Earned run

In baseball, an earned run is any run that was fully enabled by the offensive team's production in the face of competent play from the defensive team. Conversely, an unearned run is a run that would not have been scored without the aid of an error or a passed ball committed by the defense.

An unearned run counts just as much as any other run for the purpose of determining the score of the game. However, it is "unearned" in that it was, in a sense, "given away" by the defensive team.

Both total runs and earned runs are tabulated as part of a pitcher's statistics. However, earned runs are specially denoted because of their use in calculating a pitcher's earned run average (ERA), the number of earned runs allowed by the pitcher per nine innings pitched (i.e., averaged over a regulation game). Thus, in effect, the pitcher is held personally accountable for earned runs, while the responsibility for unearned runs is shared with the rest of the team.

To determine whether a run is earned, the official scorer must reconstruct the inning as it would have occurred without errors or passed balls.


If no errors and no passed balls occur during the inning, all runs scored are automatically earned (assigned responsible to the pitcher). Also, in some cases, an error can be rendered harmless as the inning progresses. For example, a runner on first base advances to second on a passed ball and the next batter walks. Since the runner would now have been at second anyway, the passed ball no longer has any effect on the earned/unearned calculation. On the other hand, a batter/runner may make his entire circuit around the bases without the aid of an error, yet the run would be counted as unearned if an error prevented the third out from being made before he crossed the plate to score.

An error made by the pitcher in fielding at his position is counted the same as an error by any other player.

A run is counted as unearned when:

  • A batter reaches base on an error (including catcher's interference) that would have retired the batter except for the error, and later scores a run in that inning by any means.
  • A batter hits a foul fly ball that is dropped by a fielder for an error, extending the at bat, and later scores a run in that inning by any means. In this case, the manner in which the batter reached base becomes irrelevant.
  • A baserunner remains on base as the result of an error on a fielder's choice play that would put the baserunner out except for the error, and subsequently scores a run in that inning by any means.
  • A batter reaches first base on a passed ball (but not a wild pitch) and subsequently scores by any means.
  • A baserunner scores by any means after the third out would have been made except for an error other than catcher's interference.
  • A batter reaches base on a fielder's choice which removes a baserunner who has reached base safely on an error or has remained on base as the result of an error, reaching first base on a passed ball on a called or swinging third strike, or remained on base on an error on a fielders' choice play that should have retired him, and subsequently scores.
  • A batter or runner advances one or more bases on an error or passed ball (but not a wild pitch) and scores on a play that would otherwise not have provided the opportunity to score.

While the inning is still being played, the second and last scenario can cause a temporary situation where a run has already scored, but its earned/unearned status is not yet certain. Under the last circumstance, for example, with two outs, a runner on third base scores on a passed ball. For the time being, the run is unearned since the runner should still be at third. If the batter strikes out to end the inning, it will stay that way. If the batter gets a base hit, which would have scored the runner anyway, the run now becomes earned.

Under the second circumstance, if there are runners on base and a batter hits a foul fly ball that is dropped, and then bats in the runners on base through a base hit (including a home run), the runs are unearned for the time being, as the runners should not have advanced. If the results of the remaining at bats in the inning would not have scored the runners, the runs remain unearned. However, if results of subsequent at bats would have scored the runs anyway, the runs would count as earned, unless they only would have scored as a result of a subsequent error or passed ball.

A runner who reaches on catcher's interference and subsequently scores with two outs scores an unearned run, but baserunners who subsequently score after the runner who has reached on catcher's interference exclusively on clean plays score earned runs; the baserunner cannot be assumed to have been put out except for the error. (Rule 10.16(4)).

Neither the use of a pinch-runner to replace a baserunner who represents an unearned run nor the use of a pinch-hitter to continue the turn at bat of a batter who would be out except for an error transforms a run scored by such a person or his successors on base from an unearned run to an earned run.

Pitching changes

When pitchers are changed in the middle of an inning, and one or more errors have already occurred, it is possible to have a run charged as earned against a specific pitcher, but unearned to the team. The simplest example is when the defensive team records two outs and makes an error on a play that would have been the third out. A new pitcher comes into the game, and the next batter hits a home run. The runner who reached on the error comes around to score, and his run is unearned to both the prior pitcher and the team. However, the run scored by the batter is counted as earned against the relief pitcher, but unearned to the team (since there should have already been three outs). Had the team not switched pitchers, neither run would be counted as an earned run because that pitcher should have already been out of that inning.

