Earth Day

Earth Day is an annual event celebrated on April 22. Worldwide, various events are held to demonstrate support for environmental protection. First celebrated in 1970, Earth Day now includes events in more than 193 countries,[1] which are coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network.[2]

On Earth Day 2016, the landmark Paris Agreement was signed by the United States, China, and some 120 other countries.[3][4][5] This signing satisfied a key requirement for the entry into force of the historic draft climate protection treaty adopted by consensus of the 195 nations present at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris.

In 1969 at a UNESCO Conference in San Francisco, peace activist John McConnell proposed a day to honor the Earth and the concept of peace, to first be celebrated on March 21, 1970, the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere. This day of nature's equipoise was later sanctioned in a proclamation written by McConnell and signed by Secretary General U Thant at the United Nations. A month later a separate Earth Day was founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in first held on April 22, 1970. Nelson was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom award in recognition of his work.[6] While this April 22 Earth Day was focused on the United States, an organization launched by Denis Hayes, who was the original national coordinator in 1970, took it international in 1990 and organized events in 141 nations.[7][8]

Numerous communities celebrate Earth Week, an entire week of activities focused on the environmental issues that the world faces. In 2017, the March for Science occurred on Earth Day (April 22, 2017) and was followed by the People's Climate Mobilization (April 29, 2017).

Earth Day
Earth Day Flag
Unofficial Earth Day Flag created by John McConnell
Significancesupport for environmental protection
Begins1970
DateApril 22
Next time22 April 2020
Frequencyannual

1969 Santa Barbara oil spill

On January 28, 1969, a well drilled by Union Oil Platform A off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, blew out. More than three million gallons of oil spewed, killing over 10,000 seabirds, dolphins, seals, and sea lions. As a reaction to this disaster, activists were mobilized to create environmental regulation, environmental education, and Earth Day. Among the proponents of Earth Day were the people in the front lines of fighting this disaster, Selma Rubin, Marc McGinnes, and Bud Bottoms, founder of Get Oil Out.[9] Denis Hayes, organizer of Earth Day observance day, said that Senator Gaylord Nelson from Wisconsin was inspired to create Earth Day upon seeing Santa Barbara Channel 800 square-mile oil slick from an airplane.[9][10]

Santa Barbara's Environmental Rights Day 1970

On the first anniversary of the oil blowout, January 28, 1970, Environmental Rights Day was celebrated, where the Declaration of Environmental Rights was read. It had been written by Rod Nash during a boat trip across the Santa Barbara Channel while carrying a copy of Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence.[11] The organizers of Environmental Rights Day, led by Marc McGinnes, had been working closely over a period of several months with Congressman Pete McCloskey (R-CA) to consult on the creation of the National Environmental Policy Act, the first of many new environmental protection laws sparked by the national outcry about the blowout/oil spill and on the Declaration of Environmental Rights. Both McCloskey (Earth Day co-chair with Senator Gaylord Nelson) and Earth Day organizer Denis Hayes, along with Senator Alan Cranston, Paul Ehrlich, David Brower and other prominent leaders, endorsed the Declaration and spoke about it at the Environmental Rights Day conference. According to Francis Sarguis, "the conference was sort of like the baptism for the movement." According to Hayes, this was the first giant crowd he spoke to that "felt passionately, I mean really passionately, about environmental issues." Hayes also thought the conference might be the beginning of a real movement.[12] Nash, Garrett Hardin, McGinnes and others went on to develop the first undergraduate Environmental Studies program of its kind at the University of California at Santa Barbara.[13]

Earth Day 1970

Nixons plant a tree C6311-11a
President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon plant a tree on the White House South Lawn to recognize the first Earth Day.

The first Earth Day celebrations took place in two thousand colleges and universities, roughly ten thousand primary and secondary schools, and hundreds of communities across the United States. More importantly, it "brought 20 million Americans out into the spring sunshine for peaceful demonstrations in favor of environmental reform."[14] It now is observed in 192 countries, and coordinated by the nonprofit Earth Day Network, chaired by the first Earth Day 1970 organizer Denis Hayes, according to whom Earth Day is now "the largest secular holiday in the world, celebrated by more than a billion people every year."[15] Walt Kelly created an anti-pollution poster featuring his comic strip character Pogo with the quotation "We have met the enemy and he is us" to promote the 1970 Earth Day. Environmental groups have sought to make Earth Day into a day of action to change human behavior and provoke policy changes.[16]

New York City

In the winter of 1969–1970, a group of students met at Columbia University to hear Denis Hayes talk about his plans for Earth Day. Among the group were Fred Kent, Pete Grannis, and Kristin and William Hubbard. This group agreed to head up the New York City activities within the national movement. Fred Kent took the lead in renting an office and recruiting volunteers. "The big break came when Mayor Lindsay agreed to shut down Fifth Avenue for the event. A giant cheer went up in the office on that day," according to Kristin Hubbard (now Kristin Alexandre). 'From that time on we used Mayor Lindsay's offices and even his staff. I was Speaker Coordinator but had tremendous help from Lindsay staffer Judith Crichton."

