East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in either geographical[2] or ethno-cultural[3] terms.[4][5] China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere.[6] Geographically and geopolitically, the region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, and South Korea.[2][4][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[15][16] East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia (as it was principally the leading civilization in the region), exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors.[17][18][19] Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana[note 4]), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Greater China, Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism, and Sindoism in Korea.[13] Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus.[20][21]

East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).

East Asia

东亚/東亞 (in Chinese)
東アジア (in Japanese)
동아시아 (in Korean)
Дорнод Ази (in Mongolian)
Location of East Asia
States[note 1]
Dependencies
Major cities
Area
 • Total11,839,074 km2 (4,571,092 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)[note 3]
 • Total1,641,908,531
 • Rank2nd (World)
Time zone
Languages and language families
  GDP(Nominal)US$20.8 trillion
(2018 est.)[1]
East Asia
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese东亚/东亚细亚
Traditional Chinese東亞/東亞細亞
Tibetan name
Tibetanཨེ་ཤ་ཡ་ཤར་མ་
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetĐông Á
Chữ Hán東亞
Korean name
Hangul동아시아/동아세아/동아
Hanja東아시아/東亞細亞/東亞
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicЗүүн Ази
ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢ
Japanese name
Kanaひがしアジア/とうあ
Kyūjitai東亞細亞/東亞
Shinjitai東亜細亜(東アジア)/東亜
Uyghur name
Uyghurشەرقىي ئاسىي
Russian name
RussianВосточная Азия
RomanizationVostochnaja Azija
East Asian Cultural Sphere
China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam are culturally East Asian

History

Like the Ancient Greeks and Romans and their profound influence on Europe and the Western World, China already possessed an advanced civilization nearly 1500+ years before its neighbors (c. 2000 BC) and through various Chinese dynasties has exerted cultural, economic, technological, political, and military influence across East Asia up to the present.[22][23][24][25][25][26] For many centuries, especially between the 7-14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.[27]

China became the first literate nation in East Asia and has also provided Japan, Vietnam, and Korea with many loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems (see Chinese characters).[28] From around 200 BC to 200 AD, the Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region.[29] And China has always been the most populous epicenter in East Asia as well.

China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang. Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, and Confucian political institutions.[30]

Jōmon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea.

Vietnamese society was greatly impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam was occupied by Chinese empires and states for almost all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, and making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, and animal husbandry.

Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years (939-1870s) until the temporary loss of independence under French Indochina. This cultural affiliation to China remained true even when militarily defending Vietnam against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol Kublai Khan. The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the strongly anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese (among other actions triggering the fourth Chinese invasion), but then after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature.

As full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established (Korea by 4th century AD and Japan by the 7th century AD), Korea, Japan, and Vietnam actively began to incorporate Chinese cultural and religious influences such as the Chinese language, Classical Chinese in administration, written Han characters, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism (introduced from India via China), Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies like legalism, music, urban planning, and various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties.[31] (See East Asian cultural sphere.)

The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.[32][33][24][22]

19th century to present

As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during the late 19th century, China's power began to decline. U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry forced Japan to open up.[34][35] After the 1860s, Japan modernized rapidly with the Meiji Restoration, transforming itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first industrialized nation.[36][12][35][36]

By the early 1900s, the Japanese empire succeeded in asserting itself as East Asia's first modern power. Japan defeated the stagnant Qing dynasty during the First Sino-Japanese War, thereafter annexing Korea and Taiwan from China.[36]

In 1905 Japan also vanquished its imperial rival Russia in the Russo-Japanese War. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one and shocked the West.[37][34]

In prelude to WW2, Japan launched an invasion of mainland China in the Second Sino-Japanese War. It annexed Manchuria and absorbed more and more of the eastern coast, committing atrocities like Unit 731 and Nanjing Massacre along the way.

Japan's ultimate imperial dream was the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China and Manchuria, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Southeast Asia under its hegemonic control, establishing itself as a maritime colonial power in East Asia.[38]

After nearly a century of exploitation by the European and Japanese colonialists, the US nuked Japan twice, leading to Allied victory in WW2 and the defeat and occupation of Japan.

The US also took control of Japan's former colony, Korea and waged the Korean War resulting the division of Korea.

During the Cold War the US also waged the Vietnam War, bombing the country as well as its neighbors like Cambodia. Unlike Korea, Vietnam never split.