A pitcher who is relieved mid-inning may be charged with earned runs equal to the number of batters who reached base while he was pitching, even if the specific batters he faced do not score. The batters he put on base may be erased by fielder's choice plays after he has been relieved by another pitcher, but if earned runs are scored in the inning the original pitcher is liable for as many earned runs as the number of batters he put on base. Example:

On April 15, 2017, Detroit's Justin Verlander allowed the first two Cleveland batters in the 5th inning to reach base on base hits; Verlander was then relieved by Shane Greene.[1] Greene walked the next batter to load the bases. The next batter hit a grounder and Miguel Cabrera threw home to force out the runner on third in a fielder's choice, so the bases remained loaded with one out. Greene struck out the next batter for the second out. Carlos Santana then hit a single that scored the runners from second and third (only one of whom was put on base by Verlander), and the runner from first was thrown out at the plate to end the inning. Since Verlander allowed two batters to reach base he was charged with two earned runs, even though only one of the two specific batters he faced actually scored.

When a pitching change occurs, the new pitcher is said to "inherit" any runners that are on base at the time, and if they later score, those runs are charged (earned or unearned) to the prior pitcher. Most box scores now list inherited runners, and the number that scored, as a statistic for the relief pitcher.

See also


  1. ^ "Cleveland Indians 13, Detroit Tigers 6". Retrosheet. April 15, 2017.

External links

1888 New York Giants season

The 1888 New York Giants season was the franchise's 6th season.

Claiming six future Hall of Famers (Roger Connor, Mickey Welch, Buck Ewing, Tim Keefe, Jim O'Rourke, and John Montgomery Ward), the team won the National League pennant by nine games and defeated the St. Louis Browns in the "World's Championship."

Keefe led the league in several major statistical categories, including wins, winning percentage, strikeouts, and earned run average.

1905 Philadelphia Athletics season

The 1905 Philadelphia Athletics season was a season in American baseball. The team finished first in the American League with a record of 92 wins and 56 losses, winning their second pennant. They went on to face the New York Giants in the 1905 World Series, losing 4 games to 1.

The pitching staff featured three future Hall of Famers: Rube Waddell, Eddie Plank, and Chief Bender. Waddell easily won the pitching triple crown in 1905, with 27 wins, 287 strikeouts, and a 1.48 earned run average.

1907 Chicago White Sox season

The 1907 Chicago White Sox led the American League for much of the first half but finished third.

Chicago allowed the fewest runs in the AL. The pitching staff was led by Ed Walsh, who paced the circuit in innings pitched (422.1), complete games (37), and earned run average (1.60).

1910 New York Giants season

The 1910 New York Giants season was the franchise's 28th season. The team finished in second place in the National League with a 91-63 record, 13 games behind the Chicago Cubs.

The Giants offense scored the most runs in the NL. Fred Snodgrass had his breakthrough season, finishing fourth in the batting race and also leading the team in on-base percentage and OPS.

Their pitching staff was once again led by Hall of Famer Christy Mathewson, who won a league-best 27 games. His 1.89 earned run average ranked third.

Dick Donovan

Richard Edward Donovan (December 27, 1927 – January 6, 1997) was a Major League Baseball pitcher. He pitched for the Boston Braves (1950–1952), Detroit Tigers (1954), Chicago White Sox (1955–1960), Washington Senators (1961), and the Cleveland Indians (1962–1965). A Boston native, he graduated from North Quincy High School and served in the United States Navy during and after World War II.

Donovan batted left-handed and threw right-handed, stood 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) tall and weighed 190 pounds (86 kg). During a 15-year major league career, he compiled 122 wins, 880 strikeouts, and a 3.67 earned run average, with 101 complete games, 25 shutouts and five saves. In 2,017​1⁄3 career innings pitched, he allowed 1,988 hits and 495 bases on balls.

