East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere. Geographically and geopolitically, the region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, and South Korea.
The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire. East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia (as it was principally the leading civilization in the region), exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors. Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana[note 4]), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Greater China, Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism, and Sindoism in Korea. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus.
East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).
东亚/東亞 (in Chinese)
東アジア (in Japanese)
동아시아 (in Korean)
Дорнод Ази (in Mongolian)
|• Total||11,839,074 km2 (4,571,092 sq mi)|
|• Rank||2nd (World)|
|Languages and language families|
|Vietnamese alphabet||Đông Á|
|Mongolian Cyrillic||Зүүн Ази |
Like the Ancient Greeks and Romans and their profound influence on Europe and the Western World, China already possessed an advanced civilization nearly 1500+ years before its neighbors (c. 2000 BC) and through various Chinese dynasties has exerted cultural, economic, technological, political, and military influence across East Asia up to the present. For many centuries, especially between the 7-14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.
China became the first literate nation in East Asia and has also provided Japan, Vietnam, and Korea with many loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems (see Chinese characters). From around 200 BC to 200 AD, the Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region. And China has always been the most populous epicenter in East Asia as well.
China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang. Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, and Confucian political institutions.
Jōmon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea.
Vietnamese society was greatly impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam was occupied by Chinese empires and states for almost all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, and making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, and animal husbandry.
Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years (939-1870s) until the temporary loss of independence under French Indochina. This cultural affiliation to China remained true even when militarily defending Vietnam against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol Kublai Khan. The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the strongly anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese (among other actions triggering the fourth Chinese invasion), but then after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature.
As full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established (Korea by 4th century AD and Japan by the 7th century AD), Korea, Japan, and Vietnam actively began to incorporate Chinese cultural and religious influences such as the Chinese language, Classical Chinese in administration, written Han characters, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism (introduced from India via China), Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies like legalism, music, urban planning, and various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties. (See East Asian cultural sphere.)
The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.
As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during the late 19th century, China's power began to decline. U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry forced Japan to open up. After the 1860s, Japan modernized rapidly with the Meiji Restoration, transforming itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first industrialized nation.
By the early 1900s, the Japanese empire succeeded in asserting itself as East Asia's first modern power. Japan defeated the stagnant Qing dynasty during the First Sino-Japanese War, thereafter annexing Korea and Taiwan from China.
In 1905 Japan also vanquished its imperial rival Russia in the Russo-Japanese War. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one and shocked the West.
In prelude to WW2, Japan launched an invasion of mainland China in the Second Sino-Japanese War. It annexed Manchuria and absorbed more and more of the eastern coast, committing atrocities like Unit 731 and Nanjing Massacre along the way.
Japan's ultimate imperial dream was the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China and Manchuria, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Southeast Asia under its hegemonic control, establishing itself as a maritime colonial power in East Asia.
In his book When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques says that Japan is currently a vassal state of the US, since Japan has no right to wage war and relies on the US military. He also refers to South Korea and Taiwan as vassals of the US.
During the latter half of the twentieth century, Japan has experienced a post war economic miracle. South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan have emerged as Tiger economies. China opened up, entered the World Trade Organization, rose to the 2nd largest economy in the world (1st by PPP), and is starting to reclaim its historical status as a regional and world power.
China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam are commonly seen as the core encompassed by the East Asian cultural sphere (as opposed to neighboring nations also within East Asia). Sometimes Mongolia is added to this core as well.
CJKV share a common written language, culture, as well as sharing Confucian philosophical tenets and the Confucian societal value system once instituted by Imperial China. Other usages cite geographic proximity as well as historical and modern cultural and economic ties, particularly with Japan and Korea having strong cultural influences that originated from China. Some scholars include Vietnam as part of East Asia as it has been considered part of the greater sphere of Chinese influence, though some classify Vietnam as a Southeast Asian country. Mongolia is geographically north of China yet Confucianism and the Chinese writing system and culture currently have less of an impact in Mongolia's historically nomadic society (however Mongolia was controlled by China during the Han, Tang, and Qing dynasties). Mongolia is sometimes grouped with Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.