During the Chinese Civil War, the Republic of China lost Mainland China to the People's Republic of China and later fled to Taiwan.

In his book When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques says that Japan is currently a vassal state of the US, since Japan has no right to wage war and relies on the US military. He also refers to South Korea and Taiwan as vassals of the US.[39]

During the latter half of the twentieth century, Japan has experienced a post war economic miracle. South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan have emerged as Tiger economies. China opened up, entered the World Trade Organization, rose to the 2nd largest economy in the world (1st by PPP), and is starting to reclaim its historical status as a regional and world power.[7][40]

Definitions

China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam are commonly seen as the core encompassed by the East Asian cultural sphere (as opposed to neighboring nations also within East Asia).[3][41][42][43] Sometimes Mongolia is added to this core as well.[44][45][46][47][48]

CJKV share a common written language, culture, as well as sharing Confucian philosophical tenets and the Confucian societal value system once instituted by Imperial China.[49][50][50][51][52] Other usages cite geographic proximity as well as historical and modern cultural and economic ties, particularly with Japan and Korea having strong cultural influences that originated from China.[52][53][54][4][55][56] Some scholars include Vietnam as part of East Asia as it has been considered part of the greater sphere of Chinese influence, though some classify Vietnam as a Southeast Asian country.[4][57] Mongolia is geographically north of China yet Confucianism and the Chinese writing system and culture currently have less of an impact in Mongolia's historically nomadic society (however Mongolia was controlled by China during the Han, Tang, and Qing dynasties). Mongolia is sometimes grouped with Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.[4][57]

Broader and looser definitions by international organizations such as the World Bank refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. China, Japan, and South Korea", as well as Mongolia, North Korea, the Russian Far East and Siberia.[58] The Council on Foreign Relations includes the Russia Far East, Mongolia, and Nepal.[59] The World Bank also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or de facto states, such as Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia defines the region as "China, Japan, the Koreas, Nepal, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation".[60]

Map of East Asia
The countries of East Asia also form the core of Northeast Asia, which itself is a broader region.
East Asia map of Köppen climate classification
East Asia map of Köppen climate classification.
Location-Asia-UNsubregions
UNSD geoscheme for Asia based on statistic convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:[61]
  East Asia

The UNSD definition of East Asia is based on statistical convenience,[61] but also other common definitions of East Asia contain Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan.[2][62]

Alternative definitions

There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not.

In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.

Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia".[63][64][65] The Council on Foreign Relations defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea.[59]

In his book When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques defines East Asia to include CJK (Northeast Asia) and the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam (Southeast Asia).[39] See East Asian cultural sphere for more.

Economy

Customs territory GDP nominal
billions of USD (2017)[66]
GDP nominal per capita
USD (2017)[66]
GDP PPP
billions of USD (2017)[66]
GDP PPP per capita
USD (2017)[66]
 China 12,014.610 8,643.107 23,159.107 16,660.269
 Hong Kong[67] 341.659 46,109.124 454.912 61,393.316
 Macau[68] 49.802 77,451.287 71.778 111,629.024
 Japan 4,872.135 38,439.517 5,428.813 42,831.523
 North Korea N/A N/A N/A N/A
 South Korea 1,538.030 29,891.255 2,029.032 39,433.779
 Mongolia 11.135 3,639.894 39.704 12,978.557
 Taiwan[note 5] 579.302 24,576.665 1,185.480 50,293.541

Territorial and regional data

Etymology

Flag Common Name Official Name ISO 3166 Country Codes[69]
Exonym Endonym Exonym Endonym ISO Short Name Alpha-2 Code Alpha-3 Code Numeric
China 中国 People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国 China CN CHN 156
Hong Kong 香港 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國香港特別行政區 Hong Kong HK HKG 344
Macau 澳門 Macao Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區 Macao MO MAC 446
Japan 日本 State of Japan 日本国 Japan JP JPN 392
Mongolia Монгол улс / ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Mongolia Монгол Улсᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Mongolia MG MNG 496
North Korea 조선 Democratic People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 (朝鮮民主主義人民共和國) Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of) KP PRK 408
South Korea 한국 Republic of Korea 대한민국 (大韓民國) Korea (the Republic of) KR KOR 410
Taiwan[70] 臺灣 / 台灣 Republic of China 中華民國 Taiwan (Province of China)[71] TW TWN 158