Donovan, as a member of the White Sox, led the 1957 American League in winning percentage, posting a 16–6 (.727) won-lost record. He pitched in the 1959 World Series against the Los Angeles Dodgers. He lost his only World Series start in Game 3, but saved Game 5 for the White Sox, and pitched in relief in Game 6, allowing two hits, three earned runs, walked one, and struck out none. In his only postseason appearance, he compiled 0 wins, 1 loss, 1 save, 5 strikeouts, and a 5.40 earned run average. At the plate in the Series, he went 1-3 (.333 batting average).

His 1962 season was his career-best, when he won 20 games in 34 games started with 16 complete games and five shutouts in 250​1⁄3 innings pitched, all of them new career-highs, for Cleveland. The previous season, 1961, had seen Donovan lead the American League in earned run average with a stellar 2.40 mark in 168​2⁄3 innings for the first-year expansion edition of the Senators.

Earned run average

In baseball statistics, earned run average (ERA) is the average of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched (i.e. the traditional length of a game). It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors (including pitchers' defensive errors) are recorded as unearned runs and omitted from ERA calculations.

Eppa Rixey

Eppa Rixey Jr. (May 3, 1891 – February 28, 1963), nicknamed "Jephtha", was an American left-handed pitcher who played 21 seasons for the Philadelphia Phillies and Cincinnati Reds in Major League Baseball from 1912 to 1933. Rixey was best known as the National League's leader in career victories for a left-hander with 266 wins until Warren Spahn surpassed his total in 1959.

Rixey attended the University of Virginia where he was a star pitcher. He was discovered by umpire Cy Rigler, who convinced him to sign directly with the Phillies, bypassing minor league baseball entirely. His time with the Phillies was marked by inconsistency. He won 22 games in 1916, but also led the league in losses twice. In 1915, the Phillies played in the World Series, and Rixey lost in his only appearance. After being traded to the Reds prior to the 1921 season, he won 20 or more games in a season three times, including a league-leading 25 in 1922, and posted eight consecutive winning seasons. His skills were declining by the 1929 season, when his record was 10–13 with a 4.16 earned run average. He pitched another four seasons before retiring after the 1933 season.

An intellectual who taught high school Latin during the off-season, earning the nickname "Jephtha" for his southern drawl, Rixey was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1963 but died a month after his election.

George McQuillan

George Watt McQuillan (May 1, 1885 – March 30, 1940), born in Brooklyn, New York, was a pitcher for the Philadelphia Phillies (1907–10 and 1915–16), Cincinnati Reds (1911), Pittsburgh Pirates (1913–15) and Cleveland Indians (1918).

In 1907 he set one of the longest-lived records in major league history when he pitched 25 innings before giving up the first earned run of his career. Although others have pitched more consecutive innings without an earned run, until July 2008 no one had gone longer without prior major league experience. The record stood for 101 years before being broken by Oakland Athletics reliever Brad Ziegler, who extended the record to 39​1⁄3 innings.

McQuillan's extraordinary success as a rookie was no fluke: he posted a 1.69 ERA in his first four seasons, comprising more than 800 innings pitched; during those years his Adjusted ERA+ (the ratio of the league's ERA, adjusted to the pitcher's ballpark, to that of the pitcher) was a staggering 164. In 1910, he would have led the majors with an Adjusted ERA+ of 195 had he pitched only an additional 1​2⁄3 innings to meet the minimum requirement of 154 innings pitched.

McQuillan helped the Phillies win the 1915 National League Pennant. He is still the Philadelphia Phillies Career Leader in ERA (1.79), WHIP (1.02) and Hits Allowed/9IP (6.93). He currently ranks 23rd on the MLB Career ERA List (2.38), 37th on the WHIP List (1.131) and 86th on the Hits Allowed/9IP List (7.89).

In 10 seasons he had an 85–89 Win–Loss record, 273 Games (173 Started), 105 Complete Games, 17 Shutouts, 76 Games Finished, 14 Saves, 1,576 ⅓ Innings Pitched, 1,382 Hits Allowed, 577 Runs Allowed, 417 Earned Runs Allowed, 23 Home Runs Allowed, 401 Walks Allowed, 590 Strikeouts, 30 Hit Batsmen, 16 Wild Pitches, 6,297 Batters Faced, a 2.38 ERA and 1.131 WHIP.