Broader and looser definitions by international organizations such as the World Bank refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. China, Japan, and South Korea", as well as Mongolia, North Korea, the Russian Far East and Siberia. The Council on Foreign Relations includes the Russia Far East, Mongolia, and Nepal. The World Bank also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or de facto states, such as Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia defines the region as "China, Japan, the Koreas, Nepal, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation".
The UNSD definition of East Asia is based on statistical convenience, but also other common definitions of East Asia contain Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan.
There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not.
In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.
Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia". The Council on Foreign Relations defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea.
In his book When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques defines East Asia to include CJK (Northeast Asia) and the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam (Southeast Asia). See East Asian cultural sphere for more.
|Customs territory||GDP nominal
billions of USD (2017)
|GDP nominal per capita
billions of USD (2017)
|GDP PPP per capita|
|Flag||Common Name||Official Name||ISO 3166 Country Codes|
|Exonym||Endonym||Exonym||Endonym||ISO Short Name||Alpha-2 Code||Alpha-3 Code||Numeric|
|China||中国||People's Republic of China||中华人民共和国||China||CN||CHN||156|
|Hong Kong||香港||Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
|Macau||澳門||Macao Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
|Japan||日本||State of Japan||日本国||Japan||JP||JPN||392|
|Mongolia||Монгол улс / ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
|North Korea||조선||Democratic People's Republic of Korea||조선민주주의인민공화국 (朝鮮民主主義人民共和國)||Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of)||KP||PRK||408|
|South Korea||한국||Republic of Korea||대한민국 (大韓民國)||Korea (the Republic of)||KR||KOR||410|
|Taiwan||臺灣 / 台灣||Republic of China||中華民國||Taiwan (Province of China)||TW||TWN||158|
|China||9,640,011[note 6]||1,403,500,365[note 7]||138||0.752||Beijing|
The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization. The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. Imperial China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea. The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order. The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.
|Religion||Native name||Denomination||Major book||Type||Est. Followers||Ethnic groups||States/territories|
|Chinese religion||none, various classifications including 民間信仰, 神教/神道, etc.||Taoism, Confucianism, folk salvationist sects, Wuism, Nuo||Chinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc.||Pantheism/polytheism||~900,000,000||Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods)||( )|
|Taoism||道教||Zhengyi, Quanzhen||Tao Te Ching||Pantheism/polytheism||~20,000,000||Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia||( )|
|East Asian Buddhism||漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教||Mahayana||Diamond Sutra||Non-God||~300,000,000||Han, Korean, Yamato||( )|
|Tibetan Buddhism||བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན།||Mahayana||Anuttarayoga Tantra||Non-God||~10,000,000||Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols|
|Shamanism[note 10]||萨满教 or Бөө мөргөл||N/A||N/A||Polytheism/pantheism||N/A||Manchus, Mongols, Oroqen|
|Shintoism||神道||Shinto sects||Kojiki, Nihon Shoki||Polytheism/pantheism||N/A||Yamato|