Demographics

State/Territory Area km2 Population[72]
(2016)
Population density
per km2
HDI[73] Capital
 China 9,640,011[note 6] 1,403,500,365[note 7] 138 0.752 Beijing
 Hong Kong 1,104 7,302,843 6,390 0.933 Beijing
 Macau 30 612,167 18,662 0.909 Beijing
 Japan 377,930 127,748,513 337 0.909 Tokyo
 North Korea 120,538 25,368,620 198 0.733 Pyongyang[74]
 South Korea 100,210 50,791,919 500 0.903 Seoul
 Mongolia 1,564,100 3,027,398 2 0.741 Ulaanbaatar
 Taiwan 36,188 23,556,706 639 0.885 Taipei[75]

Ethnic groups

Hanfuk-1
Kimono lady at Gion, Kyoto
KOCIS Korea Hanbok-AoDai FashionShow 43 (9766406474)
Bai 5
HuiChineseMuslim3
Hamtdaa Mongolian Arts Culture Masks - 0064 (5568565844)
Zhuang's beautiful maiden in Chongzuo Fusui
Uyghur-elders-sunday-market-Kashgar
Manchu bride. John Thomson. China, 1871-1872. The Wellcome Collection, London
贵州黔东南苗族女性(a Miao woman in Qiandongnan,Guizhou)
People of Tibet46
Ethnic Yi China Costume
Tujia women
Ethic Dong Liping Guizhou China
Nadun Picture 1
Daur woman smiling
Tao1
Five men wearing Ryukyuan Dress
AinuSan
  • Note: The order of states/territories follows the population ranking of each ethnicity, within East Asia only.

Culture

Overview

The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization.[80] The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. Imperial China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea.[81][25][82][83][84][85][86][87][52] The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order.[88][89] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.[33][89] The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.[85][83][89][81]

Religions

Religion Native name Denomination Major book Type Est. Followers Ethnic groups States/territories
Chinese religion none, various classifications including 民間信仰, 神教/神道, etc. Taoism, Confucianism, folk salvationist sects, Wuism, Nuo Chinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc. Pantheism/polytheism ~900,000,000[90][91] Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods) China (Hong Kong Macau) Taiwan
Taoism 道教 Zhengyi, Quanzhen Tao Te Ching Pantheism/polytheism ~20,000,000[91] Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia China (Hong Kong Macau) Taiwan
East Asian Buddhism 漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教 Mahayana Diamond Sutra Non-God ~300,000,000 Han, Korean, Yamato China (Hong Kong Macau) Japan South Korea Taiwan
Tibetan Buddhism བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན། Mahayana Anuttarayoga Tantra Non-God ~10,000,000 Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols China Mongolia
Shamanism[note 10] 萨满教 or Бөө мөргөл N/A N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Manchus, Mongols, Oroqen China Mongolia
Shintoism 神道 Shinto sects Kojiki, Nihon Shoki Polytheism/pantheism N/A Yamato Japan
Sindo/Muism 신도 or 무교 Sindo sects N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Korean South Korea
Ryukyuan religion 琉球神道 or ニライカナイ信仰 N/A N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Ryukyuan Japan (Okinawa Prefecture)

