East Asia Climate Partnership

The East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) is Korea’s international initiative for global cooperative development. Led by the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA), a Korean government agency responsible for providing overseas grant aid, the East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) helps tackle climate change in developing countries and promotes green growth in Asia.

Overview

The impact of climate change and the vulnerability of developing countries

Climate changes have serious impacts on both the ecosystems and human well-being. Global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions directly impacts temperature and precipitation. It also has indirect effects on water resources, agriculture, food security, human health, living conditions, eco-products and services.[1]

Climate change has severe impact on global warming particularly due to its close association with poverty. Since significant portion of the population is concentrated in low-income class, the living environments of developing countries are more vulnerable to climate changes. Especially, damages caused by climate change are the most critical among developing countries where people heavily depend on agriculture and lack sufficient infrastructure.

<Impact of global warming>
Impact Damages by sector
Global Warming Temperature
- Increasing temperature
- Changes in seasonal patterns
- Rising sea-surface temperature
- Rising land-surface temperature and increasing dry land
Water resources
- Severe water scarcity due to drought and flood
- Low water quality and decrease in usable water due to drought and saltwater intrusion
Agriculture and food security
- Shrinking crop area due to land desolation
- Decreasing key crop yields
Precipitation
- Heavy rainfall
- Glacier melting
- Rising sea level
Human health and living conditions
- Contagion of dengue fever, malaria, waterborne infection
- Death and dislocations from community due to natural disasters
Climate anomalies
- Heat wave, torrential rain, localized rainfall
- Frequent tropical cyclone strikes
- Tsunami
- Severe drought
Eco-products and services
- Loss of habitats and biodiversity
- Loss of marine lives (coral reef bleaching, etc.)
- Tsunamis and coastal erosion
Economy
- Economic damage from extreme weather conditions
- Shrinking output in agriculture, forestry, and fishing

Official Development Assistance (ODA) to assist developing countries in Asia to counteract climate changes

Prior to entering the 21st century, the UN General Assembly announced eight international development goals, called the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, which include eradicating extreme poverty and developing a new framework for international cooperation. As many developed countries reached consensus that eradicating poverty and environment problems in developing countries are common challenges for the world and as a result, increased the UN target for official development assistance (ODA) to developing countries.

Global regulations to counteract climate changes often impact economic growth for developing countries. In contrast, green growth paradigm reduces greenhouse gas emissions and environmental pollutions, and promotes sustainable development, which enables developing countries to tackle climate changes in their pursuit of both economic development and poverty reduction.

Korea’s efforts – East Asia Climate Partnership

Korea has become the first nation to turn into an aid-donor from an aid-recipient country by joining the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD in November 2009. With growing interests in ODA, Korea’s grant aid for developing countries increased by more than five times from 159 million USD in 1996 to 752 million USD in 2005.

In order to raise the amount of Korea’s ODA up to the developed countries’ level, the Korean government announced a national initiative to commit 0.25 percent of its gross national income into ODA by 2015.

Led by KOICA, a government agency dedicated to providing grant aid programs for developing countries, the ‘East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP)’ was launched in 2008 to help developing countries in Asia to fight climate changes and promote green growth.

The East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) is the testimony that Korea is turning its pledges into action in fighting climate changes. Proposed at the G8 Extended Summit in June 2008, Korea has committed to provide a total of 200 million USD for the time period of 2008 - 2012 through the East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) in the form of ODA.[2] Through the East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP), Korea seeks to take the lead in promoting green growth in Asia and global cooperation in response to climate changes, the most pressing problem for the international community. Currently, the KOICA is providing grant aid supports for 21 projects in 10 countries.

Five Priority Areas

The East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) designated five priority areas based on the regional characteristics, the needs of partner countries and the effectiveness in mitigating climate changes.