|Sindo/Muism||신도 or 무교||Sindo sects||N/A||Polytheism/pantheism||N/A||Korean|
|Ryukyuan religion||琉球神道 or ニライカナイ信仰||N/A||N/A||Polytheism/pantheism||N/A||Ryukyuan||()|
|Festival||Native Name||Other name||Calendar||Date||Gregorian date||Activity||Religious practices||Food||Major ethnicities||Major states/territories|
|Chinese New Year||春節 or 春节||Spring Festival||Chinese||Month 1 Day 1||21 Jan–20 Feb||Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks||Worship the King of Gods||Jiaozi||Han, Manchus etc.||( )|
|Korean New Year||설날 or 설||Seollal||Korean||Month 1 Day 1||21 Jan–20 Feb||Ancestors Worship, Family Reunion, Tomb Sweeping||N/A||Tteokguk||Korean|
|Losar or Tsagaan Sar||ལོ་གསར་ or Цагаан сар||White Moon||Tibetan, Mongolian||Month 1 Day 1||25 Jan – 2 Mar||Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks||N/A||Chhaang or Buuz||Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc.|
|New Year||元旦||Yuan Dan||Gregorian||1 Jan||1 Jan||Fireworks||N/A||N/A||N/A||( )|
|Lantern Festival||元宵節 or 元宵节||Upper Yuan Festival (上元节)||Chinese||Month 1 Day 15||4 Feb – 6 Mar||Lanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Birthdate of the God of Sky-officer||Yuanxiao||Han||( ) *|
|Daeboreum||대보름 or 정월 대보름||Great Full Moon||Korean||Month 1 Day 15||4 Feb – 6 Mar||Greeting of the moon, kite-flying, Jwibulnori, eating nuts (Bureom)||Bonfires (daljip taeugi)||Ogok-bap, namul, nuts||Korean|
|Qingming Festival / Hanshi Festival||清明節 or 清明节 / 寒食節 or 寒食节||Tomb Sweeping Day / Cold Food Festival||Solar||15th day since March equinox / Day 105 after Winter solstice||4–6 April||Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Burning Hell money(Only Qingming Festival)||Cold Food||Han, Korean, Mongols||( )|
|Dragon Boat Festival||端午節 or 端午节 or 단오||Duanwu Festival / Dano (Surit-nal)||Chinese / Korean||Month 5 Day 5||Driving poisons & plague away. (China - Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door.) / (Korea - Washing hair with iris water, ssireum)||Worship various Gods||Zongzi / Surichwitteok (rice cake with herbs)||Han, Korean, Yamato||( ) *|
|Ghost Festival||中元節 or 中元节 or 백중||Mid Yuan Festival||Chinese||Month 7 Day 15||Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Birthdate of the God of Earth-officer||Han, Korean, Yamato||( ) *|
|Mid-Autumn Festival||中秋節 or 中秋节||中秋祭||Chinese||Month 8 Day 15||Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon view||Worship the Moon Goddess||Mooncake||Han||( ) *|
|Chuseok||추석 or 한가위||Hangawi||Korean||Month 8 Day 15||Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Enjoying Moon view||N/A||Songpyeon, Torantang (Taro soup)||Korean|
|Double Ninth Festival||重陽節 or 重阳节||Double Positive Festival||Chinese||Month 9 Day 09||Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus.||Worship various Gods||Han, Korean, Yamato||( ) *|
|Lower Yuan Festival||下元節 or 下元节||N/A||Chinese||Month 10 Day 15||Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Birthdate of the God of Water-officer||Ciba||Han||( )|
|Dongzhi Festival||冬至 or 동지||N/A||Gregorian||Between Dec 21 and Dec 23||Between Dec 21 and Dec 23||Ancestors Worship, Rites to dispel bad spirits||N/A||Tangyuan, Patjuk||Han, Korean||( )|
|Small New Year||小年||Jizao (祭灶)||Chinese||Month 12 Day 23||Cleaning Houses||Worship the God of Hearth||tanggua||Han, Mongols||( )|
|International Labor Day||N/A||N/A||Gregorian||1 May||1 May||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||( )|
|International Women's Day||N/A||N/A||Gregorian||8 Mar||8 Mar||Taking care of women||N/A||N/A||N/A||All|
*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.
*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.
Formerly the East Asian Games is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.