Festivals

Festival Native Name Other name Calendar Date Gregorian date Activity Religious practices Food Major ethnicities Major states/territories
Chinese New Year 春節 or 春节 Spring Festival Chinese Month 1 Day 1 21 Jan–20 Feb Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks Worship the King of Gods Jiaozi Han, Manchus etc. China (Hong Kong Macau) Mongolia Taiwan
Korean New Year 설날 or Seollal Korean Month 1 Day 1 21 Jan–20 Feb Ancestors Worship, Family Reunion, Tomb Sweeping N/A Tteokguk Korean North Korea South Korea
Losar or Tsagaan Sar ལོ་གསར་ or Цагаан сар White Moon Tibetan, Mongolian Month 1 Day 1 25 Jan – 2 Mar Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks N/A Chhaang or Buuz Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc. China Mongolia
New Year 元旦 Yuan Dan Gregorian 1 Jan 1 Jan Fireworks N/A N/A N/A China (Hong Kong Macau) Japan North Korea South Korea Mongolia Taiwan
Lantern Festival 元宵節 or 元宵节 Upper Yuan Festival (上元节) Chinese Month 1 Day 15 4 Feb – 6 Mar Lanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Sky-officer Yuanxiao Han China (Hong Kong Macau) Taiwan*
Daeboreum 대보름 or 정월 대보름 Great Full Moon Korean Month 1 Day 15 4 Feb – 6 Mar Greeting of the moon, kite-flying, Jwibulnori, eating nuts (Bureom) Bonfires (daljip taeugi) Ogok-bap, namul, nuts Korean North Korea South Korea
Qingming Festival / Hanshi Festival 清明節 or 清明节 / 寒食節 or 寒食节 Tomb Sweeping Day / Cold Food Festival Solar 15th day since March equinox / Day 105 after Winter solstice 4–6 April Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Burning Hell money(Only Qingming Festival) Cold Food Han, Korean, Mongols China (Hong Kong Macau) North Korea South Korea Taiwan
Dragon Boat Festival 端午節 or 端午节 or 단오 Duanwu Festival / Dano (Surit-nal) Chinese / Korean Month 5 Day 5 Driving poisons & plague away. (China - Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door.) / (Korea - Washing hair with iris water, ssireum) Worship various Gods Zongzi / Surichwitteok (rice cake with herbs) Han, Korean, Yamato China (Hong Kong Macau) North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Ghost Festival 中元節 or 中元节 or 백중 Mid Yuan Festival Chinese Month 7 Day 15 Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Earth-officer Han, Korean, Yamato China (Hong Kong Macau) North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋節 or 中秋节 中秋祭 Chinese Month 8 Day 15 Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon view Worship the Moon Goddess Mooncake Han China (Hong Kong Macau) Taiwan*
Chuseok 추석 or 한가위 Hangawi Korean Month 8 Day 15 Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Enjoying Moon view N/A Songpyeon, Torantang (Taro soup) Korean North Korea South Korea
Double Ninth Festival 重陽節 or 重阳节 Double Positive Festival Chinese Month 9 Day 09 Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus. Worship various Gods Han, Korean, Yamato China (Hong Kong Macau) North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Lower Yuan Festival 下元節 or 下元节 N/A Chinese Month 10 Day 15 Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Water-officer Ciba Han China (Hong Kong Macau) Taiwan
Dongzhi Festival 冬至 or 동지 N/A Gregorian Between Dec 21 and Dec 23 Between Dec 21 and Dec 23 Ancestors Worship, Rites to dispel bad spirits N/A Tangyuan, Patjuk Han, Korean China (Hong Kong Macau) North Korea South Korea Taiwan
Small New Year 小年 Jizao (祭灶) Chinese Month 12 Day 23 Cleaning Houses Worship the God of Hearth tanggua Han, Mongols China (Hong Kong Macau) Mongolia Taiwan
International Labor Day N/A N/A Gregorian 1 May 1 May N/A N/A N/A N/A China (Hong Kong Macau) Mongolia Taiwan
International Women's Day N/A N/A Gregorian 8 Mar 8 Mar Taking care of women N/A N/A N/A All

*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.

*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.

Collaboration

East Asian Youth Games

Formerly the East Asian Games is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.

The East Asian Games is 1 of 5 Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the East Asian Games, the Central Asian Games, the South Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games), and the West Asian Games.

Free trade agreements

Name of agreement Parties Leaders at the time Negotiation begins Signing date Starting time Current status
China–South Korea FTA China South Korea Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye May, 2012 Jun 01, 2015 Dec 30, 2015 Enforced
China–Japan–South Korea FTA China Japan South Korea Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye Mar 26, 2013 N/A N/A 10 round negotiation
Japan-Mongolia EPA Japan Mongolia Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj - Feb 10, 2015 - Enforced
China-Mongolia FTA China Mongolia Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj N/A N/A N/A Officially proposed
China-HK CEPA China Hong Kong Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa - Jun 29, 2003 - Enforced
China-Macau CEPA China Macau Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah - Oct 18, 2003 - Enforced
Hong Kong-Macau CEPA Hong Kong Macau Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui Oct 09, 2015 N/A N/A Negotiating
ECFA China Taiwan Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Jan 26, 2010 Jun 29, 2010 Aug 17, 2010 Enforced
CSSTA (Based on ECFA) China Taiwan Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou Mar, 2011 Jun 21, 2013 N/A Abolished
CSGTA (Based on ECFA) China Taiwan Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Feb 22, 2011 N/A N/A Suspended

Military alliances

Name Abbr. Parties within the region
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO China (Hong Kong Macau) Russia
General Security of Military Information Agreement GSOMIA Japan South Korea
Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty - China (Hong Kong Macau) North Korea
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan - United States (Guam Northern Mariana Islands) Japan
Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea - United States (Guam Northern Mariana Islands) South Korea
Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1980) TRA (SAMDT) United States (Guam Northern Mariana Islands) Taiwan
Major non-NATO ally (Global Partners of NATO) - NATO United States (Guam Northern Mariana Islands) Australia Japan South Korea Taiwan[92]

Cities and towns

Minquan Bridge2017 TAIWAN (cropped)

Taipei is the capital of the Republic of China and anchors a major high-tech industrial area in Taiwan.