Ed-Muskie-at-Earth-Day-1970-web
U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie speaking at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia on Earth Day, 1970

In addition to shutting down Fifth Avenue, Mayor John Lindsay made Central Park available for Earth Day. In Union Square, New York Times estimated crowds of up to 20,000 people at any given time and, perhaps, as many as over 100,000 over the course of the day.[17] Since Manhattan was also the home of NBC, CBS, ABC, The New York Times, Time, and Newsweek, it provided the best possible anchor for national coverage from their reporters throughout the country.[18]

Philadelphia

U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie was the keynote speaker on Earth Day in Fairmount Park in Philadelphia. Other notable attendees included consumer protection activist and presidential candidate Ralph Nader; Landscape Architect Ian McHarg; Nobel prize-winning Harvard Biochemist, George Wald; U.S. Senate Minority Leader, Hugh Scott; and poet, Allen Ginsberg.

Earth Day 1990

Mobilizing 200 million people in 141 countries and lifting the status of environmental issues onto the world stage, Earth Day activities in 1990 gave a huge boost to recycling efforts worldwide and helped pave the way for the 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. Unlike the first Earth Day in 1970, this 20th Anniversary was waged with stronger marketing tools, greater access to television and radio, and multimillion-dollar budgets.[19]

Two separate groups formed to sponsor Earth Day events in 1990: The Earth Day 20 Foundation, assembled by Edward Furia (Project Director of Earth Week in 1970), and Earth Day 1990, assembled by Denis Hayes (National Coordinator for Earth Day 1970). Senator Gaylord Nelson, the original founder of Earth Day, was honorary chairman for both groups. The two did not combine forces over disagreements about leadership of combined organization and incompatible structures and strategies.[19] Among the disagreements, key Earth Day 20 Foundation organizers were critical of Earth Day 1990 for including on their board Hewlett-Packard, a company that at the time was the second-biggest emitter of chlorofluorocarbons in Silicon Valley and refused to switch to alternative solvents.[19] In terms of marketing, Earth Day 20 had a grassroots approach to organizing and relied largely on locally based groups like the National Toxics Campaign, a Boston-based coalition of 1,000 local groups concerned with industrial pollution. Earth Day 1990 employed strategies including focus group testing, direct mail fund raising, and email marketing.[19]

The Earth Day 20 Foundation highlighted its April 22 activities in George, Washington, near the Columbia River with a live satellite phone call with members of the historic Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb who called from their base camp on Mount Everest to pledge their support for world peace and attention to environmental issues.[20] The Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb was led by Jim Whittaker, the first American to summit Mt. Everest (many years earlier), and marked the first time in history that mountaineers from the United States, Soviet Union, and China had roped together to climb a mountain, let alone Mt. Everest.[20] The group also collected more than two tons of trash (transported down the mountain by support groups along the way) that was left behind on Mount Everest from previous climbing expeditions. The master of ceremonies for the Columbia Gorge event was the TV star, John Ratzenberger, from "Cheers", and the headlining musician was the "Father of Rock and Roll," Chuck Berry.[20]

Warner Bros. Records released an Earth Day-themed single in 1990 entitled "Tomorrow's World", written by Kix Brooks (who would later become one-half of Brooks & Dunn) and Pam Tillis.[21] The song featured vocals from Lynn Anderson, Butch Baker, Shane Barmby, Billy Hill, Suzy Bogguss, Kix Brooks, T. Graham Brown, The Burch Sisters, Holly Dunn, Foster & Lloyd, Vince Gill, William Lee Golden, Highway 101, Shelby Lynne, Johnny Rodriguez, Dan Seals, Les Taylor, Pam Tillis, Mac Wiseman, and Kevin Welch. It charted at number 74 on the Hot Country Songs chart dated May 5, 1990.[22]

Earth Day 2000

Earth Day 2000 combined the ambitious spirit of the first Earth Day with the international grassroots activism of Earth Day 1990. This was the first year that Earth Day used the Internet as its principal organizing tool, and it proved invaluable nationally and internationally. Kelly Evans, a professional political organizer, served as executive director of the 2000 campaign. The event ultimately enlisted more than 5,000 environmental groups outside the United States, reaching hundreds of millions of people in a record 183 countries.[23] Leonardo DiCaprio was the official host for the event,[23] and about 400,000 participants stood in the cold rain during the course of the day.

