East Asian Community

East Asian Community (EAC) is a proposed trade bloc for the East Asian and Southeast Asian countries that may arise out of either ASEAN Plus Three or the East Asia Summit (EAS).

History

Prior to the EAS

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed on 8 August 1967 by the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Singapore, as a display of solidarity against communist expansion in Vietnam and insurgency within their own borders.

In 1990, Malaysia proposed a creation of an East Asia Economic Caucus[1] composed of the then five members of ASEAN (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand), the People's Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea. This was also a failure since it faced strong objections from Japan and the United States.

After a series of failures, ASEAN and its neighbors created another regional grouping the ASEAN Plus Three, established in 1997 and institutionalised in 1999.[2] The significance of this grouping was demonstrated in the response to the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997. ASEAN Plus Three appeared to take the role of community building in East Asia.

In 1999, a Joint Statement on East Asia Cooperation[3] was issued on the topic of East Asian integration by ASEAN.

In 1998, ASEAN Plus Three established The East Asian Vision Group of eminent persons which reported in 2001. In turn in 2001 the East Asian Study Group was established. In 2002, ASEAN Plus Three received the Final Report of the East Asian Study Group.[4] This included a recommendation to establish an East Asia Summit.

As a result, the status of ASEAN Plus Three is unclear with the existence of the more recent East Asia Summit established in 2005 following this process and involving all the members of ASEAN Plus Three, together with India, Australia and New Zealand, otherwise known as ASEAN Plus Six.[5][6]

Subsequent to the EAS

After the EAS was established the issue arose of whether any future East Asia Community would arise from the EAS or ASEAN Plus Three. Malaysia felt that it was still the case that the role of the community building fell to ASEAN Plus Three shortly before the second EAS despite "confusion".[7] China apparently agreed whereas Japan and India felt the EAS should be the focus of the East Asian Community.[8]

After the first EAS the feasibility of EAS to have a community building role was questioned with Ong Keng Yong, the secretary-general of ASEAN being quoted as describing the EAS as little more than a "brainstorming forum"[9] Nevertheless, the Chairman’s Press Statement for the Seventh ASEAN Plus Three Foreign Ministers’ Meeting Kuala Lumpur, 26 July 2006 said

25. The Ministers welcomed the convening of the East Asia Summit as a forum for dialogue on broad strategic, political and economic issues of common interest with the aim of promoting peace, stability and economic prosperity in East Asia. In this respect, they recognized that the East Asia Summit could make a significant contribution to the achievement of the long-term goal of establishing an East Asian community.

It appeared that over time following the first EAS the focus was less on whether the EAS has a role in community building than on what the role was and whether it was secondary to ASEAN Plus Three. By mid-2006 the Chinese news site Xinhua Net suggested the community would arise through a two-phase process with ASEAN Plus Three as the first phase and the EAS as the second phase.[10] The China-India joint declaration of 21 November 2006 linked, at paragraph 43, the EAS with the East Asian Community process.[11]

The concentric circle model of the community process with ASEAN at the centre, ASEAN Plus Three at the next band and the East Asia Summit at the outer band is supported by the Second Joint Statement on East Asia Cooperation Building on the Foundations of ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation which said:

III. Looking Forward to a Decade of Consolidation and Closer Integration (2007-2017)
A. Defining the Objectives and Roles of the ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation in the Emerging Regional Architecture
1. We reaffirmed that the ASEAN Plus Three Process would remain as the main vehicle towards the long-term goal of building an East Asian community, with ASEAN as the driving force.
...
3. We recognised and supported the mutually reinforcing and complementary roles of the ASEAN Plus Three process and such regional fora as EAS, ARF, APEC and ASEM to promote East Asian community building.
4. We reiterated that East Asian integration is an open, transparent, inclusive, and forward-looking process for mutual benefits and support internationally shared values to achieve peace, stability, democracy and prosperity in the region. Guided by the vision for durable peace and shared prosperity in East Asia and beyond, we will stand guided by new economic flows, evolving strategic interactions and the belief to continue to engage all interested countries and organisations towards the realisation of an open regional architecture capable of adapting to changes and new dynamism.