Priorities Background Major projects
Water resources management - Rapid increase in the number of natural disasters, such as flood,typhoon, and drought due to climate changes
- Increased importance of stable water resources management by heavily depending on the primary industry, population explosion, and rising food demand
- Water supply facilities (water intake sources, water supply pipelines, water purification systems)
- Sewerage facilities (sewage pipelines, enhanced sewage treatment facilities)
- Recycling of sewage for forestation (artificial streams, forestation)
Waste management - Serious waste problems due to rapid industrialization and urbanization
- A growing need for more environment-friendly waste management
- Landfills for household wastes
- Solid waste treatment facilities
- Biogas production from livestock manure
Low-carbon energy - The high dependence on fossil fuels resulting in rising greenhouse gas emissions and other serious environmental problems
- Growing expectations for new and renewable energy sources such as wind power and solar power
- Feasibility studies and pilot projects for solar power plants
- Feasibility studies and pilot projects for wind power plants
- Bio-ethanol and bio-diesel power plants
- Enhancing the efficiency of electricity
Low-carbon cities - A growing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in partner countries amid rapid economic growth and industrialization
- Green industry, a path to new growth engines and sustainable growth
- Master plan for the development of low-carbon cities
- Green buildings
- Smart public transportation system
Forestation and biomass - Rainforest deforestation in many parts of Asia due to reckless development and rapid industrialization
- Ongoing forestation projects in Asia and a growing demand for biomass energy
- Forestation and forest management
- Development of wood pellets
- Prevention of forest destruction and depletion

Key Projects under the East Asia Climate Partnership

The East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) aims to develop and implement projects that serve the needs of partner countries and is currently working on the following key projects:

Water Management Landmark Project

To join the international efforts in addressing water shortages in poor countries, the East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) provides ODA worth 78 billion KRW to Mongolia, Azerbaijan, and the Philippines by 2015.

Projects customized to partner countries

At the end of 2009, the East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) implemented preparatory works for 15 projects designed to the needs of nine partner countries. It also works to develop three new projects for three partner countries in 2010.

Other partnership projects

The East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) is working closely with a wide range of international organizations, conducting research on ways to address climate change in East Asia, and supported establishing the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), which also hosted the East Asian Climate Forum. As part of the efforts to cooperate with international organizations, the East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) is currently supporting the research projects of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP).

References

  1. ^ "Research on Korea’s ODA strategy to tackle climate changes, KOICA, December 2009". Missing or empty |url= (help)
  2. ^ "Green Growth Institute: East Asia Climate Partnership (2008 Progress Report and Plans for 2009)". Retrieved 25 September 2012.

External links

East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia and Taiwan. People indigenous to the region are called East Asians. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere.The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire. East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia (as it was principally the leading civilization in the region), exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors. Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana Buddhism which came via trade routes from India.), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Greater China, Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism, and Sindoism in Korea. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus.East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).

East Asian Bureau of Economic Research

The East Asian Bureau of Economic Research (EABER) is a forum for economic research and analysis of the major issues facing the economies of East Asia.

Based at the Crawford School of Public Policy at the Australian National University, it coordinates a network of think tanks and research institutions throughout the region including representatives from Japan, China, South Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia and Australia.

EABER's primary role is the coordination of collaborative research projects on topics relating to the Asian economy. Recent projects have focused on the Asian Century, the impact of Chinese ODI and the role of the G20 in Asia. Bringing together expertise from across the region, EABER also hosts a series of academic conferences and public policy events to share and disseminate ideas on the Asian economy. The East Asia Forum - an EABER-run online publication - provides a platform for the latest research, accessible to policymakers, the wider academic community, and members of the public.

East Asian people

East Asian people (East Asians, Northeast Asians, or Orientals) is a racial classification specifier used for ethnic groups and subgroups that are indigenous to East Asia, which consists of China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. The major ethnic groups that form the core of East Asia are the Han, Korean, and Yamato. Other ethnic groups of East Asia include the Bai, Hui, Tibetans, Manchus, Ryukyuan, Ainu, Zhuang, and Mongols.

East Asian religions

In the study of comparative religion, the East Asian religions or Taoic religions form a subset of the Eastern religions. This group includes Chinese religion overall, which further includes Ancestral Worship, Chinese folk religion, Confucianism, Taoism and so-called popular salvationist organisations (such as Yiguandao and Weixinism), as well as elements drawn from Mahayana Buddhism that form the core of Chinese Buddhism and East Asian Buddhism at large. The group also includes Japanese Shintoism and Korean Sindoism (both meaning "Ways of Gods" and identifying the indigenous shamanic religion and ancestor worship of such peoples), which have received influences from Chinese religions throughout the centuries. Chinese salvationist religions have influenced the rise of Korean and Japanese new religions—for instance, respectively, Jeungsanism, and Tenriism; these movements draw upon indigenous traditions but are heavily influenced by Chinese philosophy and theology.