Subsequent Earth Day events

To turn Earth Day into a sustainable annual event rather than one that occurred every 10 years, Nelson and Bruce Anderson, New Hampshire's lead organizers in 1990, formed Earth Day USA. Building on the momentum created by thousands of community organizers around the world, Earth Day USA coordinated the next five Earth Day celebrations through 1995, including the launch of EarthDay.org. Following the 25th Anniversary in 1995, the coordination baton was handed to Earth Day Network.

As the millennium approached, Hayes agreed to spearhead another campaign, this time focusing on global warming and pushing for clean energy. The April 22 Earth Day in 2000 combined the big-picture feistiness of the first Earth Day with the international grassroots activism of Earth Day 1990. For 2000, Earth Day had the internet to help link activists around the world. By the time April 22 came around, 5,000 environmental groups around the world were on board reaching out to hundreds of millions of people in a record 184 countries. Events varied: A talking drum chain traveled from village to village in Gabon, Africa, for example, while hundreds of thousands of people gathered on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., USA.

Earth Day 2007 was one of the largest Earth Days to date, with many people participating in the activities in thousands of places including Kiev, Ukraine; Caracas, Venezuela; Tuvalu; Manila, Philippines; Togo; Madrid, Spain; London; and New York.

For Earth Day 2017, the Earth Day Network created four toolkits to aid organizations wanting to hold teach-ins to celebrate the theme "Environmental and Climate Literacy."[24] The four toolkits are:

  • Earth Day Action Toolkit: Educating and Activating Communities for Change
  • Environmental Teach-in Toolkit
  • Global Day of Conversation Toolkit for Local Governments
  • MobilizeU: Campus Teach-in Toolkit

2017 also saw the Earth Day Network co-organize the March for Science rally and teach-in at the National Mall in Washington, D.C.[24]

The Earth Day name

According to Nelson, the moniker "Earth Day" was "an obvious and logical name" suggested by a lot of other people in the fall of 1969, including, he writes, both "a friend of mine who had been in the field of public relations" and "a New York advertising executive," Julian Koenig.[25] Koenig, who had been on Nelson's organizing committee in 1969, has said that the idea came to him by the coincidence of his birthday with the day selected, April 22; "Earth Day" rhyming with "birthday," the connection seemed natural.[26][27] Other names circulated during preparations—Nelson himself continued to call it the National Environment Teach-In, but national coordinator Denis Hayes used the term Earth Day in his communications and press coverage of the event was "practically unanimous" in its use of "Earth Day," so the name stuck.[25] The introduction of the name "Earth Day" was also claimed by John McConnell (see "Equinox Earth Day," below).[28]

Earth Day Canada

Paul Tinari Officially Launching the Canadian First Earth Day on September 11, 1980
Paul Tinari officially launched the first Canadian Earth Day on September 11, 1980 – included are Flora MacDonald MP, Ken Keyes and Dr. Ronald Watts

The first Canadian Earth Day was held on Thursday, September 11, 1980, and was organized by Paul D. Tinari, then a graduate student in Engineering Physics/Solar Engineering at Queen's University. Flora MacDonald, then MP for Kingston and the Islands and former Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs, officially opened Earth Day Week on September 6, 1980 with a ceremonial tree planting and encouraged MPs and MPPs across the country to declare a cross-Canada annual Earth Day. The principal activities taking place on the first Earth Day included educational lectures given by experts in various environmental fields, garbage and litter pick-up by students along city roads and highways as well as tree plantings to replace the trees killed by Dutch Elm Disease.[29][30]

History of the Equinox Earth Day (March 20)

The equinoctial Earth Day is celebrated on the March equinox (around March 20) to mark the precise moment of astronomical spring in the Northern Hemisphere, and of astronomical autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. An equinox in astronomy is that point in time (not a whole day) when the Sun is directly above the Earth's equator, occurring around March 20 and September 23 each year. In most cultures, the equinoxes and solstices are considered to start or separate the seasons.