Kaohsiung Tuntex Sky Tower Innen Bild 2 (2)

Kaohsiung is the largest coastal city in Taiwan.

The Forbidden City - View from Coal Hill

Beijing is the capital of the People's Republic of China and the largest metropolis in northern China.

Shanghai skyline at night, panoramic. China, East Asia-2

Shanghai is the largest city in China and one of the largest in the world, and is a global financial centre and transport hub with the world's busiest container port.

Guangzhou dusk panorama

Guangzhou is one of the most important cities in southern China. It has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today.

XiAn qujiang

Xi'an or Chang'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties. It has a significant cultural influence in East Asia.

Hong Kong Night Skyline2

Hong Kong is one of the world's leading global financial centres and is known as a cosmopolitan metropolis.

Shibuya District at Night 2015-04 (17806976882)

Tokyo is the capital of Japan and one of the largest cities in the world, both in metropolitan population and economy.

Osaka Castle 02bs3200

Osaka is the second largest metropolitan area in Japan.

150124 At Yasakakamimachi Kyoto Japan01n

Kyoto was the Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years.

Gangnam Seoul January 2009

Seoul is the capital of South Korea, one of the largest cities in the world and a leading global technology hub.

Pyonyang from Yanggakdo

Pyongyang is the capital of North Korea, and is a significant metropolis on the Korean Peninsula.

Gandan Monastery 24

Ulaanbaatar is the capital of Mongolia with a population of 1 million as of 2008.

Pass of the ISS over Mongolia, looking out west towards the Pacific Ocean, China, and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea. The island of Guam can be seen further down the pass into the Philippine Sea, and the pass ends just to the east of New Zealand. A lightning storm can be seen as light pulses near the end of the video.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory. The population on the Taiwan island and the Pescadores is governed by an effective government to the exclusion of others, but the political status is dispute.
  2. ^ The area figure is based on the combined areas of Greater China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Japan as listed at List of countries and dependencies by area.
  3. ^ The population figure is the combined populations of Greater China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan as listed at the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects.
  4. ^ includes Tibetan Buddhism traditionally prevailing in Tibetan and Mongolian areas
  5. ^ Listed as "Taiwan Province of China" by the IMF
  6. ^ Includes all area which under PRC's government control (excluding "South Tibet" and disputed islands).
  7. ^ A note by the United Nations: "For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao, Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, and Taiwan Province of China."
  8. ^ The Hui people also use the Arabic alphabet in the religious field.
  9. ^ The Khotons also in Mongolia.
  10. ^ almost Manchu, Mongolian

References

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects".
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External links

Asia-Pacific

Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean. The region varies in area depending on which context, but it typically includes much of East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania.

The term may also include Russia (on the North Pacific) and countries in the Americas which are on the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean; the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, for example, includes Canada, Chile, Russia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. Alternatively, the term sometimes comprises all of Asia and Australasia as well as Pacific island nations (Asia Pacific and Australian continent)—for example when dividing the world into large regions for commercial purposes (e.g. into the Americas, EMEA and Asia Pacific). Despite being part of Asia, Western Asia is almost never included.

On the whole there appears to be no clear cut definition of "Asia Pacific" and the regions included change as per the context. Though imprecise, the term has become popular since the late 1980s in commerce, finance and politics. In fact, despite the heterogeneity of the regions' economies, most individual nations within the zone are emerging markets experiencing rapid growth. (Compare the concept/acronym APEJ or APeJ—Asia-Pacific excluding Japan.)

Ballistic missile

A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target. These weapons are only guided during relatively brief periods of flight—most of their trajectory is unpowered, being governed by gravity and air resistance if in the atmosphere. Shorter range ballistic missiles stay within the Earth's atmosphere, while longer-ranged intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), are launched on a sub-orbital flight trajectory and spend most of their flight out of the atmosphere.