The East Asian Games is 1 of 5 Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the East Asian Games, the Central Asian Games, the South Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games), and the West Asian Games.
|Name of agreement||Parties||Leaders at the time||Negotiation begins||Signing date||Starting time||Current status|
|China–South Korea FTA||Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye||May, 2012||Jun 01, 2015||Dec 30, 2015||Enforced|
|China–Japan–South Korea FTA||Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye||Mar 26, 2013||N/A||N/A||10 round negotiation|
|Japan-Mongolia EPA||Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj||-||Feb 10, 2015||-||Enforced|
|China-Mongolia FTA||Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj||N/A||N/A||N/A||Officially proposed|
|China-HK CEPA||Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa||-||Jun 29, 2003||-||Enforced|
|China-Macau CEPA||Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah||-||Oct 18, 2003||-||Enforced|
|Hong Kong-Macau CEPA||Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui||Oct 09, 2015||N/A||N/A||Negotiating|
|ECFA||Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou||Jan 26, 2010||Jun 29, 2010||Aug 17, 2010||Enforced|
|CSSTA (Based on ECFA)||Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou||Mar, 2011||Jun 21, 2013||N/A||Abolished|
|CSGTA (Based on ECFA)||Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou||Feb 22, 2011||N/A||N/A||Suspended|
|Name||Abbr.||Parties within the region|
|Shanghai Cooperation Organisation||SCO||( )|
|General Security of Military Information Agreement||GSOMIA|
|Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty||-||( )|
|Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan||-||( )|
|Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea||-||( )|
|Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1980)||TRA (SAMDT)||( )|
|Major non-NATO ally (Global Partners of NATO)||-||( ) |
the countries and regions of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Mongolia, South Korea, North Korea and Japan.
Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean. The region varies in area depending on which context, but it typically includes much of East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania.
The term may also include Russia (on the North Pacific) and countries in the Americas which are on the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean; the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, for example, includes Canada, Chile, Russia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. Alternatively, the term sometimes comprises all of Asia and Australasia as well as Pacific island nations (Asia Pacific and Australian continent)—for example when dividing the world into large regions for commercial purposes (e.g. into the Americas, EMEA and Asia Pacific). Despite being part of Asia, Western Asia is almost never included.
On the whole there appears to be no clear cut definition of "Asia Pacific" and the regions included change as per the context. Though imprecise, the term has become popular since the late 1980s in commerce, finance and politics. In fact, despite the heterogeneity of the regions' economies, most individual nations within the zone are emerging markets experiencing rapid growth. (Compare the concept/acronym APEJ or APeJ—Asia-Pacific excluding Japan.)Ballistic missile
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target. These weapons are only guided during relatively brief periods of flight—most of their trajectory is unpowered, being governed by gravity and air resistance if in the atmosphere. Shorter range ballistic missiles stay within the Earth's atmosphere, while longer-ranged intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), are launched on a sub-orbital flight trajectory and spend most of their flight out of the atmosphere.
These weapons are in a distinct category from cruise missiles, which are aerodynamically guided in powered flight.Demographics of Asia
The continent of Asia covers 29.4% of the Earth's land area and has a population of around 4.5 billion (as of 2015), accounting for about 60% of the world population. The combined population of both China and India are estimated to be over 2.7 billion people as of 2015.
Asian population is projected to grow to 5.26 billion by 2050, or about 54% of projected world population at that time.Population growth in Asia was close to 1.2% p.a. as of 2015, with highly disparate rates, many West Asian countries showing growth rates above 2% p.a., and notably Pakistan at 2.4% p.a., offset by a growth rate below 0.5% p.a. in China.EABA Championship
The EABA Championship is an international basketball tournament which takes place every two years between national men's teams from East Asia. The tournament is also known as the East Asian Basketball Championship.
The tournament is organised by the East Asia Basketball Association, a subzone of the FIBA Asia. It serves as the East Asian qualifying tournament for the FIBA Asia Cup (formerly FIBA Asia Championship).EAFF E-1 Football Championship
EAFF E-1 Football Championship, known as the East Asian Football Championship from 2003 to 2010, and the EAFF East Asian Cup for the 2013 and 2015 editions, is a men's international football competition in East Asia for member nations of the East Asian Football Federation (EAFF). Before the EAFF was founded in 2002, the Dynasty Cup was held between the East Asian top four teams, and was regarded as the unofficial East Asian Championship. There is a separate competition for men (first held in 2003) and women (first held in 2005).
