American Investments Company

John Gachora, Group CEO at NIC Bank Group

Wilfred Kiboro, Chairman of the Board of Directors at Nation Media Group, East Africa's largest media house. Former Group CEO

Mugo Kibati, Group CEO of Sanlam Kenya Plc and Chairman of Lake Turkana Wind Power

Joseph Mucheru, Former Google Sub-Saharan Africa Lead and current Cabinet Secretary for ICT in Kenya.

Dominic Kiarie, Former Group CEO, UAP Holdings


The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud, [ˈmɔŋ.ɢɔɮ.t͡ʃʊːt]) are a Mongolic ethnic group native to Mongolia and to China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China (e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia.

The Mongols are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language. The ancestors of the modern-day Mongols are referred to as Proto-Mongols.

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