McQuillan's major league career was cut short due to his chronic alcoholism and infection by syphilis. However, he continued to play and coach in the minor leagues and semi-pro ball. He died in Columbus, Ohio at the age of 54.

Goals against average

Goals Against Average (GAA) is a statistic used in field hockey, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer and water polo that is the mean of goals allowed per game by a goaltender/goalkeeper (depending on sport). GAA is analogous to a baseball pitcher's earned run average (ERA). In Japanese, the same translation (防御率) is used for both GAA and ERA, because of this.

For ice hockey, the goals against average statistic is the number of goals a goaltender allows per 60 minutes of playing time. It is calculated by taking the number of goals against, multiply that by 60 (minutes) and then dividing by the number of minutes played. When calculating GAA, overtime goals and time on ice are included, whereas empty net and shootout goals are not. It is typically given to two decimal places.

The top goaltenders in the National Hockey League currently have a GAA of about 1.85-2.10, although the measure of a good GAA changes as different playing styles come and go. The top goaltenders in the National Lacrosse League however, currently have a GAA of about 10.00, and the top 2005 Western Lacrosse Association goaltenders had a GAA of about 9.00. At their best, elite NCAA water polo goalies have a GAA between 3.00 and 5.00.

Since the statistic is highly dependent on the team playing in front of a goalie, save percentage is usually considered a more accurate measure of a goaltender's skill, especially in ice hockey and lacrosse, as it takes into account the number of shots the goaltender has faced. In soccer, since it is considered a part of the goalkeeper's job to coach defenders on proper positioning to prevent opponents' shots, GAA is more commonly used to evaluate goalkeepers than save percentage.

Harry Brecheen

Harry David Brecheen (October 14, 1914 – January 17, 2004), nicknamed "The Cat", was an American left-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball who played most of his career for the St. Louis Cardinals. In the late 1940s he was among the team's stars, in 1946 becoming the first left-hander ever to win three games in a single World Series, and the only pitcher ever to win consecutive World Series games. He later leading the National League in several categories in 1948.

His career World Series earned run average of 0.83 was a major league record from 1946 to 1976. From 1951 to 1971 he held the Cardinals franchise record for career strikeouts by a left-hander, and he also retired with the fourth-highest fielding percentage among pitchers (.983), then the top mark among left-handers.

Jim Perry (baseball)

James Evan Perry, Jr. (born October 30, 1935) is an American former Major League Baseball pitcher. He pitched from 1959–1975 for four teams. During a 17-year baseball career, Perry compiled 215 wins, 1,576 strikeouts, and a 3.45 earned run average.

List of Major League Baseball annual ERA leaders

In baseball, earned run average (ERA) is a statistic used to evaluate pitchers, calculated as the mean of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched. A pitcher is assessed an earned run for each run scored by a baserunner who reached base while batting against that pitcher, whether by hit, base on balls or "walk", or being hit by a pitched ball; an earned run can be charged after the pitcher is relieved if he allows the runner before leaving the game. Runs scored by players who reach base on errors, passed balls, or catcher interference under special circumstances are treated as unearned runs, and do not count towards the pitcher's ERA.Major League Baseball recognizes the player in each league with the lowest earned run average each season. The first ERA champion in the National League was George Bradley; in the National League's inaugural 1876 season, Bradley posted a 1.23 ERA for the St. Louis Brown Stockings, allowing 78 earned runs in 573 innings pitched. The American League was established in 1901, and Hall of Fame pitcher Cy Young led that league with a 1.62 ERA for the Boston Americans during the 1901 season.Over the course of his 17-year major league career, Lefty Grove led the American League in ERA nine times, with a career single-season low of 2.06 for the 1931 Philadelphia Athletics. Roger Clemens has won the second-most ERA titles, capturing six in the American League and one in the National League. Sandy Koufax led the National League in ERA for five consecutive seasons (1962–1966); Koufax' five awards are the most won consecutively by any player and are tied for the most awards by a player in the National League with Christy Mathewson and Clayton Kershaw. In the American League, Walter Johnson also won five ERA titles, and Pedro Martínez has won a total of five (four American League and one National League) with two different teams.The most recent ERA champions are Blake Snell in the American League and Jacob deGrom in the National League.