The Chairman's Statement of the 3rd East Asia Summit Singapore, 21 November 2007 also states:

21. We stressed our conviction that the EAS should continue to help build a united and prosperous East Asia, with ASEAN as the driving force working in close partnership with other participants of the East Asia Summit. We reaffirmed that the East Asia Summit is an important component of the emerging regional architecture and would help build an East Asian community. It should play a complementary and mutually reinforcing role with other regional mechanisms, including the ASEAN dialogue process, the ASEAN Plus Three process, the ARF, and APEC in community building efforts.

A first stage of a future community may be seen in the Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia (CEPEA) proposed by Japan for the members of the East Asia Summit. The reality appears, however, that movement towards such a relationship is a long way off. Lee Kuan Yew has compared the relationship between South-East Asia and India with that of the European Community and Turkey, and has suggested that a free-trade area involving South-East Asia and India is 30 to 50 years away.[12]

Japanese proposals in 2009

The concept of the community, if not the details, was promoted during the 2009 Japanese general election campaign.[13] After the change of government in Japan the details of what Japan was proposing was unclear.[14]

The Japanese Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada in early October 2009 indicated that what was proposed was a Community based on the members of the East Asia Summit[15] focusing on political links with a common currency "very far off in the future". The Japanese proposal is for a regional trade grouping.[16] This proposal was based on the 16 member countries of the East Asia Summit.[17]

The subsequent ASEAN Plus Three and East Asia Summit meetings did not clarify what role or shape the community would have.

The Chairman's Statement for the ASEAN Plus Three meeting stated:[18]

20. We reaffirmed our commitment to the ASEAN Plus Three process as a main vehicle towards the long-term goal of building an East Asian community with ASEAN as the driving force. We noted Japan’s aspiration to reinvigorate the discussion towards building an East Asian community based on the principle of openness, transparency and inclusiveness and functional cooperation.

ASEAN Plus Three was noted as "a" main vehicle whereas earlier language had been "the".

The Chairman's Statement Fourth East Asia Summit stated:[19]

21. We acknowledged the importance of regional discussions to examine ways to advance the stability and prosperity of the Asia Pacific region. In this connection, we noted with appreciation the following:
(a) the Philippines’s proposal to invite the heads of other regional fora and organizations in Asia-Pacific to future EAS meetings to discuss measures that will protect the region from future economic and financial crisis and strengthen Asia economic cooperation, including through the possible establishment of an economic community of Asia.
(b) Japan’s new proposal to reinvigorate the discussion towards building, in the long run, an East Asian community based on the principle of openness, transparency and inclusiveness and functional cooperation.
(c) Australia’s proposal on the Asia Pacific community in which ASEAN will be at its core, will be further discussed at a 1.5 track conference to be organized by Australia in December 2009.

In addition to these proposals India also has its proposal for an Asian Economic Community.[20]

2010

The Chairman's Statement of the 16th ASEAN Summit (9 April 2010)[21] stated:

ASEAN’s External Relations


40. We expressed our overall satisfaction with the progress in ASEAN’s cooperation with external partners within the frameworks of ASEAN+1, ASEAN+3 and East Asia Summit processes. We appreciated the valuable support and financial assistance accorded to ASEAN by its external partners.
41. We reaffirmed the importance of ASEAN’s cooperation with external partners in maintaining peace and stability in the region, enhancing ASEAN’s internal regional integration, narrowing the development gap, enhancing intra-ASEAN connectivity and expanding ASEAN’s connectivity to the wider region.
42. Emphasizing the need to successfully conclude action plans/work programmes, cooperation agreements in trade, economic and socio-cultural fields with ASEAN’s dialogue partners, we tasked our sectoral Ministers to work closely with their external partners towards that aim.