All these religious traditions, more or less, share core Chinese concepts of spirituality, divinity and world order, including Tao 道 ("Way"; pinyin dào, Japanese tō or dō, and Korean do) and Tian 天 ("Heaven"; Japanese ten, and Korean cheon).

Early Chinese philosophies defined the Tao and advocated cultivating the de, "virtue", which arises from the knowledge of such Tao. Some ancient schools merged into traditions with different names or became extinct, such as Mohism (and many others of the Hundred Schools of Thought), which was largely absorbed into Taoism. East Asian religions include many theological stances, including polytheism, nontheism, henotheism, monotheism, pantheism, panentheism and agnosticism. East Asian religions have many Western adherents, though their interpretations may differ significantly from traditional East Asian religious thought and culture.

The place of Taoic religions among major religious groups is comparable to the Abrahamic religions found in Europe and the Western World as well as across the Middle East and the Muslim World and Dharmic religions across South Asia.

Economy of East Asia

The Economy of East Asia comprises more than 1.6 billion people (22% of the world population) living in 6 different countries. It is home to one of the most economically dynamic places in the world. The region is the site to some of the world's longest modern economic booms, starting from the Japanese economic miracle (1950–1990), Miracle on the Han River (1961–1996) in South Korea, the Taiwan miracle in Taiwan (1960–1996) and the economic boom (1978–2015) in Mainland China. The region is home of some of the world's largest and most prosperous economies: Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. As East Asia's economic prominence has grown, so has its importance and influence in the world economy. It has emerged as an increasingly prominent region in the Asian continent and in the global economy and international politics as a whole. East Asia now boasts an expanding cosmopolitan middle class, where its members are linked to the global communications grid that are identifying with its Western counterparts across the world making it a significant force to be reckoned with in the global economy. The region's economic success has led to it being dubbed "An East Asian Renaissance" by the World Bank in 2007.At the turn of the twentieth century, three of the five world's largest economies were in East Asia, with Mainland China and Japan both being the second and third largest respectively. Since the middle of the twentieth century, capitalism has blended tremendously well with the Confucian nature of Oriental East Asia. In defiance of an array of sociopolitical challenges has the East Asian economies turned into a modern economic miracle. Sustained efforts of veering East Asia into a capitalist direction has created remarkable outcomes in terms of resilience, dynamism, growth, and economic prosperity. Even as late as the mid-twentieth century, East Asia remained nonindustrial, poverty-stricken, and torn by the ravages of World War II. Since the 1960s, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and Mainland China have all achieved a modern economic takeoff leaving the economic rise of modern East Asia to become one of most important economic success stories in modern world history. In spite of decades of setbacks and turmoil, East Asia is now one of the most prosperous and technologically advanced regions in the world.Driven by rapid modernization and specialization in advanced cutting edge high technology has allowed the East Asia to register high economic growth with the region being home to among some the most affluent nations with highest standards of living across the world. Japan was the first to rise from the ashes of World War II, rapidly re-modernizing itself during the 1950s and early 1960s and eventually dominating the global marketplaces with its innovative automobiles and advanced consumer electronics while securing its position as the world's third-largest economy after the United States and Mainland China. The rise of the East Asian Tigers, which includes South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, all overcame the ravages war and poverty to achieve unprecedented impressive growth rates during the 1970s-1980s, placing themselves among the world's richest and dynamic economies. Mainland China's integration into the world economy through its entry into the World Trade Organization in 2001 has made the country a major driving force in the economy of East Asia propelling itself as a major player in the world economy. In addition, South Korea and Taiwan are among the world leaders in manufacturing consumer technology, while Hong Kong remains a leading major financial center in the world.

Han Taiwanese

Han Taiwanese or Taiwanese Hans (Chinese: 臺灣漢人) are a subgroup of Han Chinese. According to the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China, they comprise 95 to 97 percent of the Taiwanese population, which also includes Austronesians and other non-Han people. Major waves of Han Chinese immigration occurred since the 17th century to the end of Chinese Civil War in 1949, with the exception of the Japanese colonial period (1895-1945). Han Taiwanese mainly speak three varieties of Chinese: Mandarin, Hokkien and Hakka.

Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts

Many East Asian scripts can be written horizontally or vertically. Chinese, Japanese and Korean scripts can be oriented in either direction, as they consist mainly of disconnected logographic or syllabic units, each occupying a square block of space, thus allowing for flexibility for which direction texts can be written, be it horizontally from left-to-right, horizontally from right-to-left, vertically from top-to-bottom, and even vertically from bottom-to-top.

Horizontal writing is known in Chinese as hengpai (simplified Chinese: 横排; traditional Chinese: 橫排; pinyin: héngpái; literally: 'horizontal alignment'), in Japanese as yokogaki (横書き, "horizontal writing", also yokogumi, 横組み), and in Korean as garosseugi (가로쓰기) or hoengseo (횡서; 橫書).

Vertical writing is known respectively as zongpai (simplified Chinese: 纵排; traditional Chinese: 縱排; pinyin: zōngpái; literally: 'vertical alignment'), tategaki (縦書き, "vertical writing", also tategumi, 縦組み), or serosseugi (세로쓰기) or jongseo (종서; 縱書).

Traditionally, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean are written vertically in columns going from top to bottom and ordered from right to left, with each new column starting to the left of the preceding one. The stroke order and stroke direction of Chinese characters (hanzi in Chinese, kanji in Japanese, hanja in Korean), Japanese kana, and Korean Hangul all facilitate writing in this manner. In addition, writing in vertical columns from right to left facilitated writing with a brush in the right hand while continually unrolling the sheet of paper or scroll with the left. Since the nineteenth century, it has become increasingly common for these languages to be written horizontally, from left to right, with successive rows going from top to bottom, under the influence of European languages such as English, although vertical writing is still frequently used in Hong Kong, Japan, Macau, Korea, and Taiwan.

Horses in East Asian warfare

Horses in East Asian warfare are inextricably linked with the strategic and tactical evolution of armed conflict. A warrior on horseback or horse-drawn chariot changed the balance of power between civilizations.

When people with horses clashed with those without, horses provided a huge advantage. When both sides had horses, battles turned on the strength and strategy of their mounted horsemen, or cavalry. Military tactics were refined in terms of the use of horses (cavalry tactics).

As in most cultures, a war horse in East Asia was trained to be controlled with limited use of reins, responding primarily to the rider's legs and weight. Horses were significant factors in the Han-Hun Wars and Wuhu incursions against past kingdoms of China, and the Mongol conquest of much of Eurasia and into Europe; and they played a part in military conflicts on a smaller, more localized scale.

Japanese people

Japanese people (Japanese: 日本人, Hepburn: nihonjin) are an ethnic group that is native to the Japanese archipelago and modern country of Japan, where they constitute 98.5% of the total population. Worldwide, approximately 129 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 125 million are residents of Japan. People of Japanese ancestry who live outside Japan are referred to as nikkeijin (日系人), the Japanese diaspora. The term ethnic Japanese is often used to refer to mainland Japanese people, specifically Yamato people. Japanese people are one of the largest ethnic groups in the world.

Journal of East Asian Studies

The Journal of East Asian Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal published triannually by Lynne Rienner Publishers. It was established in 2001 and is abstracted and indexed by Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, International Political Science Abstracts, and Social Sciences Citation Index. As of 2012 the editor-in-chief is Stephan Haggard.

Koreans

Koreans (Korean: 한민족, 한국인, 한국사람; Hanja: 韓民族, 韓國人, 韓國사람; RR: Hanminjok, Hanguk-in, Hanguksaram in South Korean; alternatively Korean: 조선민족, 조선인, 조선사람; Hanja: 朝鮮民族, 朝鮮人, 朝鮮사람; RR: Joseonminjok, Joseonin, Joseonsaram in North Korean, lit. "Korean race"; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Korea and southwestern Manchuria.Koreans mainly live in the two Korean states: North Korea and South Korea (collectively and simply referred to as Korea). They are also an officially recognized ethnic minority in China, Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam, plus in a number of Post-Soviet states, such as Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Over the course of the 20th century, significant Korean communities have formed in the Americas (especially in the United States and Canada) and Oceania.

As of 2017, there were an estimated 7.4 million ethnic Koreans residing outside Korea.

Mongols

The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud, [ˈmɔŋ.ɢɔɮ.t͡ʃʊːt]) are a Mongolic ethnic group native to Mongolia and to China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China (e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia.

The Mongols are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language. The ancestors of the modern-day Mongols are referred to as Proto-Mongols.

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