John McConnell[31] first introduced the idea of a global holiday called "Earth Day" at the 1969 UNESCO Conference on the Environment. The first Earth Day proclamation was issued by San Francisco Mayor Joseph Alioto on March 21, 1970. Celebrations were held in various cities, such as San Francisco and in Davis, California with a multi-day street party. UN Secretary-General U Thant supported McConnell's global initiative to celebrate this annual event; and on February 26, 1971, he signed a proclamation to that effect, saying:

May there be only peaceful and cheerful Earth Days to come for our beautiful Spaceship Earth as it continues to spin and circle in frigid space with its warm and fragile cargo of animate life.[32]

United Nations secretary-general Kurt Waldheim observed Earth Day with similar ceremonies on the March equinox in 1972, and the United Nations Earth Day ceremony has continued each year since on the day of the March equinox (the United Nations also works with organizers of the April 22 global event). Margaret Mead added her support for the equinox Earth Day, and in 1978 declared:

Earth Day is the first holy day which transcends all national borders, yet preserves all geographical integrities, spans mountains and oceans and time belts, and yet brings people all over the world into one resonating accord, is devoted to the preservation of the harmony in nature and yet draws upon the triumphs of technology, the measurement of time, and instantaneous communication through space.
Earth Day draws on astronomical phenomena in a new way – which is also the most ancient way – by using the vernal Equinox, the time when the Sun crosses the equator making the length of night and day equal in all parts of the Earth. To this point in the annual calendar, EARTH DAY attaches no local or divisive set of symbols, no statement of the truth or superiority of one way of life over another. But the selection of the March Equinox makes planetary observance of a shared event possible, and a flag which shows the Earth, as seen from space, appropriate.[33]

At the moment of the equinox, it is traditional to observe Earth Day by ringing the Japanese Peace Bell, which was donated by Japan to the United Nations.[34] Over the years, celebrations have occurred in various places worldwide at the same time as the UN celebration. On March 20, 2008, in addition to the ceremony at the United Nations, ceremonies were held in New Zealand, and bells were sounded in California, Vienna, Paris, Lithuania, Tokyo, and many other locations. The equinox Earth Day at the UN is organized by the Earth Society Foundation.[35]

Earth Day ringing the peace bell is celebrated around the world in many towns, ringing the Peace Bell in Vienna,[36] Berlin, and elsewhere. A memorable event took place at the UN in Geneva, celebrating a Minute for Peace ringing the Japanese Shinagawa Peace Bell with the help of the Geneva Friendship Association and the Global Youth Foundation,[37] directly after in deep mourning about the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant catastrophe 10 days before.

Beside the Spring Equinox for the Northern Hemisphere, the observance of the Spring Equinox for the Southern Hemisphere in September is of equal importance. The International Day of Peace[38] is celebrated on September 21, and can thus be considered to accord with the original intentions of John McConnell, U Thant and others.

April 22 observances

Growing eco-activism before Earth Day 1970

In 1968, Morton Hilbert and the U.S. Public Health Service organized the Human Ecology Symposium, an environmental conference for students to hear from scientists about the effects of environmental degradation on human health.[39] This was the beginning of Earth Day. For the next two years, Hilbert and students worked to plan the first Earth Day.[40] In April 1970—along with a federal proclamation from U.S. Sen. Gaylord Nelson—the first Earth Day was held.[41]

Project Survival, an early environmentalism-awareness education event, was held at Northwestern University on January 23, 1970. This was the first of several events held at university campuses across the United States in the lead-up to the first Earth Day. Also, Ralph Nader began talking about the importance of ecology in 1970.

The 1960s had been a very dynamic period for ecology in the US. Pre-1960 grassroots activism against DDT in Nassau County, New York, and widespread opposition to open-air nuclear weapons tests with their global nuclear fallout, had inspired Rachel Carson to write her influential bestseller, Silent Spring (1962).

Significance of April 22

NASA-14147-EarthDay20140422-GlobalSelfie-20140522
Global selfie – Earth Day, April 22, 2014.