43. We recognized and supported the mutually reinforcing roles of the ASEAN+3 process, the East Asia Summit (EAS), and such regional forums as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), to promote the East Asian cooperation and dialogue towards the building of a community in East Asia. In this connection, we encouraged Russia and the US to deepen their engagement in an evolving regional architecture, including the possibility of their involvement with the EAS through appropriate modalities, taking into account the Leaders-led, open and inclusive nature of the EAS.

By mid-2010 the leaders of the three nations referred to in the October 2009 statement had all changed: Japan and Australia had changed Prime Ministers due to internal political issues and the Philippines had gone through a Presidential election for which the incumbent was ineligible. ASEAN nevertheless continued to discuss the issues of regional structures.[22]

The nature of the East Asia Community

The shape of the East Asia Community remains something to be defined in the future. The issues being explored at this stage deal with whether there will be a Community which must be resolved prior to understanding what it will look like.[23]

Some have linked the EAS with a future broader Asian Economic Community like the European Community.[24] However, some commentators see this an overly optimistic vision[25] and it is plainly in the very distant future if it is to occur - the European Community has taken decades to reach its current shape, had greater early drive for its creation and more coherence between its members (ASEAN alone is composed of democracies, dictatorships, capitalist tax havens and communist states).

On any view community building is not a short-term project. However, after the second EAS the Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh was confident that the EAS would lead to an East Asia Community.[26] China had also apparently accepted this was the case.[27]

If achieved the Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia (CEPEA) would be a tangible first step in the community building process. The Second EAS and Third EAS seems to have increased confidence in CEPEA but is still only a proposal.[28]

For the moment currency union, as distinct from the Asian Development Bank proposed Asian Currency Unit, is not even being pursued within ASEAN, much less the broader members of the EAS.[29]

Economic aspects

The idea of a pan-Asian trading bloc has been proposed given the potential for the economic benefits that may be produced from such structures in light of the success of European Community (now the European Union), and ASEAN Free Trade Area.

It is economics perhaps more than anything else which is driving the discussion. The Indian External Affairs Minister Shri Pranab Mukherjee was quoted as saying in February 2007:[30]

Speaking at the Summit, Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh said that the long-term goal of the EAS should be the creation of a harmonious and prosperous community of nations that would pool its resources to tackle common challenges. He also observed that a virtual Asian Economic Community was emerging with the Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) amongst countries of the region. However, there is a need for a wider perspective so that ongoing processes could become building blocks for a larger vision. It was in this context that we have suggested a Pan-Asian Free Trade Arrangement that could be the starting point for an Economic Community. Such a community would be the third pole of the world economy after the European Union and the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA).

A view also supported by the Indian Defence Minister Shri A.K. Antony the next day:[31]

In the regional context, the contours of an Asian economic integration are beginning to take shape. The East Asia Summit (EAS) has gathered a self-sustaining momentum towards the creation of an East Asian Community in the coming years. It may even lead to a larger Asian solidarity, as envisioned by Pandit Nehru in the early 1950s. We perceive the comprehensive interaction with South-East Asia as a vehicle for regional growth. It will eventually lead to prosperity and true peace in the entire region.

However, economic progress and social development will need a conducive environment for growth, particularly in terms of regional stability and security. The end of the Cold War did provide the necessary systemic conditions, but it was at best only a transitional phase. Over the last few years, the region as a whole has witnessed a steady realignment of geo-strategic equations.

Hence it can be seen that fear of large international trading blocs is driving this discussion.

The Third EAS approved the establishment of the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia to further investigate economic integration between the EAS members.

Cultural differences

The cultural, religious, language and ethnic groupings in the EAS are diverse.[32] There is also great disparity in the size and level of development in the economies and in the populations of the nations involved. Plainly the level of support within the EAS for such an ambitious role for the EAS is mixed.