The winner of the EAFF E-1 Football Championship qualifies for the AFF–EAFF Champions Trophy.
The next edition will be held in 2019 in South Korea.East Asia Summit
The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a regional forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asian, and South Asian regions, based on the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism. Membership expanded to 18 countries including Russia and the United States at the Sixth EAS in 2011. Since its establishment, ASEAN has held the central role and leadership in the forum. EAS meetings are held after the annual ASEAN leaders' meetings, and plays an important role in the regional architecture of Asia-Pacific. The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 14 December 2005.East Asian Football Federation
The East Asian Football Federation (EAFF), founded on May 28, 2002, is an international governing body of association football in East Asia.East Asian cultural sphere
The "East Asian cultural sphere" or "Sinosphere" are the countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture. Other names for the concept include the Sinic world, the Confucian world, the Taoist world, and the Chinese cultural sphere, though the last is also used to refer particularly to the Sinophone world: the areas which speak varieties of Chinese.
The East Asian cultural sphere shares a Confucian ethical philosophy, Buddhism, Taoism, and historically a common writing system. The core regions of the East Asian cultural sphere are China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam (CJKV, these are highlighted in black in the image).
However, the historical influence of China has not just been confined to this narrow definition, but has also spread to (highlighted in blue):
Southeast Asian countries like Thailand, Myanmar, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia (all of which also nowadays have significant Chinese-speaking populations and diaspora communities, see Bamboo Network), as well as Australia;
Eurasian steppe and Central Asian countries like Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and parts of Siberia with historical Manchurian and Tungusic speaking tribes (see Qing Dynasty, Mongol Empire, Yuan dynasty, Tang dynasty, Han dynasty, Greco-Chinese war over the Heavenly Horses);
parts of Northeast India with significant Sino-Tibetan speaking and Buddhist populations.The terms "East Asian cultural sphere" and "Chinese character (Hànzì) cultural sphere" (see Chinese wikipedia) are used interchangeably with "Sinosphere" but have different denotations and connotations.
Also compare this with the Eastern world, Western world, Sino-Austric languages, Altaic languages, Eastern Eurasian, Austric languages.Ethnic groups in Asia
The ancestral population of modern Asian people has its origins in the two primary prehistoric settlement centers - greater Southwest Asia and from the Mongolian plateau towards Northern China.
Migrations of distinct ethnolinguistic groups have probably occurred as early as 10,000 years ago. However, about 2.000 BCE early Iranian speaking people and Indo-Aryans have arrived in Iran and northern India. Pressed by the Mongols, Turkic peoples subsequently migrated to the western and northern regions of the Central Asian plains. Prehistoric migrants from South China and Southeast Asia seem to have populated East Asia, Korea and Japan in several waves, where they gradually replaced indigenous people, such as the Ainu, who are of uncertain origin. Austroasiatic and Austronesian people establish in Southeast Asia between 5.000 and 2.000 BCE, partly merging with, but eventually displacing the indigenous Australo-Melanesians.In terms of Asian people, there is an abundance of ethnic groups in Asia, with adaptations to the climate zones of the continent, which include Arctic, subarctic, temperate, subtropical or tropical, as well as extensive desert regions in Central and Western Asia. The ethnic groups have adapted to mountains, deserts, grasslands, and forests, while on the coasts of Asia, resident ethnic groups have adopted various methods of harvest and transport. The types of diversity in Asia are cultural, religious, economic and historical.