Nelson chose the date in order to maximize participation on college campuses for what he conceived as an "environmental teach-in". He determined the week of April 19–25 was the best bet as it did not fall during exams or spring breaks.[42] Moreover, it did not conflict with religious holidays such as Easter or Passover, and was late enough in spring to have decent weather. More students were likely to be in class, and there would be less competition with other mid-week events—so he chose Wednesday, April 22. The day also fell after the anniversary of the birth of noted conservationist John Muir. The National Park Service, John Muir National Historic Site, has a celebration every year on or around Earth Day (April 21, 22 or 23), called Birthday-Earth Day, in recognition of Earth Day and John Muir's contribution to the collective consciousness of environmentalism and conservation.[43]

Unbeknownst to Nelson,[44] April 22, 1970, was coincidentally the 100th anniversary of the birth of Vladimir Lenin, when translated to the Gregorian calendar (which the Soviets adopted in 1918). Time reported that some suspected the date was not a coincidence, but a clue that the event was "a Communist trick", and quoted a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution as saying, "subversive elements plan to make American children live in an environment that is good for them."[45] J. Edgar Hoover, director of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, may have found the Lenin connection intriguing; it was alleged the FBI conducted surveillance at the 1970 demonstrations.[46] The idea that the date was chosen to celebrate Lenin's centenary still persists in some quarters,[47][48] an idea borne out by the similarity with the subbotnik instituted by Lenin in 1920 as days on which people would have to do community service, which typically consisted in removing rubbish from public property and collecting recyclable material. Subbotniks were also imposed on other countries within the compass of Soviet power, including Eastern Europe, and at the height of its power the Soviet Union established a nationwide subbotnik to be celebrated on Lenin's birthday, April 22, which had been proclaimed a national holiday celebrating communism by Nikita Khrushchev in 1955.

Earth Day songs

There are many songs that are performed on Earth Day, that generally fall into two categories: popular songs by contemporary artists not specific to Earth Day that are under copyright or new lyrics adapted to children's songs.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Earth Day International". Archived from the original on March 15, 2010. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  2. ^ "Earth Day Network". Earthday.net. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
  3. ^ "Here's Why the U.S. and China Are Signing the Historic Paris Agreement on Earth Day". whitehouse.gov. March 31, 2016.
  4. ^ McGrath, Matt (March 31, 2016). "Paris Climate Treaty: 'Significant step' as US and China agree to sign". BBC News.
  5. ^ "'Today is an historic day,' says Ban, as 175 countries sign Paris climate accord". United Nations. April 22, 2016.
  6. ^ "Earth Day | Care2 Healthy Living". Care2.com. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
  7. ^ "Staff – The Builtt Foundation". Bullitt.org. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
  8. ^ "The Rumpus Interview With Earth Day Organizer Denis Hayes". The Rumpus.net. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
  9. ^ a b Kate Wheeling; Max Ufberg (April 18, 2017). "'The Ocean Is Boiling': The Complete Oral History of the 1969 Santa Barbara Oil Spill". Pacific Standard. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  10. ^ Jonathan Bastian (April 21, 2017). "How the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill sparked Earth Day". KCRW. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  11. ^ Kate Wheeling; Max Ufberg (April 18, 2017). "'The Ocean Is Boiling': The Complete Oral History of the 1969 Santa Barbara Oil Spill". Pacific Standard. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  12. ^ Kate Wheeling; Max Ufberg (April 18, 2017). "'The Ocean Is Boiling': The Complete Oral History of the 1969 Santa Barbara Oil Spill". Pacific Standard. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  13. ^ McGinnes, J. Marc (May 2, 2014). "Environmental Law Series Links Campus and Community in Santa Barbara". The Journal of Environmental Education. 12 (3): 4–6. doi:10.1080/00958964.1981.10801903.
  14. ^ Jack Lewis (November 1985). "The Birth of EPA". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on September 22, 2006.
  15. ^ "About Earth Day Network". Archived from the original on April 23, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  16. ^ "Earth Day: The History of A Movement". Earth Day Network. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
  17. ^ "Millions Observe Earth Day with a Variety of Activities Across the Country". New York Times: 30. April 23, 1970 – via ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
  18. ^ "The Spirit of the First Earth Day". U.S.Environmental Protection Agency. January – February 1990. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
  19. ^ a b c d "The Business of Earth Day". Nytimes.com. November 12, 1989. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
  20. ^ a b c "Ellensburg Daily Record – Google News Archive Search".
  21. ^ Hurst, Jack (April 22, 1990). "Earth calling. . .Help! Cautious Nashville is starting to turn green". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  22. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2008). Hot Country Songs 1944 to 2008. Record Research, Inc. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-89820-177-2.
  23. ^ a b Gerth, Jeff (April 23, 2000). "Peaceful, Easy Feeling Imbues 30th Earth Day". The New York Times. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  24. ^ a b "Earth Day Network releases teach-in toolkits for Earth Day 2017". Davis Enterprise. April 20, 2017. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
  25. ^ a b Gaylord Nelson Papers, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Box 231, Folder 43.
  26. ^ "Origin Story". This American Life. Episode 383. June 19, 2009. Archived from the original on June 24, 2009. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  27. ^ "Statement by Paul Leventhal on the 25th Anniversary of the Nuclear Control Institute". June 21, 2006. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  28. ^ "Who invented Earth Day?". Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  29. ^ Tait, Teresa (July 23, 1980), "A Little Litter is Too Much", Kingston This Week.
  30. ^ Wright, Sylvia (July 1980), "Canada's First Earth Day Scheduled for Sept. 11", The Kingston Whig Standard.
  31. ^ "EarthSite". "EarthSite". Retrieved April 22, 2010.
  32. ^ "Earth Day 2004". Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  33. ^ Margaret Mead, "Earth Day," EPA Journal, March 1978.
  34. ^ "Japanese Peace Bell". UN.org. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  35. ^ "Earth Society Foundation". "Earth Society Foundation". Retrieved April 22, 2010.
  36. ^ "Earth Day 2010". Dorf Wiki. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  37. ^ "Seeds of Change - Heiner Benking's Blog - quergeist.info". Newciv.org. March 21, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  38. ^ "International Day of Peace, 21 September 2012". Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  39. ^ "Bentley Historical Library Finding Aids". Quod.lib.umich.edu. October 18, 1976. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
  40. ^ "Historical Timeline – About UM SPH". Sph.umich.edu. Archived from the original on November 9, 2001. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
  41. ^ "Earth Day co-founder Morton S. Hilbert dies". Ns.umich.edu. January 5, 1999. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
  42. ^ "A proposal reprinted across the country". Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies. April 18, 2010. Archived from the original on March 26, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  43. ^ [1]
  44. ^ Gaylord Nelson; Susan Campbell; Paul R. Wozniak (October 4, 2002). Beyond Earth Day: fulfilling the promise. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-299-18040-9. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  45. ^ "A Memento Mori to the Earth". Time. May 4, 1970. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  46. ^ Finney, John W. (April 15, 1971). "Muski says FBI spied at rallies on '70 Earth Day". The New York Times. p. 1.
  47. ^ "Of Leo and Lenin: Happy Earth Day from the Religious Right". Church & State. 53 (5): 20. May 2000.
  48. ^ Marriott, Alexander (April 21, 2004). "This Earth Day Celebrate Vladimir Lenin's Birthday!". Capitalism Magazine. Retrieved April 22, 2007.