The Japanese Government has proposed an exchange program over the five years from 2007 to 2011 with up to 6,000 youths per annum visiting Japan from EAS member countries.[33]

Cultural perspectives

At the 14th Japanese Studies Association of Australia conference held at the University of Adelaide in July 2005, the topic was ‘Japan’s Vision of an East Asian Community: Responses from Asia,’ where different regional perspectives concerning the East Asian Community were given.

Japan: competition between Japan and China over leadership roles help to foster the formation of an East Asian Community by encouraging ASEAN and South Korea to become more unified.

China: The contrast between Japan and China is each respective nation's idea of membership inclusion: Japan favors a broader concept that favors India, Australia, and New Zealand, while China's preference is to construct an East Asian Community with exclusively East and Southeast Asian members. China's criticisms of Japan is that Japan prefers “institutionalism,” (what China regards as heavily influenced by the U.S.), while China prefers Asian-styled gradualism.

India: Since India is not in East Asia, its membership in the East Asian Community will pull the EAC back into ‘Asia’ and away from the ‘Pacific orientation’ that dominated economic communities like APEC.

Australia: Australia's economic and geo-strategic security are linked with the East Asian region, therefore it is eager to join the East Asian Community. However, at the East Asian Summit in Kuala Lumpur in December 2005, Australia emphasized the need to include the U.S. in the East Asian Community for security reasons.[34]

Similarly, in Kitti Prasirtsuk's article, “Japan’s Vision of an East Asian Community: A Perspective from Thailand,” the author gives three reasons for Thailand's support for Japanese efforts for building an East Asian Community. These include the Japan-ASEAN comprehensive Economic Partnership (JACEP), capacity building, and financial cooperation. Thailand's support for an Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with Japan is due to perceived economic and political gains through having many Free Trade Areas (FTA). By becoming a development partner with Japan, Thailand can benefit from the foreign aid known as the Official Development Assistance (ODA). In financial cooperation with Japan, Thailand proposed the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), in order to prevent another financial crisis. Ultimately, Thailand's support for either Japan or China (in their vision of an East Asian Community) rests on the perceived benefits to its national interests.[35]

See also

References

  1. ^ The East Asia Summit: More Discord than Accord Archived 2006-09-01 at the Wayback Machine, YaleGlobal Online
  2. ^ ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation Archived 2013-05-28 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Joint Statement on East Asia Cooperation
  4. ^ Final Report of the East Asian Study Group
  5. ^ ASEAN Trouble in the family
  6. ^ Establishing East Asian Community becomes common understanding: Interview
  7. ^ Original link dead
  8. ^ Original link dead Original link dead Archived 2007-05-18 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Timor parliament to consider oil deal Archived 2007-08-24 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Xinhua - English Archived 2011-05-01 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ PIB Press Release
  12. ^ Original link dead
  13. ^ Growth strategy
  14. ^ Focus on growth Archived 2009-10-10 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Japanese FM outlines vision for East Asian Community, Japan-U.S. ties Archived 2009-10-12 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Japan favours Australian inclusion in East Asia community
  17. ^ Asia's Regionalism Block Q+A-What is Japan's East Asia Community idea all about?
  18. ^ Chairman’s Statement of the 12th ASEAN Plus Three Summit Cha-am Hua Hin, Thailand, 24 October 2009 Archived 5 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Chairman’s Statement of the 4th East Asia Summit Cha-am Hua Hin, Thailand, 25 October 2009 Archived 27 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Asian integration process an ‘act of foresight’: India India looks East to build Asian economic community
  21. ^ Chairman’s Statement of the 16th ASEAN Summit “Towards the Asean Community: from Vision to Action"
  22. ^ Asia’s Leadership Gap
  23. ^ Page Error : 찾으시는 Page의 URL이 잘못되었거나 없습니다
  24. ^ A vision for Asia Archived 2006-10-16 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ The East Asia Summit: More Discord than Accord Archived 2006-09-01 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Daily India:East Asia Summit would ultimately lead to creation of East Asia community Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine Press Information Bureau of India Press Release 19 April 2006
  27. ^ Xinhua - English Archived 2011-05-01 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ DNA - World - East Asia summit is an unqualified success for India - Daily News & Analysis
  29. ^ Original link dead Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine Original link dead Archived 2007-05-20 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ PIB Press Release
  31. ^ PIB Press Release
  32. ^ The Korea Herald : The Nation's No.1 English Newspaper
  33. ^ Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe Delivered Policy Speech to the Diet
  34. ^ http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=11&sid=34d0152d-64d4-4a3e-afac-1d57029ae810%40sessionmgr13&vid=2
  35. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-08-16. Retrieved 2012-12-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
Asia Cosmopolitan Awards