These weapons are in a distinct category from cruise missiles, which are aerodynamically guided in powered flight.

Demographics of Asia

The continent of Asia covers 29.4% of the Earth's land area and has a population of around 4.5 billion (as of 2015), accounting for about 60% of the world population. The combined population of both China and India are estimated to be over 2.7 billion people as of 2015.

Asian population is projected to grow to 5.26 billion by 2050, or about 54% of projected world population at that time.Population growth in Asia was close to 1.2% p.a. as of 2015, with highly disparate rates, many West Asian countries showing growth rates above 2% p.a., and notably Pakistan at 2.4% p.a., offset by a growth rate below 0.5% p.a. in China.

EABA Championship

The EABA Championship is an international basketball tournament which takes place every two years between national men's teams from East Asia. The tournament is also known as the East Asian Basketball Championship.

The tournament is organised by the East Asia Basketball Association, a subzone of the FIBA Asia. It serves as the East Asian qualifying tournament for the FIBA Asia Cup (formerly FIBA Asia Championship).

EAFF E-1 Football Championship

EAFF E-1 Football Championship, known as the East Asian Football Championship from 2003 to 2010, and the EAFF East Asian Cup for the 2013 and 2015 editions, is a men's international football competition in East Asia for member nations of the East Asian Football Federation (EAFF). Before the EAFF was founded in 2002, the Dynasty Cup was held between the East Asian top four teams, and was regarded as the unofficial East Asian Championship. There is a separate competition for men (first held in 2003) and women (first held in 2005).

The winner of the EAFF E-1 Football Championship qualifies for the AFF–EAFF Champions Trophy.

The next edition will be held in 2019 in South Korea.

East Asia Summit

The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a regional forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asian, and South Asian regions, based on the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism. Membership expanded to 18 countries including Russia and the United States at the Sixth EAS in 2011. Since its establishment, ASEAN has held the central role and leadership in the forum. EAS meetings are held after the annual ASEAN leaders' meetings, and plays an important role in the regional architecture of Asia-Pacific. The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 14 December 2005.

East Asian Football Federation

The East Asian Football Federation (EAFF), founded on May 28, 2002, is an international governing body of association football in East Asia.

East Asian cultural sphere

The "East Asian cultural sphere" or "Sinosphere" are the countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture. Other names for the concept include the Sinic world, the Confucian world, the Taoist world, and the Chinese cultural sphere, though the last is also used to refer particularly to the Sinophone world: the areas which speak varieties of Chinese.

The East Asian cultural sphere shares a Confucian ethical philosophy, Buddhism, Taoism, and historically a common writing system. The core regions of the East Asian cultural sphere are China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam (CJKV, these are highlighted in black in the image).

However, the historical influence of China has not just been confined to this narrow definition, but has also spread to (highlighted in blue):

Southeast Asian countries like Thailand, Myanmar, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia (all of which also nowadays have significant Chinese-speaking populations and diaspora communities, see Bamboo Network), as well as Australia;

Eurasian steppe and Central Asian countries like Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and parts of Siberia with historical Manchurian and Tungusic speaking tribes (see Qing Dynasty, Mongol Empire, Yuan dynasty, Tang dynasty, Han dynasty, Greco-Chinese war over the Heavenly Horses);

parts of Northeast India with significant Sino-Tibetan speaking and Buddhist populations.The terms "East Asian cultural sphere" and "Chinese character (Hànzì) cultural sphere" (see Chinese wikipedia) are used interchangeably with "Sinosphere" but have different denotations and connotations.

Also compare this with the Eastern world, Western world, Sino-Austric languages, Altaic languages, Eastern Eurasian, Austric languages.

Ethnic groups in Asia

The ancestral population of modern Asian people has its origins in the two primary prehistoric settlement centers - greater Southwest Asia and from the Mongolian plateau towards Northern China.