Some groups are primarily hunter-gatherers, whereas others practice transhumance (nomadic lifestyle), have been agrarian for millennia, or have adopted an industrial or urban lifestyle. Some groups or countries in Asia are completely urban (e.g., Qatar and Singapore); the largest countries in Asia with regard to population are the People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Japan, Philippines, Vietnam, Iran, Thailand, Burma, and South Korea. Colonisation of Asian ethnic groups and states by European peoples began in the 16th century, reaching its peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (except in the former Soviet Union, which was dissolved in 1991).Far East
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia. South Asia is sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons. The term "Far East" came into use in European geopolitical discourse in the 12th century, denoting the Far East as the "farthest" of the three "easts", beyond the Near East and the Middle East. Likewise, in Qing Dynasty of the 19th and early 20th centuries the term "Tàixī (泰西)" – i.e. anything further west than the Arab world – was used to refer to the Western countries.
Since the 1960s, East Asia has become the most common term for the region in international mass media outlets.Four Asian Tigers
The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, are the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s. By the early 21st century, all four had developed into high-income economies, specializing in areas of competitive advantage. Hong Kong and Singapore have become world-leading international financial centres, whereas South Korea and Taiwan are world leaders in manufacturing electronic components and devices. Their economic success stories have served as role models for many developing countries, especially the Tiger Cub Economies of southeast Asia.A controversial World Bank report (The East Asian Miracle 1993) credited neoliberal policies with the responsibility for the boom, including maintenance of export-oriented policies, low taxes, and minimal welfare states; institutional analysis also states some state intervention was involved. However, others argued that industrial policy and state intervention had a much greater influence than the World Bank report suggested.Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (Japanese: 大東亜共栄圏, Hepburn: Dai Tōa Kyōeiken) was an imperialist concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations from 1930 to 1945 by the Empire of Japan. It extended across the Asia-Pacific and promoted the cultural and economic unity of East Asians, Southeast Asians, South Asians and Oceanians. It also declared the intention to create a self-sufficient "bloc of Asian nations led by the Japanese and free of Western powers". It was announced in a radio address entitled "The International Situation and Japan's Position" by Foreign Minister Hachirō Arita on 29 June 1940.The intent and practical implementation of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere varied widely depending on the group and government department involved. Policy theorists who conceived it, as well as the vast majority of the Japanese population at large, largely saw it for its pan-Asian ideals of freedom and independence from Western colonial oppression. In practice, however, it was frequently used by militarists and nationalists, who saw an effective policy vehicle through which to strengthen Japan's position and advance its dominance within Asia. The latter approach was reflected in a policy document released by Japan's Ministry of Health and Welfare, An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus, which laid out the central position of Japan within the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, and promoted the idea of Japanese superiority over other Asians.History of East Asia
The History of East Asia encompasses the histories of China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and Taiwan from prehistoric times to the present.The East Asian region is not uniform and each of its countries has a different national history, but scholars maintain that the region is also characterized by a distinct pattern of historical development. This is evident in the interrelationship among East Asian countries, which not only involve the sum total of historical patterns but also a specific set of patterns that has affected all or most of East Asia in successive layers.List of cities by GDP
This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by GDP. The methodology may differ between the studies and are widely based on projections and sometimes approximate estimations, notably for non-OECD cities (refer to sources for more information.)
NotesMaritime Southeast Asia
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia, as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia, and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor-Leste. The local Malayo-Polynesian name for the region is Nusantara. Maritime Southeast Asia is sometimes also referred to as "island Southeast Asia" or "insular Southeast Asia". The 16th-century term East Indies, and the later 19th-century term Malay Archipelago refers to a largely similar area.
The expanse from the westernmost point of Aceh Sumatra to the easternmost point of Irian Jaya, Papua, is equivalent to the distance between Paris and Kabul. The area boasts some of the richest marine, flora and fauna biodiversity on Earth.
The main demographic difference that sets Maritime Southeast Asia apart from Indochina is that its population predominantly belongs to Austronesian groups: the majority Malayo-Polynesians and a minority of Micronesians.