Asia Cosmopolitan Awards is an international award established by Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) in the context of commemoration of the 1300-year anniversary in 2010 of Heijo-kyo (ancient capital of Japan located in present-day Nara) as the last destination of the ancient Silk Road and one of the first cosmopolitan cities in East Asia. It will be awarded to individuals or organizations who have made substantial and significant contributions to the development and enrichment of East Asian Community in the field of cultural and economic integration, narrowing the developmental gaps, and establishing sustainably growing society in the region.

Buddhism in Senegal

In Senegal, Mahayana Buddhism is followed by a very tiny portion of the Vietnamese community, but it is informal Buddhism because they only worship their ancestors by burning the incenses on a small altar and in the end of all prayers are: "Nam mô A Di Đà Phật" (Mean:"Glory to Buddha Amitabha") as traditional of Vietnamese faith that is Bodhisattvas as Địa Tạng Vương Bồ tát and Quan Thế Âm Bồ tát will bless and teach the spirits of dead people how to take a better life in next incarnations or go to Nirvana forever.

Total Buddhists in Senegal is around 0.01% as maximum and 99% of all Buddhists here is Vietnamese descents.

Vietnamese people maybe the only one East Asian community in Senegal.With communities of European and Lebanese made-up about 1% of total population in Senegal.

Chinatown, Montreal

Chinatown in Montreal (French: Le quartier chinois de Montréal; simplified Chinese: 蒙特利尔唐人街; traditional Chinese: 蒙特利爾唐人街; pinyin: Méngtèlì'ěr Tángrénjiē) is located in the area of De la Gauchetière Street in Montreal. The neighbourhood contains many Asian restaurants, food markets, and convenience stores as well being home to many of Montreal's East Asian community centres, such as the Montreal Chinese Hospital and the Montreal Chinese Community and Cultural Center. CHUM Hospital is located in Chinatown.

Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia

The Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia (CEPEA) is a Japanese led proposal for trade co-operation, free trade agreement, among the 16 present member countries of the East Asia Summit. All those movements and efforts were taken over by the following Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership.rajit

East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia and Taiwan. People indigenous to the region are called East Asians. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere.The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire. East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia (as it was principally the leading civilization in the region), exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors. Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana Buddhism which came via trade routes from India.), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Greater China, Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism, and Sindoism in Korea. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus.East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).

East Asia Summit

The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a regional forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asian, and South Asian regions, based on the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism. Membership expanded to 18 countries including Russia and the United States at the Sixth EAS in 2011. Since its establishment, ASEAN has held the central role and leadership in the forum. EAS meetings are held after the annual ASEAN leaders' meetings, and plays an important role in the regional architecture of Asia-Pacific. The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 14 December 2005.

East Asian people

East Asian people (East Asians, Northeast Asians, or Orientals) is a racial classification specifier used for ethnic groups and subgroups that are indigenous to East Asia, which consists of China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. The major ethnic groups that form the core of East Asia are the Han, Korean, and Yamato. Other ethnic groups of East Asia include the Bai, Hui, Tibetans, Manchus, Ryukyuan, Ainu, Zhuang, and Mongols.