Migrations of distinct ethnolinguistic groups have probably occurred as early as 10,000 years ago. However, about 2.000 BCE early Iranian speaking people and Indo-Aryans have arrived in Iran and northern India. Pressed by the Mongols, Turkic peoples subsequently migrated to the western and northern regions of the Central Asian plains. Prehistoric migrants from South China and Southeast Asia seem to have populated East Asia, Korea and Japan in several waves, where they gradually replaced indigenous people, such as the Ainu, who are of uncertain origin. Austroasiatic and Austronesian people establish in Southeast Asia between 5.000 and 2.000 BCE, partly merging with, but eventually displacing the indigenous Australo-Melanesians.In terms of Asian people, there is an abundance of ethnic groups in Asia, with adaptations to the climate zones of the continent, which include Arctic, subarctic, temperate, subtropical or tropical, as well as extensive desert regions in Central and Western Asia. The ethnic groups have adapted to mountains, deserts, grasslands, and forests, while on the coasts of Asia, resident ethnic groups have adopted various methods of harvest and transport. The types of diversity in Asia are cultural, religious, economic and historical.

Some groups are primarily hunter-gatherers, whereas others practice transhumance (nomadic lifestyle), have been agrarian for millennia, or have adopted an industrial or urban lifestyle. Some groups or countries in Asia are completely urban (e.g., Qatar and Singapore); the largest countries in Asia with regard to population are the People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Japan, Philippines, Vietnam, Iran, Thailand, Burma, and South Korea. Colonisation of Asian ethnic groups and states by European peoples began in the 16th century, reaching its peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (except in the former Soviet Union, which was dissolved in 1991).

Far East

The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia. South Asia is sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons. The term "Far East" came into use in European geopolitical discourse in the 12th century, denoting the Far East as the "farthest" of the three "easts", beyond the Near East and the Middle East. Likewise, in Qing Dynasty of the 19th and early 20th centuries the term "Tàixī (泰西)" – i.e. anything further west than the Arab world – was used to refer to the Western countries.

Since the 1960s, East Asia has become the most common term for the region in international mass media outlets.

Four Asian Tigers

The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, are the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s. By the early 21st century, all four had developed into high-income economies, specializing in areas of competitive advantage. Hong Kong and Singapore have become world-leading international financial centres, whereas South Korea and Taiwan are world leaders in manufacturing electronic components and devices. Their economic success stories have served as role models for many developing countries, especially the Tiger Cub Economies of southeast Asia.A controversial World Bank report (The East Asian Miracle 1993) credited neoliberal policies with the responsibility for the boom, including maintenance of export-oriented policies, low taxes, and minimal welfare states; institutional analysis also states some state intervention was involved. However, others argued that industrial policy and state intervention had a much greater influence than the World Bank report suggested.

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (Japanese: 大東亜共栄圏, Hepburn: Dai Tōa Kyōeiken) was an imperialist concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations from 1930 to 1945 by the Empire of Japan. It extended across the Asia-Pacific and promoted the cultural and economic unity of East Asians, Southeast Asians, South Asians and Oceanians. It also declared the intention to create a self-sufficient "bloc of Asian nations led by the Japanese and free of Western powers". It was announced in a radio address entitled "The International Situation and Japan's Position" by Foreign Minister Hachirō Arita on 29 June 1940.The intent and practical implementation of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere varied widely depending on the group and government department involved. Policy theorists who conceived it, as well as the vast majority of the Japanese population at large, largely saw it for its pan-Asian ideals of freedom and independence from Western colonial oppression. In practice, however, it was frequently used by militarists and nationalists, who saw an effective policy vehicle through which to strengthen Japan's position and advance its dominance within Asia. The latter approach was reflected in a policy document released by Japan's Ministry of Health and Welfare, An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus, which laid out the central position of Japan within the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, and promoted the idea of Japanese superiority over other Asians.

History of East Asia

The History of East Asia encompasses the histories of China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and Taiwan from prehistoric times to the present.The East Asian region is not uniform and each of its countries has a different national history, but scholars maintain that the region is also characterized by a distinct pattern of historical development. This is evident in the interrelationship among East Asian countries, which not only involve the sum total of historical patterns but also a specific set of patterns that has affected all or most of East Asia in successive layers.

List of cities by GDP

This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by GDP. The methodology may differ between the studies and are widely based on projections and sometimes approximate estimations, notably for non-OECD cities (refer to sources for more information.)

Notes

Maritime Southeast Asia

Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia, as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia, and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor-Leste. The local Malayo-Polynesian name for the region is Nusantara. Maritime Southeast Asia is sometimes also referred to as "island Southeast Asia" or "insular Southeast Asia". The 16th-century term East Indies, and the later 19th-century term Malay Archipelago refers to a largely similar area.