External links

Earth Day

Equinoctial Earth Day

April

April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, the fifth in the early Julian, the first of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the second of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.

April is commonly associated with the season of autumn in parts of the Southern Hemisphere, and spring in parts of the Northern Hemisphere, where it is the seasonal equivalent to October in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa.

April 22

April 22 is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 253 days remain until the end of the year.

Denis Hayes

Denis Allen Hayes (born August 29, 1944) is an environmental advocate and advocate for solar power. He rose to prominence in 1970 as the coordinator for the first Earth Day.

Hayes founded the Earth Day Network and expanded it to more than 180 nations. During the Carter Administration, Hayes became head of the Solar Energy Research Institute (now known as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory), but left this position when the Reagan Administration cut funding for the program. Since 1992, Hayes has been president of the Bullitt Foundation in Washington and continues to be a leader in environmental and energy policy. In 2015, he is completing a fellowship at the Robert Bosch Academy to write a book on solar energy.Hayes has received the national Jefferson Awards Medal for Outstanding Public Service as well as many other awards. Time Magazine named him as "Hero of the Planet" in 1999.

Disneynature

Disneynature is an independent film unit of Walt Disney Studios that produces nature documentary films. The production company was founded on April 21, 2008, and is headquartered in Paris, France, and Burbank, California, United States.

The company's nature films are consistently budgeted between $5 million to $10 million, with their distribution and marketing handled by Walt Disney Studios. Many of its films are released on Earth Day.

Earth (Lil Dicky song)

"Earth" is a song by American rapper Lil Dicky. It was released on April 19, 2019, three days prior to Earth Day. All proceeds from the song will be donated to the Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation.

Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb

The Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb was an expedition to reach the summit of Mount Everest during Earth Week 1990 led by Jim Whittaker, the first American to climb Mount Everest (in 1963), and marked the first time in history that mountaineers from the United States, Soviet Union and China had roped together to climb a mountain, let alone Mount Everest.The expedition's name was from its partnership with the Earth Day 20 Foundation, an organization celebrating the 20th anniversary of Earth Day that was led by Edward Furia. The climbers highlighted their expedition with a live satellite phone call to President George H.W. Bush as well as to Furia, Earth Day 20 organizers and thousands of supporters gathered in George, Washington, near the Columbia River on April 22, 1990. Whittaker called from base camp to pledge his support for world peace and attention to environmental issues.The group also collected over two tons of trash (transported down the mountain by support groups along the way) that was left behind on Mount Everest from previous climbing expeditions.

Environmentalism

Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter. While environmentalism focuses more on the environmental and nature-related aspects of green ideology and politics, ecology combines the ideology of social ecology and environmentalism. Ecology is more commonly used in continental European languages while ‘environmentalism’ is more commonly used in English but the words have slightly different connotations.

Environmentalism advocates the preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment and critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity, ecology, and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly.

At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are often represented by the colour green, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries for the tactic known as greenwashing.

Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism, which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, and portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to climate change or opposing human advancement.

Gaylord Nelson

Gaylord Anton Nelson (June 4, 1916 – July 3, 2005) was an American politician and environmentalist from Wisconsin who served as a United States Senator and governor. A Democrat, he was the founder of Earth Day, which launched a new wave of environmental activism.

List of environmental protests

This is a list of notable environmental protests and campaigns:

2010 Xinfa aluminum plant protest

Anti-WAAhnsinns Festival

Camp for Climate Action

Campaign against Climate Change

Climate Rush

Earth Day (continuing from 1970)

Earth First!

Earthlife Africa

Extinction Rebellion

Global Day of Action

Gurindji Strike

Hands off our Forest

Homes before Roads

Kupa Piti Kungka Tjuta

Love Canal protests

March Against Monsanto

March for Science (2017)

March for Science Portland

Nevada Desert Experience

People's Climate March (2014)

People's Climate March (2017)

Plane Mad

Plane Stupid

Qidong protest

Roșia Montană protests

Save Manapouri Campaign

Say Yes demonstrations

School strike for climate

Shifang protest

Stop Climate Chaos

Standing Rock Indian Reservation vs. DAPL

Lorna Salzman

Lorna Salzman (Lorna Jackson) has been an American environmental activist, writer, lecturer, and organizer since the mid-1960s. She was a candidate for the 2004 presidential nomination of the Green Party of the United States.

Salzman is a graduate of Cornell University. She is a member of the New York Academy of Sciences, and in 2000 she received the international Earth Day Award from the Earth Society Foundation for her committed environmental work.

She was married to Eric Salzman until his death in 2017. Their two daughters are poet Eva Salzman and composer/songwriter Stephanie Salzman.

March for Science

The March for Science (formerly known as the Scientists' March on Washington) is an international series of rallies and marches held on Earth Day. The inaugural march was held on April 22, 2017 in Washington, D.C., and more than 600 other cities across the world. According to organizers, the march is a non-partisan movement to celebrate science and the role it plays in everyday lives. The goals of the marches and rallies were to emphasize that science upholds the common good and to call for evidence-based policy in the public's best interest. The March for Science organizers, using crowd science techniques, estimated global attendance at 1.07 million, with 100,000 participants estimated for the main March in Washington, D.C., 70,000 in Boston, 60,000 in Chicago, 50,000 in Los Angeles, 50,000 in San Francisco, 14,000 in Phoenix, and 11,000 in Berlin.Organizers announced plans for a second March for Science to be held April 14, 2018. More than 70 satellite events around the world have already registered to participate in the 2nd annual event, including New York City, Abuja, Nigeria, Baraut, IndiaThe March for Science organizers and supporters say that support for science should be nonpartisan. The march is being organized by scientists skeptical of the agenda of the Trump administration, and critical of Trump administration policies widely viewed as hostile to science. The march's website states that an "American government that ignores science to pursue ideological agendas endangers the world."Particular issues of science policy raised by the marchers include support for evidence-based policymaking, as well as support for government funding for scientific research, government transparency, and government acceptance of the scientific consensus on climate change and evolution. The march is part of growing political activity by American scientists in the wake of the November 2016 elections and the 2017 Women's March.Robert N. Proctor, a historian of science at Stanford University, stated that the March for Science was "pretty unprecedented in terms of the scale and breadth of the scientific community that's involved" and was rooted in "a broader perception of a massive attack on sacred notions of truth that are sacred to the scientific community."