Fenqing

Fenqing (simplified Chinese: 愤青; traditional Chinese: 憤青; pinyin: Fènqīng), or FQ (abbreviation), which is itself an abbreviation for Fennu Qingnian (simplified Chinese: 愤怒青年; traditional Chinese: 憤怒青年; pinyin: Fènnù Qīngnián), means literally "angry youth". It mainly refers to Chinese youth who display a high level of Chinese nationalism. This term first appeared in Hong Kong in the 1970s, referring to those young people who were not satisfied with Chinese society and sought reform. It has now evolved into a term used predominantly in Internet slang. Whether fenqing is derogatory or not usually depends on the person. Chinese critics often refer to them using the homophone characters "粪青" which are pronounced identically but translate to "shit-youth". This is often changed further to fènfèn (粪粪) as a derogatory nickname.

The phenomenon of fenqing arose after the "reform and opening up" of the Chinese government, during the period of fast economic development that occurred in China. Some people argue that fenqing are a natural reaction to recent neoconservatism in Japan and the neoconservatism in the United States. Fenqing and these foreign neo-conservative elements intensely dislike each other, but all of them share certain similarities: distrust of foreign powers, support for the military and boundary disputes, etc. However, fenqing are not to be confused with Chinese neoconservatives, who espouse a more pragmatic and gradualist approach to political reforms and favor the development of an "East Asian Community" with Japan and Korea, an idea that is anathema to the fenqing As a group, fenqing are very diverse in their opinions. However, they are usually nationalistic and patriotic, are often left-wing in political ideology, and tend to defend Mao Zedong's controversial actions during the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. The fenqing are very much concerned with political issues, especially in domestic policy relating to Tibet and foreign policy relating to Japan, Taiwan, or the United States.They often harbour negative attitudes towards Japan due to the invasion and occupation of China by Imperial Japan, and support aggressive political stances towards Japan. For example, many believe that the Japanese government's apologies for Japanese war crimes are insincere and inadequate (some even believe no apologies will ever be adequate). More recent incidents, such a former Japanese prime minister's patronage of the Yasukuni Shrine, territorial disputes surrounding the Senkaku Islands (known as Diaoyu in China), and the revisions of history textbooks by uyoku dantai (Japanese right-wing extremists), lead these young people to conclude that the Japanese government is again seeking to expand militarily. These anti-Japanese sentiments are not necessarily only directed against the Japanese government and military, but often fiercely towards the Japanese culture, economy, and people.

Fenqing also refers to "20-somethings often use the Internet to publicly express their views on politics and society."

Fourth East Asia Summit

The Fourth East Asia Summit was rescheduled several times, had its venue changed and one attempt to hold it was cancelled due to the 2008–2009 Thai political crisis. It was finally held on 25 October 2009 in Cha-am and Hua Hin, Thailand.

Golders Green

Golders Green is an area in the London Borough of Barnet in England. A smaller suburban linear settlement, near a farm and public grazing area green of medieval origins, dates to the early 19th century. Its bulk forms a late 19th-century and early 20th-century suburb with a commercial crossroads. The rest is of later build. It is centred approximately 5.5 miles (8.5 km) north west of Charing Cross on the intersection of Golders Green Road and Finchley Road.

It was founded as a medieval hamlet in the large parish of Hendon, Middlesex. The parish was heavily superseded by Hendon Urban District in 1894 and by the Municipal Borough of Hendon in 1932, abolished in 1965. In the early 20th century it grew rapidly in response to the opening of a tube station of the London Underground, adjacent to the Golders Green Hippodrome which was home to the BBC Concert Orchestra for many years. The area has a wide variety of housing and a busy main shopping street, Golders Green Road.

It is known for its large Jewish population as well as for being home to the largest Jewish kosher hub (located west of Hoop Lane after the rail bridge) in the United Kingdom, which attracts many Jewish tourists.