The expanse from the westernmost point of Aceh Sumatra to the easternmost point of Irian Jaya, Papua, is equivalent to the distance between Paris and Kabul. The area boasts some of the richest marine, flora and fauna biodiversity on Earth.

The main demographic difference that sets Maritime Southeast Asia apart from Indochina is that its population predominantly belongs to Austronesian groups: the majority Malayo-Polynesians and a minority of Micronesians.

Maritime Southeast Asia makes up the oldest inhabited geographic area within Austronesia, with the Philippine archipelago being the urheimat for Malayo-Polynesians (non-Formosan Austronesians).

The region contains some of the world's most highly urbanised areas: Greater Jakarta, Metro Manila, Surabaya Metro Area, and Singapore; and yet a majority of islands in this vast region remain uninhabited by humans.

Northeast Asia

Terms such as Northeast Asia, North East Asia or Northeastern Asia, refer to a subregion of Asia: the northeastern landmass and islands, bordering the Pacific Ocean. It includes the core countries of East Asia.

The term Northeast Asia was popularized during the 1930s by the American historian and political scientist Robert Kerner. Under Kerner's definition, "Northeast Asia" included the Mongolian Plateau, the Manchurian Plain, the Korean Peninsula and the mountainous regions of the Russian Far East, stretching from Lena River in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.

Shanghai SIPG F.C.

Shanghai SIPG F.C. (Chinese: 上海上港; pinyin: Shànghǎi Shànggǎng; Shanghainese pronunciation: [ʂâŋ xài ʂâŋ kàŋ];) or SIPG FC is a professional football club that participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Xuhui, Shanghai, and their home stadium is the Shanghai Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 56,842. Their owners are the Chinese group Shanghai International Port Group (SIPG).

The club was founded on 25 December 2005, as Shanghai Dongya FC (Dongya, Chinese: 东亚; pinyin: Dōngyà; literally: 'East Asia') by former Chinese international footballer coach Xu Genbao. The club used graduates from Genbao Football Base, a football academy also founded by Xu, to form their first team as they made their debut in the third tier of China's football league pyramid in the 2006 league season. They worked their way up to the top tier and finished as league champions for the first time in the 2018 Chinese Super League season.

According to Forbes, Shanghai SIPG F.C. are the third-most valuable football club in China, with a club value of $159 million, and an estimated revenue of $37 million in 2015. According to the annual report of the parent company, the football club had a revenue of CN¥565.7 million in 2015 financial year, as well as net loss of CN¥41.5 million, total assets of CN¥286.8 million, net assets of CN¥59.7 million.

Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, and north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:

Mainland Southeast Asia, also known historically as Indochina, comprising parts of Northeast India (Part of India east of Siliguri Corridor), Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar and West Malaysia.

Maritime Southeast Asia, also known historically as Nusantara, the East Indies and Malay Archipelago, comprises the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, Indonesia, East Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, East Timor, Brunei, Christmas Island, and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Taiwan is also included in this grouping by many anthropologists.The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities. The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring almost all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, and northern Luzon of the Philippines. The mountain ranges in Myanmar, Thailand, and peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt, while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have relatively high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.Southeast Asia covers about 4.5 million km2 (1.7 million mi2), which is 10.5% of Asia or 3% of earth's total land area. Its total population is more than 641 million, about 8.5% of the world's population. It is the third most populous geographical region in the world after South Asia and East Asia. The region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups. Ten countries in the region are members of ASEAN, a regional organization established for economic, political, military, educational and cultural integration amongst its members.

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines. The formal institution of SEATO was established on 19 February 1955 at a meeting of treaty partners in Bangkok, Thailand. The organization's headquarters were also in Bangkok. Eight members joined the organization.

Primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia, SEATO is generally considered a failure because internal conflict and dispute hindered general use of the SEATO military; however, SEATO-funded cultural and educational programs left long-standing effects in Southeast Asia. SEATO was dissolved on 30 June 1977 after many members lost interest and withdrew.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinDōngyà or Dōng Yàxìyà
Wade–GilesTung1-ya3
Wu
Romanizationton ia
Gan
RomanizationTung1 nga3
Hakka
Romanizationdung24 a31
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutpingdung1 aa3
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTang-a
Transcriptions
Revised RomanizationDong Asia/Dong Asea/Dong A
Transcriptions
SASM/GNCDzuun Azi
Transcriptions
Revised HepburnHigashi Ajia/Tō-A
Kunrei-shikiHigasi Azia/Tou-A
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