The lowest single-season ERA in league history was posted by Tim Keefe, whose 0.86 ERA in 105 innings pitched for the National League's Troy Trojans in 1880 led his closest competitor by .52 runs. In the American League, Dutch Leonard's 0.96 ERA is a single-season record. Keefe and Leonard are the only two pitchers ever to allow less than one run per nine innings pitched in a single season. The widest margin of victory for an ERA champion is 1.96 runs, achieved when Martínez' 1.74 ERA led Clemens' 3.70 in the American League during the 2000 season. The largest margin of victory in the National League is 1.26 runs—Dazzy Vance's 2.61 ERA over Carl Hubbell's 3.87 in 1930. The smallest margin of victory for an ERA champion is .009 runs. Although the statistic is traditionally recorded to two decimal places by most sources, the 1988 American League title was decided by a margin of less than one hundredth of a run when Allan Anderson's ERA of 2.446 (55 earned runs in ​202 1⁄3 innings) bested Teddy Higuera's 2.455 mark (62 earned runs in ​227 1⁄3 innings). Other contests decided by one hundredth or less include Luis Tiant's 1.91 ERA ahead of Gaylord Perry's 1.92 in 1972 and Mark Fidrych (2.34) over Vida Blue (2.35) in 1976.

List of Major League Baseball career ERA leaders

In baseball statistics, earned run average (ERA) is the mean of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched (i.e. the traditional length of a game). It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors (including pitchers' defensive errors) are recorded as unearned runs and are not used to determine ERA.

This is a list of the top 100 players in career earned run average, who have thrown at least 1,000 innings.

Ed Walsh holds the MLB earned run average record with a 1.816. Addie Joss (1.887) and Jim Devlin (1.896) are the only other pitchers with a career earned run average under 2.000.

Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award

In Major League Baseball, the Rookie of the Year Award is annually given to one player from each league as voted on by the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA). The award was established in 1940 by the Chicago chapter of the BBWAA, which selected an annual winner from 1940 through 1946. The award became national in 1947; Jackie Robinson, the Brooklyn Dodgers' second baseman, won the inaugural award. One award was presented for both leagues in 1947 and 1948; since 1949, the honor has been given to one player each in the National and American League. Originally, the award was known as the J. Louis Comiskey Memorial Award, named after the Chicago White Sox owner of the 1930s. The award was renamed the Jackie Robinson Award in July 1987, 40 years after Jackie Robinson broke the baseball color line.

Of the 140 players named Rookie of the Year (as of 2016), 16 have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame—Jackie Robinson, five American League players, and ten others from the National League. The award has been shared twice: once by Butch Metzger and Pat Zachry of the National League in 1976; and once by John Castino and Alfredo Griffin of the American League in 1979. Members of the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers have won the most awards of any franchise (with 18), twice the total of the New York Yankees, and members of the Philadelphia and Oakland Athletics (eight), who have produced the most in the American League. Fred Lynn and Ichiro Suzuki are the only two players who have been named Rookie of the Year and Most Valuable Player in the same year, and Fernando Valenzuela is the only player to have won Rookie of the Year and the Cy Young Award in the same year. Sam Jethroe is the oldest player to have won the award, at age 32, 33 days older than 2000 winner Kazuhiro Sasaki (also 32). Shohei Ohtani of the Los Angeles Angels and Ronald Acuña Jr. of the Atlanta Braves are the most recent winners.

Mike Moore (baseball)

Michael Wayne Moore (born November 26, 1959), is a former Major League Baseball pitcher.

In college Moore pitched for Oral Roberts University, going 28-11 with an ERA of 2.64. The Seattle Mariners drafted him with the first pick overall in the 1981 MLB amateur draft. During a 14-year baseball career, Moore pitched for the Mariners (1982–1988), Oakland Athletics (1989–1992) and the Detroit Tigers (1993–1995).

He made his Major League Baseball debut on April 11, 1982, and played his final game on August 31, 1995. His career concluded with a regular season win-loss record of 161-176 with a 4.39 earned run average, 79 complete games, and 16 shutouts in 450 games pitched (2,831.7 innings pitched). Moore was elected to the American League All-Star team in 1989 and finished third in the Cy Young Award voting.