Hondurans

Hondurans (Spanish: Hondureños) are people inhabiting in, originating from, or having significant heritage from Honduras. Most Hondurans live in Honduras, although there is also a significant Honduran diaspora, particularly in the United States, with smaller communities in other countries around the world. There are also people living in Honduras who are not Hondurans, because they were not born or raised in Honduras, nor have they yet gained citizenship.

Journal of East Asian Studies

The Journal of East Asian Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal published triannually by Lynne Rienner Publishers. It was established in 2001 and is abstracted and indexed by Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, International Political Science Abstracts, and Social Sciences Citation Index. As of 2012 the editor-in-chief is Stephan Haggard.

Kenichi Itō (disambiguation)

Kenichi Itō (いとう けんいち, Itō Kenichi) is the name of several people, including:

Itō Kenichi (guitarist), Japanese musician. Played amongst others as a guitarist for the J-pop band Iceman and for scarecrow

Itō Kenichi (athlete), a Japanese athlete known for running 100 meters on all four limbs.

Itō Kenichi (political scientist), a political scientist and former diplomat born in 1938. President & CEO of the Japan Forum on International Relations, Inc., Vice Chairman of the Worldwide Support for Development, President & CEO of the Council on East Asian Community, President & CEO of the Global Forum of Japan, Professor Emeritus of Aoyama Gakuin University, former Director of the First Southeast Asian Division in the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Member of the openly revisionist lobby Nippon Kaigi.

Kenichi Itō (politics)

ITO Ken'ichi (伊藤 憲一, Itō Ken'ichi, born 7 March 1938) is a diplomat-turned-political scientist in Japan and is engaged in international politics and strategic studies. He has been president and CEO of the Japan Forum on International Relations (JFIR) since it was founded in 1987, and now concurrently serves as chairman of the Global Forum of Japan (GFJ), chairman of the Council on East Asian Community (CEAC), and vice president of the Worldwide Support for Development (WSD). He is professor emeritus of Aoyama Gakuin University and holds an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Cambodia.

List of proposed currencies

This is a list of proposed currencies. Currencies are listed by their latest significant proposal.

Oriental City

Oriental City (previously Yaohan Plaza) was a shopping centre in Colindale, London, originally built by Yaohan of Japan, as a luxury Japanese shopping center. After Yaohan filed for bankruptcy in the late 1990s, it became a lower-end mall specialising in various oriental foods and items. It was located on Edgware Road, near Colindale tube station. It had a dedicated car park, and 2 floors. The complex was closed for redevelopment on 1 June 2008 and, after several changes of ownership, was demolished in August 2014.

Between December 2009 and April 2011, a complex similar to Oriental City traded in Wembley Retail Park, called Pacific Plaza.

In July 2017 the Bang Bang Oriental Food Hall opened on the site, comprising 32 food kiosks, massage and beauty therapy suites as well as shops and a cultural centre.

Pan-Asianism

Pan-Asianism (also known as Asianism or Greater Asianism) is an ideology that promotes the unity of Asian peoples. Several theories and movements of Pan-Asianism have been proposed, specifically from East, South and Southeast Asia. Motivating the movement has been resistance to Western imperialism and colonialism and a belief that "Asian values" should take precedence over "European values."

Vietnamese community of Berlin

Vietnamese people are Berlin's largest South East Asian community, comprising 1.16% of the total population. Areas and localities with significant populations are mostly in the former East-Berlin, for instance, Lichtenberg, where people of Vietnamese origin make up 11.8% of the population, 3,800 out of 32,295. Other areas with high amount of Vietnamese are Mitte, Marzahn-Hellersdorf and in the Western Part of Berlin, Neukölln.

As of 2014 the German Federal Foreign Office estimated that Berlin had 20,000 Vietnamese people, the largest group of East Asians in Germany. Many Vietnamese operate Spätkauf (convenience stores in Berlin that operate at late nighttime), flower shops, and restaurants in the city.

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