Maritime Southeast Asia makes up the oldest inhabited geographic area within Austronesia, with the Philippine archipelago being the urheimat for Malayo-Polynesians (non-Formosan Austronesians).
The region contains some of the world's most highly urbanised areas: Greater Jakarta, Metro Manila, Surabaya Metro Area, and Singapore; and yet a majority of islands in this vast region remain uninhabited by humans.Northeast Asia
Terms such as Northeast Asia, North East Asia or Northeastern Asia, refer to a subregion of Asia: the northeastern landmass and islands, bordering the Pacific Ocean. It includes the core countries of East Asia.
The term Northeast Asia was popularized during the 1930s by the American historian and political scientist Robert Kerner. Under Kerner's definition, "Northeast Asia" included the Mongolian Plateau, the Manchurian Plain, the Korean Peninsula and the mountainous regions of the Russian Far East, stretching from Lena River in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.Shanghai SIPG F.C.
Shanghai SIPG F.C. (Chinese: 上海上港; pinyin: Shànghǎi Shànggǎng; Shanghainese pronunciation: [ʂâŋ xài ʂâŋ kàŋ];) or SIPG FC is a professional football club that participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Xuhui, Shanghai, and their home stadium is the Shanghai Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 56,842. Their owners are the Chinese group Shanghai International Port Group (SIPG).
The club was founded on 25 December 2005, as Shanghai Dongya FC (Dongya, Chinese: 东亚; pinyin: Dōngyà; literally: 'East Asia') by former Chinese international footballer coach Xu Genbao. The club used graduates from Genbao Football Base, a football academy also founded by Xu, to form their first team as they made their debut in the third tier of China's football league pyramid in the 2006 league season. They worked their way up to the top tier and finished as league champions for the first time in the 2018 Chinese Super League season.
According to Forbes, Shanghai SIPG F.C. are the third-most valuable football club in China, with a club value of $159 million, and an estimated revenue of $37 million in 2015. According to the annual report of the parent company, the football club had a revenue of CN¥565.7 million in 2015 financial year, as well as net loss of CN¥41.5 million, total assets of CN¥286.8 million, net assets of CN¥59.7 million.Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, and north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:
Mainland Southeast Asia, also known historically as Indochina, comprising parts of Northeast India (Part of India east of Siliguri Corridor), Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar and West Malaysia.
Maritime Southeast Asia, also known historically as Nusantara, the East Indies and Malay Archipelago, comprises the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, Indonesia, East Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, East Timor, Brunei, Christmas Island, and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Taiwan is also included in this grouping by many anthropologists.The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities. The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring almost all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, and northern Luzon of the Philippines. The mountain ranges in Myanmar, Thailand, and peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt, while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have relatively high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.Southeast Asia covers about 4.5 million km2 (1.7 million mi2), which is 10.5% of Asia or 3% of earth's total land area. Its total population is more than 641 million, about 8.5% of the world's population. It is the third most populous geographical region in the world after South Asia and East Asia. The region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups. Ten countries in the region are members of ASEAN, a regional organization established for economic, political, military, educational and cultural integration amongst its members.Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines. The formal institution of SEATO was established on 19 February 1955 at a meeting of treaty partners in Bangkok, Thailand. The organization's headquarters were also in Bangkok. Eight members joined the organization.
Primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia, SEATO is generally considered a failure because internal conflict and dispute hindered general use of the SEATO military; however, SEATO-funded cultural and educational programs left long-standing effects in Southeast Asia. SEATO was dissolved on 30 June 1977 after many members lost interest and withdrew.
|Hanyu Pinyin||Dōngyà or Dōng Yàxìyà|
|Revised Romanization||Dong Asia/Dong Asea/Dong A|
|Revised Hepburn||Higashi Ajia/Tō-A|
|Countries and regions|
|Politics and economics|
|Science and technology|
Places adjacent to East Asia