National Mall

The National Mall is a landscaped park within the National Mall and Memorial Parks, an official unit of the United States National Park System. It is located near the downtown area of Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States, and is administered by the National Park Service (NPS) of the United States Department of the Interior.The term National Mall commonly includes areas that are also officially part of neighboring West Potomac Park and Constitution Gardens to the southwest. The term is often taken to refer to the entire area between the Lincoln Memorial on the west and east to the United States Capitol grounds, with the Washington Monument dividing the area slightly west of its midpoint. A smaller designation sometimes referred to as the National Mall (proper) excludes both the Capitol grounds and the Washington Monument grounds, applying only to an area between them.The National Mall contains and borders a number of museums of the Smithsonian Institution, art galleries, cultural institutions, and various memorials, sculptures, and statues. The park receives approximately 24 million visitors each year.

New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) is a government agency in the U.S. state of New Jersey that is responsible for managing the state's natural resources and addressing issues related to pollution. NJDEP now has a staff of approximately 2,850.

The department was created on April 22, 1970, America's first official Earth Day, making it the third state in the country to combine its environmental activities into a single, unified agency, with about 1,400 employees in five divisions, charged with responsibility for environmental protection and conservation efforts. Governor William T. Cahill appointed Richard J. Sullivan as the first commissioner.In December 2017, Catherine McCabe was nominated by New Jersey governor-elect Phil Murphy to serve as Commissioner of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.

Out in the Country

"Out in the Country" is a song written by Paul Williams and Roger Nichols and performed by Three Dog Night. The song was produced by Richard Podolor, and was featured on their 1970 album, It Ain't Easy. In the US, "Out in the Country" peaked at number 11 on the US adult contemporary chart, and number 15 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart on October 17,1970. Outside the US, "Out in the Country" reached number 9 in Canada,

The song, released in the first year of Earth Day, was an early environmental advocacy record. The lyrics were about finding solace outside the city, "before the breathing air is gone..."

SpongeBob's Last Stand

"SpongeBob's Last Stand" is the eighth episode of the seventh season and the 134th overall episode of the American animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants. It originally aired on Nickelodeon in the United States on April 22, 2010, in celebration of Earth Day.

The series follows the adventures and endeavors of the title character and his various friends in the underwater city of Bikini Bottom. In this episode, SpongeBob and Patrick protest the construction of a highway that would destroy Jellyfish Fields.

The episode was written by Aaron Springer, Steven Banks, and Derek Iversen, and the animation was directed by Andrew Overtoom and Tom Yasumi. Upon release, the episode met positive reviews. On March 16, 2010, the episode became available on DVD.

The Earth Day Special

The Earth Day Special is a television special revolving around Earth Day that aired on ABC on April 22, 1990. Sponsored by Time Warner, the two-hour special featured an ensemble cast addressing concerns about pollution, deforestation, and other environmental ills.

Several cutaways are made to famous fictional characters watching events unfold, and discussing what can be done to save the planet.

Todd the Dinosaur

Todd the Dinosaur written and drawn by Patrick Roberts, is an American gag-a-day comic strip about a 7 year old Tyrannosaurus attending elementary school. Being only second graders, his classmates accept Todd as they would anyone else. The strip first appeared in 2001 in The Oklahoman and is published by King Features Syndicate. It has also appeared in Record-Journal, Herald News and San Francisco Chronicle. It participated in the second Earth Day comic event of King Features. During one day, 37 of their creators used their comics to advance an environmental theme.

January
February
March
April
May
June–July–August
June
July
September
October
November
December
Varies (year round)
United States Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States
January
January–February
February
American Heart Month
Black History Month
February–March
March
Irish-American Heritage Month
National Colon Cancer Awareness Month
Women's History Month
March–April
April
Confederate History Month
May
Asian Pacific American Heritage Month
Jewish American Heritage Month
June
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and
Transgender Pride Month
July
July–August
August
September
Prostate Cancer Awareness Month
September–October
Hispanic Heritage Month
October
Breast Cancer Awareness Month
Disability Employment Awareness Month
Filipino American History Month
LGBT History Month
October–November
November
Native American Indian Heritage Month
December
Varies (year round)

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.