Moore played for the Athletics in two World Series. He was a member of the A's team that swept the San Francisco Giants in the 1989 World Series, starting and winning two of the four games, and hitting a double as well. He was also on the A's team that lost to the Cincinnati Reds in the 1990 World Series. In 5 postseason series, Moore compiled a 3-2 won-loss record with a 3.29 earned run average.

Nippon Professional Baseball Most Valuable Player Award

The Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award (最優秀選手, Saiyūshūsenshu) is an honor given annually in baseball to two outstanding players in Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB), one each for the Central League and Pacific League.

Each league's award is voted on by national baseball writers. Each voter places a vote for first, second, and third place among the players of each league. The formula used to calculate the final scores is a weighted sum of the votes. The player with the highest score in each league wins the award.The first recipient of the award was Eiji Sawamura, and the most recent winners are Alex Ramírez, from the Central League, and Yu Darvish, from the Pacific League. In 1940, Victor Starffin became the first player to win the award consecutively and multiple times. Eiji Sawamura and Kazuhisa Inao are the youngest players to receive the awards in 1937 and 1957, respectively, at the ages of 20. In 1988, Hiromitsu Kadota became the oldest player to receive the award at the age of 40.The most recent winners of the award are Yoshihiro Maru of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp and Hotaka Yamakawa of the Saitama Seibu Lions.

Ron Villone

Ronald Thomas Villone, Jr. (born January 16, 1970) is a former Major League Baseball left-handed relief pitcher. Villone

played for 12 teams in his career, tied for 3rd all time with pitcher Mike Morgan and outfielder Matt Stairs, and trailing only Octavio Dotel and Edwin Jackson.Born in Englewood, New Jersey, Villone grew up in Bergenfield, New Jersey.

Slim Sallee

Harry Franklin Sallee (February 3, 1885 – March 23, 1950) was a professional baseball player. He was a left-handed pitcher over parts of fourteen seasons (1908–1921) with the St. Louis Cardinals, New York Giants and Cincinnati Reds. For his career, he compiled a 174–143 record in 476 appearances, with a 2.56 earned run average and 836 strikeouts. In Cardinals' franchise history, Sallee ranks 3rd all-time in earned run average (2.67), 7th in innings pitched (1905.3), 8th in games started (215) and wins (106, tied with Adam Wainwright), and 7th in losses (107).

Sallee pitched in two World Series, both against the Chicago White Sox, and was a member of the victorious Reds in the infamous "Black Sox" 1919 World Series. He produced the best season of his career for the 1919 Reds, going 21–7 with a 2.06 earned run average. He lost a World Series to the White Sox as a member of the 1917 Giants, starting Game 1 and losing 2-1 to Sox ace Eddie Cicotte in Chicago, driving in his team's only run. In World Series play, Sallee compiled a 1–3 record in four appearances, with a 3.45 earned run average and six strikeouts. Also in 1919, Sallee became just the second pitcher (at that time) to have more wins than walks in a season. Christy Mathewson did it twice (1913, 1914) and Bret Saberhagen accomplished this feat in 1994 with the New York Mets.

Sallee was born and later died in Higginsport, Ohio at the age of 65. He was buried at Confidence Cemetery in Georgetown, Ohio.

Tyler Skaggs

Tyler Wayne Skaggs (July 13, 1991 – July 1, 2019) was an American professional baseball starting pitcher who played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Arizona Diamondbacks and Los Angeles Angels.

The Angels selected Skaggs in the first round of the 2009 MLB draft. After the Angels traded him to the Diamondbacks during the 2010 season, Skaggs made his MLB debut in 2012. The Diamondbacks traded him back to the Angels during the 2013–2014 off-season, and he pitched for the team until his death in 2019. Skaggs posted a career earned run average (ERA) of 4.41 and recorded 476 strikeouts and a win–loss record of 28 wins and 38 losses.

On July 1, 2019, Skaggs was found dead in his hotel room in Southlake, Texas, where the Angels were visiting to play the Texas Rangers. The cause of death has yet to be determined.

Base running


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